The Destruction of St Petersburg's Historic Skyline Topic: St. Petersburg
The main tower of the Lakhta Center dwarfs historic buildings and the golden cupolas of cathedrals in Russia’s former Imperial capital St Petersburg. In recent years, I have noticed more and more "modern" buildings popping up between those built in the 18th and 19th century. The image is a disturbing one, but this tower which now dominates the historic skyline of St Petersburg is nothing short of an "architectural abomination".
The 462-metre skyscraper pictured above, upon its planned completion in 2018, is expected to be the tallest building in Russia and Europe and the second tallest structure in Europe after the 540-metre high Ostankino Tower in Moscow.
St Petersburg's historic skyline has been destroyed forever, thanks to greedy and mindless developers - how very disheartening.
When this massive construction project was still planned for its original site on Okhta closer to the historical centre of St. Petersburg, it was first called Gazprom City and later Okhta Center. In 2010 the project was suspended at its Okhta site due to official objections of UNESCO World Heritage Committee, and in the beginning of 2011 it was relocated to Lakhta area in the outskirts - 9 km from the historical centre of the city.
The construction of the tower has been the subject of mass protest and criticism for some years now. The Director of the Hermitage Museum, Mikhail Piotrovsky, along with numerous civil groups, has spoken out against the plan of Okhta Center. The Ministry of Culture of Russian Federation has also been reported to object to the tower's plan. The Saint Petersburg Union of Architects also voiced opposition to it in July 2006, as did many other citizens. In October 2009, about 3,000 people protested against the tower in St. Petersburg, arguing that it would spoil the city's historic skyline.
As the historical centre of St. Petersburg has become a World Heritage Site since 1990; The World Heritage Committee opposed the construction of the 400-metre tower of Okhta Center as it will affect the cityscape of historic Saint Petersburg. In December 2006 UNESCO World Heritage Centre Director Francesco Bandarin reminded Russia about its obligations to preserve it and expressed concern over the project.
In 2007, the World Monuments Fund placed the historic skyline of St. Petersburg on its 2008 Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites due to the potential construction of the building, and in 2009 reported that the tower "would damage the image of Russia."
During the 36th session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO held in Saint Petersburg in 2012 it was stated that a large area of Saint-Petersburg falls within preservation and buffer zones provided for UNESCO World Heritage Sites. That is why it is good for the city that the Okhta Center, which had been planned by Gazprom in front of Smolny Cathedral was moved to Lakhta.
Eleonora Mitrofanova, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to UNESCO noticed that the approved construction project for Lakhta Center is located far from the buffer zone and the historical center, so in theory Gazprom is not even obliged to ask UNESCO. However, the government authorities will definitely have consultations for the project with UNESCO.
Meanwhile, local government officials have yet to clarify the boundaries of the World Heritage zone and the boundaries of the buffer zone, but despite the concerns of historians, preservationists, and St Petersburgers - the destruction of the city’s historic skyline continues unabated.
The restoration of one of St. Petersburg’s most iconic landmarks, the Bank Bridge is now underway. Situated just a few minutes' walk down the Griboedov Canal from Nevsky Prospekt and Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg's Bank Bridge is one of the world's most beautiful pedestrian bridges, thanks to the glorious sculptures of golden-winged griffons, created by the sculptor Pavel Sokolov in 1826.
Part of the restoration work involves the removal of the famous winged griffons for “long-term treatment”. These sculptures are among the most popular sites in the city. Tourists do not miss a chance to make a selfie, some even climbing on them.
The bridge is in front of the former Assignation Bank building
(now housing the St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Financing)
The griffins managed to survive the Revolution, war and the elements, however, random acts of vandalism over the years have become a big problem for this historic landmark. There is a legend still propagated among the citizens of St. Petersburg, that if you rub a griffon’s paw, that you will inevitably make a fortune. While many may see this as harmless fun, it has in fact resulted in the gilding being erased, or scratched. Even worse, are tourists and locals who have carved their initials into the wings of the griffins. Sadly, it is these types of vandalism which are becoming a growing problem in St. Petersburg.
"The state of griffins is very bad, and this is evidenced by mechanical damage, the condition of the joints, the condition of the gilded wings, and exposed layers of paint," - said the chief specialist of the State Committee for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments of St. Petersburg Ekaterina Krupnikova-Balashov.
At 1.85 meters, it is the narrowest bridge in the city, a miniature architectural gem
During the last century, the bridge has undergone numerous repairs and restorations, as well as structural modifications. In 1949 the wooden cover of the bridge was repaired, and later in 1951-1952 the wooden bearing structure of the bridge was replaced by a metal one. In 1967 and 1988 the gilding of the lions’ wings was renovated. In 1997 the sculptures and handrail lattice were restored. In 2007-2008 the Griboyedov Canal Embankment from Kazan Cathedral to the Bank Bridge was renovated.
In 2008, the wings of the griffins were covered with gold leaf. Within a week, much of it was scraped off by vandals. The griffins have remained in a neglected state ever since. The State Committee for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments of St. Petersburg, have now found a private investor, who has allocated some 20 million rubles for the restoration of the griffin wings.
According to preliminary estimates the repair will take about six months. Krupnikova-Balashov noted that precautions will be taken during the restoration to implement “vandal-proof technology” to safeguard this architectural gem from repeated damage.
On This Day: Society for Education of Noble Maidens (Smolny Institute) Established in St. Petersburg Topic: St. Petersburg
Note: this article has been amended from its original by Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia
On 16 May (O.S. 5 May), 1764 the Empress Catherine II established the first Russian privileged closed institution of secondary education for daughters of gentlemen by birth – ‘Society for Education of Noble Maidens’ (Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens) in St. Petersburg
The full name of the decree was ‘On the education of noble maidens in St. Petersburg under the Resurrection Monastery; including the Regulations and personnel of the Educational Society’. The document consisted of an introductory part and two chapters. The first chapter contained 6 sections: On positions of wardens and acceptance of noble maidens to the institute; On division of the accepted maidens into four age classes, on personnel and education; On the lady superior; On lady ruler; On ladies supervisors; On ladies teachers and masters. The second chapter covered the education in general.
The initiator of the Society’s creation and the author of its Regulations was Ivan Ivanovich Betskoy. The closeness of the institution was the major condition and idea of Betskoy who was planning to educate a ‘new generation’ of young women. According to the decree the objective of this educational institution was to ‘… provide for the state educated women, good mothers, useful family and society members’.
The Smolny Institute of Noble Maidens was housed next to the Smolny Resurrection Convent; in 1809 it was given a new building constructed in accordance with a design by the famed architect Giacomo Quarenghi (1744-1817).
The educational society took care of 200 noble maidens. Their education lasted for 12 years and was divided into 4 age classes of 3 years each. The first admission of girls aged 4 to 6 took place in August of 1764.
Girls of each age class wore dresses of a particular colour: the first class wore coffee-coloured dresses so that its pupils were often called coffee-girls; the second class wore blue dresses, the third one – gray ones and the older girls wore white dresses. Later, the white being easily soiled, were replaced by green ones but the tradition to call the class ‘white’ remained.
Pupils’ began their day at 6:00 a.m. After the morning prayer and breakfast the classes started. Intellectual work alternated with physical exercises, daily walks, outdoor games. The girls were taught reading, writing, history, geography, foreign languages, fundamentals of mathematics, physics, chemistry as well as needlework, dancing, music, and social manner of conduct.
Their knowledge was evaluated in accordance with a 12-point system: 1-2 points – ‘bad’; 3-4 – ‘poor’; 5-6 – ‘satisfactory’, 7-8 – ‘good’, 9-10 – ‘very good’, 11-12 – ‘excellent’.
The major event in the girls’ life was a public exam attended by the members of the Imperial family. At the graduation the pupils received certificates. During the reign of Catherine II – a golden cipher bearing the Empress’ monogram – was granted to six best pupils; during the reign of Maria Feodorovna – to ten. The best girls received positions in the service of the Russian Court.
In summer of 1917 the pupils of the Institute were transferred to other educational institutions.
Historic Clock to Chime Again in St. Petersburg Topic: St. Petersburg
The Duma Clock, seen here in a pre-Revolutionary postcard, is one of the defining vertical
features of Nevsky Prospekt and will once again toll the hour following restoration.
The historic mechanism of the clock on the city’s Duma Tower on the corner of Nevsky Prospekt and Dumskaya Ulitsa will be unveiled today, Sberbank announced. The clock, which was one of the first and most accurate in the city, was placed on the building of the St. Petersburg City Duma in 1804. In 1884, the mechanism of the clock was repaired by the St. Petersburg firm Friedrich Winter, but later the mechanism deteriorated and the clock was equipped with an electric gear system. The Duma Tower’s clock will also renew its tradition of bell chimes to inform city residents of the time. Sberbank has occupied the building of the City Duma and the Tower since 1998 on a long-term lease and has been gradually restoring the premises since then.
The Iron Steeds of the Fontanka Topic: St. Petersburg
A vintage photo of the Anichkov Bridge, circa 1870. The Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace can be seen to the left.
Copyright Notice: The following article was originally published in the November 5th, 2014 edition of The St. Petersburg Times. The author Gus Peters, owns the copyright of the work presented below.
In a city defined by the hundreds of bridges that span the numerous canals and rivers, the Anichkov Bridge on Nevsky Prospekt is one of the most recognizable. While it is not the largest bridge, since it is only 54.6 meters long and 37.9 meters wide, it is one of the oldest and most distinctive.
The first bridge on the spot of the modern-day central thoroughfare was erected in 1715 and acted as a checkpoint. At the time of its construction, it was the edge of the city, the river acting as a natural frontier and the bridge offering a narrow roadway to the outskirts. The name of the bridge honors its builder, Lieutenant Colonel Mikhail Anichkov, the bridge’s engineer.
After going drastic redesigns in 1726 and 1742, architect Simon Volkov built a new wooden bridge in 1749 that far exceeded its predecessor in structural strength. According to one account, the reason for this upgrade was so that the bridge could accommodate the weight of elephants, which were to be given to the Shah of Iran as a gift.
As the city expanded, the other side of the river morphed into suburbs, and stone bridges were commissioned in order to make it easier for the city’s residents to travel back and forth easily from one side to the other. By the 1840s, Nevsky Prospekt was wider than the Anichkov Bridge and a new bridge made of stone was erected.
Today’s bridge rests on three arches that provide a sturdy base of granite. The railings, which feature designs honoring the city’s close relationship with the Baltic Sea, were modeled after the railings bordering Berlin’s Palace Bridge.
What makes the bridge striking is not its location but the four statues, one of each that stand sentinel on the bridge’s corners. The statues are known as the Horse Tamers and they are a tribute to the workers in the royal stables. Sculpted by Baron Peter Klodt von Jurgensburg, an artillery officer of Baltic German descent, he originally built two for the embankment in front of the Academy of Fine Arts but the sphinxes that remain there to this day were chosen instead in 1834.
Yet the horse tamer statues were such masterpieces that the city did not want them to languish. They were instead sent as a gift to King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia and another pair of the statues was cast and sent to Sicilian king Ferdinand II. Ferdinand’s pair can still be seen outside Naples’ Royal Palace to this day.
Von Jurgensburg’s plaster copies were used to good effect in 1851 when they and two more were sculpted for the four corners of the bridge. The statues were modeled after Amalatbek, an Arabian stallion that the Lieutenant Colonel’s daughter made prance about while he sketched.
The statues were removed during the Siege of Leningrad and although they survived the war, the bridge itself was damaged during the ceaseless warfare. After the siege was lifted, the statues were placed back in their usual location.
An endearing symbol of not only the city’s transformation over the years but its reputation as one of the world’s most scenic urban centers, the Anichkov Bridge remains an integral part of St. Petersburg’s most famous road.
Haunted St. Petersburg: Intrigue, Ghosts and Murder Topic: St. Petersburg
Copyright Notice: The following article was originally published under it's original title: 5 most haunting places in St Petersburg in the September 6th, 2013 edition of Russia Beyond the Headlines. The author Dmitry Sevastianov, owns the copyright of the condensed version presented below.
The draw of Russia's northern capital lies as much in its tales of intrigue, ghosts and murder as in the architectural marvels on Nevsky Prospekt.
Every day hundreds of tourists visit the Yusupov museum to see the famous rooms of Felix Yusupov, where the murder of Rasputin took place. But the sombre history of the Northern Capital began long before the murder of Grigory Rasputin.
Mikhailovsky Castle. 1801. The Murder of Emperor Paul I
One of the most ominous palaces in the centre of St. Petersburg is without question Mikhailovsky Castle, also known as the Engineers Castle. Paul I built it for himself as an impenetrable sanctuary, but from the moment it was built it was doomed to become the place he would spend his final moments. Subsequent modifications to the space in front of the castle make it difficult to conceive just how serious the fortifications once were. Back in the reign of Paul I, Connetable Square, the area where the monument of Peter I now stands, was completely surrounded by a moat and bailey with cannons standing sentinel on drawbridges.
Despite the moats, ramparts and guards, there was never any doubt about Paul’s fate – even the castle guards were in on the plot. The chief guard, a man called Argamakov, led the conspirators directly to Paul’s bedroom. The conspirators claimed they merely acting out of concern for the country’s fate, given that the emperor was insane, and they were in fact a group of high dignitaries: among them were general governor of St. Petersburg Peter Pahlen, Vice-Chancellor Nikita Panin, the Zubov brothers (one of whom was Platon Zubov - the last favourite of Catherine II), commanders of four guard troops, and a number of high ranking officers. It is generally thought that the son of the victim, future emperor Alexander I, knew of the plot and had given his approval, either voluntary or under duress. Alexander’s part in his father’s murder was something that haunted him for the rest of his life.
It was never the plotters intention to kill the tsar, they just wanted to remove him from power. But, as memoirists recall, “the fateful catastrophe happened unexpectedly”. Paul hid himself, but the perpetrators found him and tried to arrest him. A struggle ensued before Nikolai Zubov issued the first blow with a golden tobacco box. One version claims Pavel was immediately killed by this blow to the temple, but others say he was beaten to a pulp before being strangled with a silk scarf. Officially it was announced that the tsar had “died of a stroke”.
Paul only managed to live forty days in the Mikhailovsky Castle. Several times before he died he claimed he saw himself reflected in a mirror, strangled with a collapsed neck, and in these moments he would experience an unexplainable shortness of breath.
Cathedral of the Spilled Blood. 1881. Murder of Emperor Alexander II
The grand, elegant structure of the Church of the Saviour on Spilled Blood - built in traditional Russian style to emulate St. Basil's Cathedral at Red Square –stands in sharp contrast to the sad event it was built to commemorate.
There were no obvious motives for the tsar’s assassination. Alexander II was neither a tyrant, like his father and his grandfather, nor was he a weak ruler, like his son and grandson. His official title as ‘the giver of freedom’ was well deserved – he was the ruler who finally abolished serfdom in Russia. But the assassins were brutally determined; first they attempted shooting him while he was out walking, then they attempted to blow him up in his own palace and on a train, without a seconds thought about the collateral victims.
On 1 March Alexander II was on his way back to the Winter Palace. The first explosion did nothing more than damage his carriage. When the tsar got out to confront Nikolai Rusakov, who had thrown the bomb, a second terrorist, Ignaty Grinevetsky, hurled another bomb at the tsar’s feet.
The exact place where the tsar was mortally wounded – part of the railings and the cobble stone pavement – has been preserved inside the cathedral, under the western cupola. For a long time the neighbouring streets (now Malaya and Bolshaya Konyushennaya Streets) were named after the main participants in the plot - Sofia Perovskaya and Andrei Zhelyabov.
Yusupov Palace. 1916. The Murder of Rasputin
This infamous Petersburg crime happened on 17 (29) December 1916 at the Yusupov residence on the Moika river . It actually began inside the historic palace in the lavish rooms of Felix Yusupov. The conspirators acted to save the country and protect the tsar and his family from the influence of this mysterious peasant-monk.
The circumstances surrounding his death are well known: Rasputin was invited to the Yusupovs’ house on the pretext of meeting Felix’s wife. Here he was fed almond cakes laced with potassium cyanide. When this didn’t work the plotters sprayed him with dozens of bullets, but the seemingly invincible Grigory Rasputin still managed to run across the yard and climb over the fence. After this he was finally caught, seized and drowned in the icy Malaya Nevka River near Kamenny Island.
His body was found shortly after due to the trail of blood leading from the bridge, and divers retrieved him from beneath the ice. His embalmed corpse was secretly buried in the private Aleksandrovsky Park at Tsarkoe Selo, on the site of the Seraphim Sarovsky Cathedral that was then under construction. Just one year later revolutionary soldiers found the grave and his body was destroyed - incinerated in the furnace of a boiler at the Polytechnic Institute. His ashes were scattered to the wind.
In 2005 an inscribed cross was placed at Rasputin’s first burial location at Tsarskoe Selo.
The Yusupov Palace hosts a permanent exhibition entitled “Rasputin. Myth and Reality”, and in the painstakingly-restored reception rooms it is possible to attend concerts and dances where, dressed in tails or a floor-length dress, you can feel like a real member of pre-revolutionary high-society. Alternatively there are hourly tours of the palace every day from 11am. One of the tours will take you through every stage of Rasputin’s murder.
The Admiralty, St. Petersburg Topic: St. Petersburg
The gilded spire of the Admiralty dominates this 19th century photochrome. The Winter Palace can be seen in the background, painted in its original pre-Revolutionary red colour
Copyright Notice: The following article was originally published in the August 27th, 2014 edition of The St. Petersburg Times. The author Jonathan Melvin, owns the copyright of the work presented below.
One of St. Petersburg most oldest and, arguably, most historically important buildings, the Admiralty building serves as the focal point of Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Ulitsa, and Voznesenskiy Prospekt. While its location at the convergence of some of St. Petersburg’s most epochal streets embodied Peter’s emphasis and, some would say, obsession with the importance of northern capital’s maritime might, it served a far more important and realistic purpose during St. Petersburg’s early years. Those familiar with their Russian military history will remember that during the Great Northern War against a Swedish empire under the young Charles XII, the Admiralty shipyards served as the backbone of the Russian Navy, cementing Russia’s expansion north and, more importantly, its access to the Baltic Sea.
The original yards themselves were built within range of the cannons fortifying the Peter and Paul Fortress, so as to allow the yards to be assaulted should they fall into enemy hands. The oldest construction in St. Petersburg, the Admiralty was initially a heavily fortified shipyard surrounded by a moat and four tower bastions at the corners of each fortification. The first commissioned warship built by the Admiralty yard was lowered into the Neva in 1706. It is said that Peter, a master shipbuilder himself, was often seen toiling in the yards along with thousands of tradesmen, workers and merchants.
By the 1840s, most of St. Petersburg shipbuilding had moved downstream. At this point, the shipyard was no longer of any practical use and the Admiralty was put under the administration of the Russian Navy. In 1870, the Navy had filled in or decommissioned most of the Admiralty’s internal docks and canals. This newly formed land was then occupied by a number of administrative buildings, private mansions and palaces that remain to this day. The Admiralty continued to house the Ministry of the Navy and the Naval Museum up to the eve of the Bolshevik Revolution, when the former shipyard served as a final rallying point for Tsarist forces.
The iconic spire adorning the originally wooden gate was built in 1711 by architect Ivan Korobov, after the tower had been added to the center of the foremost façade. The Admiralty building itself was rebuilt between 1806 and 1823 during the reign of Alexander I, in the style of “High Classicism.” Andreyan Zakharov, one of St. Petersburg’s most accomplished architects and a professor at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, was responsible for the design of the reconstruction. Some of Zakharov’s work remains today, including the depiction of Neptune, the Roman god of the sea, handing his trident of power to Peter the Great. Unfortunately, the intricacies of this and other depictions were ruthlessly destroyed in 1860 under the rule of Alexander II, when the clergy began attempts to purge the northern capital of all things pagan.
The Admiralty of today, home to the Naval College and boasting an enormous 400-meter-long façade, anchoring the complex within the heavily wooded Alexandrovsky Garden, remains one of the most iconic and historically significant buildings in St. Petersburg.
From St. Petersburg to Petrograd Topic: St. Petersburg
One hundred years ago, on 31st August [O.S. 18th August] 1914, the name of St. Petersburg disappeared from the map of the Russian Empire. Emperor Nicholas II ordered the renaming the city during the First World War, for political and ideological reasons, on a wave of anti-German sentiment. It’s German name was considered irrelevant and alien due to the conditions of the war with Germany, so a decision was made to remove the German words Sankt and Burg from the city name.
The renaming of the Russian capital, however, was to turn into stormy public debate. Not every one in St. Petersburg considered changing the name as the right step. Many treated it with irony and bitterness. Emperor Nicholas II, who signed this manifesto on August 31st, listened to much ridicule on the matter, even from his mother. "Soon, we shall call Peterhof, Petrushkin yard"- feared the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna.
Petrograd, meaning "Peter's City", - the new name of the then Russian capital corresponded with the political sentiment of the time, and in line with the Slavic spirit of the people, who inspired their fellow Slavs in the Balkans. The city wanted that the capital should reflect a Russian name, and St. Petersburg was about to become Holy Petrograd. But in the end it was shortened to Petrograd. The city lived with this name for the next 10 years, a period which became one of the most complex and dramatic periods in its history.
The headline of a special edition of the newspaper Commercial News announced: "We went to bed at St. Petersburg, and woke up in Petrograd!".
After 10 years, the city was renamed Leningrad. And in 1991, returned to it’s original historic name - St. Petersburg.
The Alexander Column, Palace Square in St. Petersburg Topic: St. Petersburg
View of Palace Square with the Alexander Column and the General Staff Building taken from a window of the State Hermitage Museum (Winter Palace)
Copyright Notice: The following article was originally published in the August 6th, 2014 edition of The St. Petersburg Times. The author Jonathan Melvin, owns the copyright of the work presented below.
Named after Alexander I, who ruled Russia from 1801 to 1825, the Alexander Column (Aleksandrovskaya Kolonna) is one of the most iconic monuments of the northern capital. Anchoring the surrounding Palace Square, the column is indeed the focal point of the open area outside the Winter Palace. Designed by French-born architect Auguste de Montferrand, who also designed St. Isaac’s Cathedral, and built between 1830 and 1834 under the direction of Swiss architect Antonio Adamini, the monolith — the tallest of its kind in the world — was built at the behest of Nicholas I in dedication to his brother’s and Russia’s military victory over Napoleon during the French conquest of Europe, known as the Napoleonic Wars, which lasted from 1803 to 1815, or in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812.
Standing at 47.5 meters, the column itself is a masterpiece of craftsmanship and, at the time of construction, a significant feat of engineering. The main part of the column features a single piece of red granite, nearly 25.5 meters tall and around 3.5 meters in diameter. The gargantuan granite monolith — weighing in at just over 600 tons — was transported by sea from Virolahti, Finland, to St. Petersburg in 1832. Remarkably, the column was so finely set that the base of the column remains unfastened.
The column’s pedestal features bas-relief decorative illustrations that exemplify Russia’s military glory. The side of the pedestal facing the Winter Palace features winged, angelic-like figures holding a plaque with the translated inscription, “To Alexander I from a grateful Russia.” Depictions of iconic Russian military arms and wear — including the shield of Prince Oleg of Novgorod, the helmet of Alexander Nevsky, and the breastplate of Emperor Alexander I, amongst others — serve as reminders of those military heroes who brought glory and victory to Russia. Just as impressive are the other three sides of the pedestal, which feature the metaphorical figures of Wisdom and Abundance, Justice and Mercy, and Peace and Victory.
Arguably the most iconic piece of the Alexander Column is the statue of an angel bearing a cross at its very top. Designed by Russian sculptor Boris Orlovsky, it is said that the face of the angel was modeled after the face of Emperor Alexander I.
Taking place exactly two years after the column was placed upon its pedestal, the column was officially inaugurated with a military ceremony on Aug. 30, 1834. Poet Vasily Zhukovsky wrote on his recollections of the event: “No pen can describe the grandeur of that moment when, at the sound of three cannon shots, from all the streets there suddenly appeared, as if springing out from the earth, huge, shapely columns of Russian troops moving to the thunder of drums and the sound of the Parisian March.”
Allegedly, Soviet authorities sought to secretly replace the angel atop Alexander Column in 1952 with a statue of Joseph Stalin. Though the Soviets apparently did not undertake such a measure, a historic cast-iron railing around the column was removed for some time, though it was eventually restored in 2002. Nonetheless, the original, nearly 200-year-old monolith survived the Soviet era and stands today as a gigantic, solitary guardian at the gates of the Winter Palace.
The Rise and Fall of the Eliseev Family Topic: St. Petersburg
Copyright Notice: The following article was originally published in the May 25th, 2014 edition of The St. Petersburg Times. The author Peter Campbell owns the copyright presented below.
St. Petersburg has always been a city of trade. Throughout the centuries, royalty and nobility have attracted merchants who have made their fortunes importing fine goods to the best families and exporting raw materials throughout Europe. Among these merchant families there are few better known or have had a more visible presence in the city than the Eliseev family.
Click on the link below to read the full article at Royal Russia News: