UNESCO's Decision on the Kremlin Monasteries Not Yet Received, FPS of Russia Says Topic: Kremlin
Historic photograph shows (from left to right): the Chudov Monastery, the Small Nikolaevsky Palace, and the Ascension Convent
In 2014 the Russian Federation’s President Vladimir Putin proposed to examine a possibility of restoration of the Chudov Monastery and the Ascension Convent that was blown up in 1929-1930 – later on their site the administrative “Building 14” appeared, reports TASS.
Moscow has not yet received a UNESCO decision regarding a possible restoration of the Chudov Monastery and the Ascension Convent on the territory of the Moscow’s Kremlin, reported on Tuesday official representative of the Federal Protective Service (FPS), Doctor of Historical Sciences, Sergei Devyatov to the journalists.
“As far as I know, UNESCO experts visited the Kremlin in December 2014, but no distinct resolution has been made yet,” he said, launching the book, The Moscow Kremlin, the Monuments and Shrines. S. Devyatov has stressed that the Moscow Kremlin is under the protection of UNESCO, so any reconstructions on its territory require negotiations.
“The following question is currently being resolved: whether “the Building 14” is to remain within the Kremlin or the monastery and convent are to be restored,” noted the Federal Protective Service’s representative.
According to TASS, in his new monograph S. Devyatov relates the history of these monastic communities in detail and for the first time publishes their photographs and layout plans.
Devyatov, referring to the researches’ results, noted that “a half of the areas of the monasteries are currently in the same condition as they were at the time of explosions.” This refers to the underground churches and other monastic buildings. He has admitted that the surviving archives contain relatively little materials on the monastery and convent. “But the archive search is progressing very actively,” he accentuated.
The proposed reconstruction of the Chudov Monastery and the Ascension Convent is a project of which I take a great personal interest. I have published a number of articles on this subject over the past year, for more information on this topic, please refer to the following articles:
The Search for the Lost Library of Ivan the Terrible Topic: Kremlin
The thought of a lost library is a tantalizing one, as one can speculate and imagine the kind of knowledge it might provide to the person who finds it. Therefore, it is hardly surprising that there are those who have dedicated their entire lives to the search of such elusive libraries. One of these fabled lost libraries is that of Tsar of all the Russias, Ivan IV Vasilyevich, more commonly known as Ivan the Terrible.
The Library of Ivan the Terrible is said to have been started by his grandfather, Ivan III (the Great) of Russia. After the death of Ivan III’s first wife, Maria of Tver, in 1467, Pope Paul II suggested that Ivan III wed Sophia Paleologue, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, in an attempt to bind Russia to the Holy See in Rome. In 1472, Ivan and Sophia were married, and a collection of old books were brought along with her to her new home in Moscow. It is said that these included the larger part of the Library of Constantinople saved from the Turks when the city fell in 1453, as well as some manuscripts from the ancient Library of Alexandria.
Ivan the Terrible was also a book collector, and could have added more manuscripts to his grandfather’s library. It is believed that Ivan’s library held documents written in Greek, Latin, Hebrew and Egyptian (these would probably have been the documents from the Library of Constantinople and the Library of Alexandria), Chinese texts from the 2nd century, and documents from Ivan the Terrible’s own era.
It’s thought that Ivan the Terrible decided to keep the priceless documents in the basement of the Moscow Kremlin so as to protect them from the fires that frequently ravaged the city during that time. These documents, however, were not left there to collect dust. It is said that Ivan had them translated from their original language to Russian. One legend even stated that the scholars refused to continue the task of translating these works as they feared that the tsar would use the knowledge gained from certain ‘black magic’ texts to terrorize his subjects.
Upon the death of the infamous tsar, the library simply disappeared, some believing that it was destroyed in a fire. Alternatively, others have claimed that the library survived, and that Ivan placed a curse on the library, and those who were about to find his library would lose their sight.
Despite the possibility that the library no longer exists, and the supposed curse, treasure hunters have been relentless in their search for the lost library. Over the centuries, many have attempted to find this library, among them Peter the Great, and Vatican representatives who were visiting Moscow during the reign of Boris Godunov, though none have succeeded.
During the first half of the 20th century, the Russian archaeologist Ignatius Stelletskii spent his entire life looking for this library. Using maps of the Kremlin from different centuries and the archival material, he was able to speculate on the location of the library, and was granted permission to excavate by the Soviet government in 1929. Although excavations under Arsenalnaya towers began in 1933, they were discontinued in the following year after the assassination of Sergei Kirov. With the outbreak of World War II several years later, excavation work effectively ceased. Although Stelletskii intended to resume work at the end of the war, his poor health prevented him from doing so, and he died in 1949.
As of the 1990s, efforts were still being made to discover the library of Ivan the Terrible. Additionally, the search has been extended beyond the Kremlin, as some believe that the library was moved to other places, such as Sergeyev Posad (where Ivan moved his court during the later years of his reign), Alexandrov (the capital of Ivan’s fiefdom), and the village of Dyakovo near Kolomenskoya (where a secret door leading underground was found in the Church of St. John the Baptist).
It is uncertain whether the library of Ivan the Terrible will ever be found. Even if the library were to be located, its contents may not have survived the ravages of time. Nevertheless, there will undoubtedly be those who would continue searching for this elusive library.
Putin's Wish to Rebuild Kremlin Monasteries Is Left Unfulfilled Topic: Kremlin
Early 20th century photograph of the Voznesensky monastery in the Moscow Kremlin
President Vladimir Putin's suggestion in July to rebuild two monasteries within the Moscow Kremlin has been left unfulfilled as researchers struggle with a lack of information on how to properly conduct the project, state news agency Vesti reported Thursday.
"At the current stage, we have no more than 20 percent of the information needed for reliable reconstruction" of the Chudov and Voznesensky monasteries, historian Vladimir Kiprin, an adviser on the project, was quoted as saying.
During a meeting with Mayor Sergei Sobyanin and the curator of the Kremlin Museums last summer, Putin said that reconstruction of the monasteries and an accompanying church could take place if the project receives enough public support as well as approval by the United Nations' cultural branch UNESCO due to the Kremlin being an internationally designated world-heritage site.
That approval, however, has yet to be given, and demolition of an administrative building, Corpus 14, to make room for the monasteries, "might cause a number of rather negative consequences," Kremlin Museums associate director Andrei Batalov said in comments carried by Vesti.
For more information on this topic, please refer to the following articles:
Kremlin Awaits UNESCO Decision Before Restoration of Historic Monasteries Topic: Kremlin
The Kremlin Presidium or "Building 14" was constructed on the site of the Chudov and Ascension monasteries. Today, it's fate rests with UNESCO
UNESCO experts arrived in Moscow on October 27th to assess the possibility of restoring the historic appearance of the Kremlin with the reconstruction of the Chudov and Ascension Monasteries. The examination by UNESCO is a prerequisite to begin restoration work as the Kremlin is a World Cultural Heritage site.
Dismantling of the Kremlin’s administrative Presidium or “Building 14” will start right after the decision of UNESCO experts is received, reported Head of the Administrative Directorate of the President of the Russian Federation Alexander Kolpakov to Interfax.
“All the necessary documents related to the impending work have been submitted to UNESCO. Now all depends on the promptness of this organization’s decision-making. But we hope the expert opinion will be received in the nearest future which will enable us to set straight to work,” he said.
In July this year the Russian president Vladimir Putin supported the idea to give up the already ongoing reconstruction of the Kremlin’s “building 14” and to restore the historical appearance of this site with a possible restoration of the Chudov and the Ascension Monasteries that had formerly existed there.
The resolution of UNESCO is necessary as the Kremlin is a World Historical and Cultural Heritage object. Recently a representative of UNESCO came to Moscow, visited the Kremlin, examined the “building 14”, and then a joint working meeting was held.
For more information on this topic, please refer to the following articles:
The Mystery of the Tsar Cannon in Moscow's Kremlin Topic: Kremlin
Copyright Notice: The following article was published in the September 15th, 2014 edition of Russia Beyond the Headlines. The author Alexander Vershinin, owns the copyright of the condensed version presented below.
The enormous cannon standing in the grounds of the Kremlin is one of the best-known symbols of the fortress. The world’s largest bore howitzer, it is also a masterpiece of medieval gun casting. But according to legend, the cannon has never actually been fired – or has it?
Standing in a central spot inside the Kremlin walls, a giant ornate cannon has long symbolized the Russian capital, its sheer size and presence spellbinding visitors. Few guns can measure up in weight and there is no larger bore howitzer in the world.
Almost a meter in diameter, the cannon balls lying beneath the muzzle testify to the unimaginable force of this ancient weapon that still guards its secrets.
Beyond its proportions, the 40-ton behemoth called the Tsar Cannon is also a remarkable example of fine medieval gun casting and the embodiment of six centuries of Russian artillery technology.
The first cannons appeared in Russia earlier than in most of Europe, built with knowledge acquired from the Tatars, who themselves mastered the gunsmith’s art from the Chinese in the 13th century.
One story has it that the first Russian gun-maker was a Tatar called As (Ace) who was captured during the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. Two years later, the attacking forces of the Tatar khan Tokhtamysh were beaten back by sophisticated guns mounted on the Kremlin walls.
Russia did not lag far behind its European neighbors in gunnery development. By the end of the 15th century, Russian artillery forces comprised several hundred guns, with 55 of these set on the walls of the fortress of Novgorod.
Characterized by ever greater numbers and quality, this artillery boom occurred during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. In 1552, just one Russian army besieging Kazan fielded 150 guns, and Russian cannons also went on to shatter the walls of Lithuanian, Polish, German and Swedish cities.
By the end of the 16th century, Russian cannon masters had consolidated their reputation as among the world’s best. They not only built and maintained one of Europe’s largest artillery arsenals but devised models of weapons with no parallel in the West.
It was under Ivan the Terrible that gunsmiths first added grooves to the interior walls of barrels - an early step towards spiralled rifling that appeared in the 19th century. Oblong shells, fixed front and rear sights, and breech loading systems are all innovations by Russian cannon masters who were way ahead of the times.
Medieval Russian chronicles document a number of prolific gun casters, the most famous of these being Andrei Chokhov, who made the Tsar Cannon in 1586. Conceived as the greatest menace of its time, the five-meter-long monster was designed to hurl 89 cm-wide stone cannonballs weighing almost a ton over a kilometre (0.6 miles).
It was supposed to stand on the Kremlin wall for the defense of Moscow but proved too large to anchor firmly. For more than a century Chokhov’s creation stood on Red Square near St. Basil’s Cathedral, and was only moved into the Kremlin in the 18th century.
In the early 19th century the Tsar Cannon attracted the attention of historians due to its immense size and barrel cast with equestrian reliefs of Tsar Fyodor, crown and scepter in hand. As one of two surviving portraits made of the son of Ivan the Terrible in his lifetime, the ornate depiction also inspired the gun’s name.
Kremlin architects set the piece on a gun carriage and, for added effect, placed several large cannon balls under its muzzle. These were pure invention, however, since firing metal rounds would have wrecked a medieval weapon of this caliber.
It is also precisely because of its size that the Tsar Cannon was for a long time thought to never have been fired. But in the late 20th century expert analysis revealed that it had thundered at least once.
Some historians believe that the cannon was used on May 27, 1606, to shoot and disperse the ashes of ‘False Dmitry’, a usurper who seized the throne while pretending to be Ivan the Terrible’s son.
True or not, the Tsar Cannon is one of the few remaining examples of traditional Russian cannon casting. If its immense size rendered it impractical as a weapon, these dimensions also prompted Peter the Great to spare it when he smelted down the entire Kremlin artillery arsenal to rebuild it along European lines.
Two mortars also survived this technological purge and are now exhibited in St. Petersburg. And coincidentally or not, these were also made by Andrei Chokhov.
Reconstruction in the Kremlin to Surpass all the Project's Ever Coordinated With UNESCO Topic: Kremlin
The Chudov Monastery was destroyed during the Soviet years
Reconstruction of the monastery on the territory of the Moscow Kremlin will considerably surpass all other projects that were coordinated with UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), reported Russia’s permanent representative at the organization Eleonora Mitrofanova.
Earlier president of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin proposed to restore within the Moscow Kremlin two monasteries and one church that until 1930 had been situated on the site of the Building 14 of the Kremlin. According to him, such a plan can be implemented only after approval by the public and by UNESCO, reports the Kommersant newspaper with the reference to RIA-Novosti.
“The proposed project, which, according to the Russian president Putin, is still ‘just an idea, a proposal’, is a large-scale one and it considerably surpasses the actions that were coordinated with UNESCO before. And the organization’s requirements are very, very strict,” said Mrs. Mitrofanova.
At the same time, she insists that we must not disregard “the deep symbolism of the proposed project for our country, which is standing in the new phase of its historical development, its perception of the world”. “Hence, the degree of responsibility for the final decision regarding the beginning of the reconstruction on the territory, I would say, of the central Russian cultural and historical monument is of major state importance,” Eleonora Mitrofanova added.
She earlier informed that Russia was to prepare a detailed experts’ report on the influence that the future construction would have on the universal value of the Kremlin. “Outstanding universal value” is the main criterion which is taken into account at the inclusion of one or another object into the UNESCO World Heritage list. The decision of UNESCO will depend on substantiation of these works, the permanent representative then stated.
For more information on this topic, please refer to the following articles:
Copyright Notice: The following article was originally published in the August 18th, 2014 edition of the Russia Beyond the Headlines. The author Dmitriy Romendik, own the copyright of the work presented below.
President Vladimir Putin, in a conversation with Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin, has suggested demolishing a Kremlin administrative building and restoring two Orthodox monasteries. Would this demolition damage the Kremlin’s architectural synthesis and could the monasteries that were destroyed in 1930 be adequately recreated?
Russian President Vladimir Putin has suggested pulling down a Kremlin administrative building due for renovation and restoring two ancient Orthodox monasteries that previously occupied the site. Putin made the comments in a recent conversation with Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin about the fate of the Kremlin Presidium, also known as Building 14, located between the Spasskaya Gate and the Senate Palace.
Demolition order for recent history?
Building 14 is a relatively recent addition to the Kremlin ensemble. It was built by the architect Ivan Rerberg in 1934 on the site of two monasteries – the Chudov and the Ascension – that were demolished in 1929 and 1930. Many churches were blown up at that time all over Russia as the government sought to do away with Orthodox houses of worship and imagery, which were incompatible with the communist ideology of the new state. Originally, major repairs were planned for the building. However, the president is now convinced that demolition will be more expedient than renovation. The administrative building has a rather short, but rich, history. In the 1930s it housed a Military College; however, it soon moved to a more spacious location and the Secretariat of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was located there in the 1930s.
In 1958, part of the building was even rebuilt as part of the Kremlin Theater, but the building was not equipped for large events from the very beginning; moreover it was located in the Kremlin’s administrative zone, which made receiving large numbers of spectators more difficult. So in 1961 the idea was rejected. At the end of the Soviet period in 1991, then-president Mikhail Gorbachev allocated part of the building to Boris Yeltsin, who shortly thereafter was elected president of the Russian Federation (then within the framework of the Soviet Union). After the collapse of the USSR, Building 14 returned to the spotlight – Russian presidents’ press conferences were held there periodically through 2008.
Restoration or something new?
In itself, the demolition of the building does not arouse any particular objections (it is not an architectural monument). However, the overall appearance of the Kremlin – which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List – may suffer. “For now, only the decision to suspend the renovation has been made. But for a demolition an agreement will have made with UNESCO,” Spokesman for the Office of Presidential Affairs Viktor Khrekov told RBTH.
Can the exact look of the ancient monasteries be recreated? Rustam Rakhmatullin, coordinator at architectural watchdog Arhnadzor, believes there is not enough information available (the architectural plans have not been preserved) and a modern copy of a historical building will be the result, i.e. it will be an inaccurate and historically unverified copy. The renowned architect Mikhail Leikin agrees with his colleagues, but provided an example of a successfully restored church – the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan on Red Square – in a conversation with an RBTH reporter. The church in question was demolished in 1936 and rebuilt in 1990-1993. The Chudov and Ascension monasteries were among Russia’s most ancient; they were founded in 1365 and 1386. However, they were destroyed and rebuilt many times, so they lost their original appearance. A number of architects have supported the idea of restoring the monasteries based on the many photographs which have been preserved. “This is absolutely realistic and there is nothing difficult about it – even if there won’t be a perfect resemblance,” said Vice President of the Union of Architects of Moscow, Alexei Bavykin. Viktor Khrekov provided assurances that even if UNESCO approves the demolition of the administrative building, the construction of monasteries will not begin immediately: "If an agreement is reached with UNESCO, we will initiate a broad-based discussion with the expert representatives from the Union of Architects, organizations for the protection of monuments, and museum staff," he said.
The Kremlin as public domain
No one knows yet how to react to the president’s words. The demolition of the building will either happen or it won’t (it depends on UNESCO), and the monasteries will either be restored or not (this question is still in the very early stages of discussion).
There is also the alternative option of creating an architectural park in the location of the demolished building (if it is indeed demolished), by cleaning up the remains of the ancient foundations of the two monasteries. Meanwhile, a section of the Kremlin that was previously accessible to the general public will now be removed from the list of sensitive sites. In late July the Kremlin took the decision to open the Spasskaya Tower gate to tourists; previously only presidential corteges and the Kremlin’s New Year tree were allowed through it. Kremlin Commandant Sergei Khlebnikov recently said that the section between the Borovitskaya and Tainitskaya towers will become open to visitors. The Kremlin “is releasing” a piece of territory and changing its status from that of sensitive location to tourist site.
For more information on this topic, please refer to the following article:
Archaeologists Believe Excavation of Kremlin Monasteries to Yield Great Discoveries Topic: Kremlin
Historic watercolour shows (from left to right): the Chudov Monastery, the Small Nikolaevsky Palace, and the Ascension Convent
According to Sergei Devyatov, head of the department of 20th century National History at the Moscow Lomonosov State University, part of the site of the demolished Chudov (in honor of the miracle of Archangel Michael) and Ascension Monasteries of the Moscow Kremlin have survived, reports Interfax-Religion.
“Parts of the Chudov Monastery were simply paved over. Underground rooms have survived. And if the monastery is restored in its original proportion, this site will need to be excavated. I feel that certain, great discoveries await the archaeologists,” said S. Devyatov.
According to his information, some of the monastery’s premises were below ground level. They have survived and are subject to laws governing museums.
“Apart from the fragments of the Chudov Monastery, there are also ground floors of two churches, basements of the metropolitan’s apartment as well as the brothers’ quarters under the block pavement of Ivanovskaya Square (the largest square within the Kremlin. Its name comes from the John the Great bell tower). The vault of the Small Nikolaevsky Palace is also situated there, on the Ivanovskaya Square (today it is considerably larger than it was in the early 20th century). The previous excavations on this site in 1995 resulted in the discovery of the remains of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich,” reminded the historian.
Last week, the Russian president Vladimir Putin proposed thinking over the idea of restoring the two above-mentioned monasteries, which had been destroyed in 1929-1930. The Kremlin Presidium (also known as Building 14) now stands on their site. Vladimir Putin stressed that such a plan could be implemented only after its approval by the public and by UNESCO.
S. Devyatov noted that the question of demolition of administrative building 14 and restoration of two monasteries on its site had been raised as early as in 2002. Architects of the “Mosproekt 2” (“Moscow project 2”) state unitary enterprise were charged with the task of exploring this question.
“But the work did not proceed. By all appearances, the idea was forgotten. However, several years ago, on the wall of the Kremlin Building 14 a commemorative plaque appeared with indication that the Chudov Monastery was located on this site until 1929,” he added.
For more information on this topic, please refer to the following article:
Putin Wants Monasteries, Church Rebuilt in Kremlin Topic: Kremlin
The Chudov Monastery during the coronation ceremonies, 1896
Russian President Vladimir Putin has suggested rebuilding inside the Kremlin the Chudov Monastery and Voznesensky (Ascension) Convent that were torn down during the Soviet era.
At a meeting Thursday with Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin and Kremlin curator Sergei Khlebnikov, Putin said the plan would only be realized if it receives support from both the public and UNESCO.
"We need to discuss this issue with Moscow's architectural community and get it approved by UNESCO," Interfax cited Putin as saying. The Kremlin, built between the 14th and 17th centuries, is a listed UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The plan would involve tearing down a Soviet building currently used for administrative purposes, the 14th corpus, to make room for the monasteries and church. The 14th corpus has been under restoration since 2011, and developers missed their expected completion time after encountering difficulties. The delays have prompted the city government to consider whether or not it would be more expedient to change the development plan altogether and tear the corpus down.
The 1930s saw the destruction of many monuments and symbols of Russia’s spiritual heritage, including the Chudov Monastery and Voznesensky (Ascension) Convent in the Kremlin, the Maly Nikolayevsky Palace, the Cathedral of the Savior on Bor and the Red Porch (Krasnoye Kryltso).
The Chudov Monastery had particular significance for Russian Orthodox traditions over the centuries. It was founded in 1365 when the Metropolitan of All Russia Alexy gave his blessing for the construction of a stone church dedicated to the Miracle of the Holy Archangel Michael. The church remained standing for only half a century before its ceiling collapsed in 1431. The church was immediately rebuilt, but at the beginning of the 16th century, Grand Prince Ivan III ordered it pulled down, redesigned and rebuilt, which was done in 1503.
The resulting church was extremely beautiful, a marvel of harmony and proportion, drawing on classical Russian architectural traditions and rightly considered one of the finest examples of early Moscow architecture. The church’s interior was also a work of art, with a carved wooden iconostasis over the wall separating the sanctuary from the rest of the church. Part of the sanctuary itself was topped with a gilded carved wooden canopy, which, according to the inscription it bore, was the work of the “slave of God, Pyotr Remizov.”
A century after Metropolitan Alexy died, the Church of St. Alexy was built on the monastery’s territory and dedicated to his memory. Another church, the Church of the Annunciation, was built nearby. Changes and additions to the churches’ interiors continued right up until the early 20th century.
The Voznesensky (Ascension) Convent
The Voznesensky (Ascension) Convent was founded at the beginning of the 15th century very near the Kremlin’s Spassky (Savior’s) Gate. The foundation of its main cathedral was laid in 1407 by the widow of Dmitry Donskoy, who took the name of Yefrosinya when she took her vows as a nun. In 1518, Grand Prince Vasily III decreed the construction of a new cathedral, the Cathedral of the Ascension of our Lord Jesus Christ. The cathedral was completed in 1521 and was reconstructed at the end of the 16th century on the orders of Boris Godunov.
Over the centuries, many of the wives and sisters of the Moscow grand princes found peace in the Voznesensky Convent, which was one of the most famous and respected convents in Russia. Aside from the main cathedral, another church, the Church of St. Michael, was built there in 1634. The Chudov Monastery and Voznesensky Convent were both closed after the Soviet government moved into the Kremlin in 1918. The buildings remained standing until 1929, when the authorities decided to raze them to make way for a military training facility.
On February 17, 1905, the carriage of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich (Governor General of Moscow and husband to Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna) passed through the gate of Nikolskaya Tower of the Kremlin and turned the corner of the Chudov Monastery into Senatskaya Square. It was here that the grand duke was assassinated by a bomb thrown by a waiting revolutionary. Grand Duke Sergei’s body was later buried in a crypt of the Chudov Monastery. A memorial cross was erected on the spot where he was killed. After the Revolution, the cross was destroyed.
Putin also expressed support for Sobyanin's idea to allow tourists to walk through the Kremlin from the Spassky Gate, which is currently closed off.
Dmitry Shvidkovsky, rector of the Moscow Architectural Institute, was quoted by Interfax as saying it would take up to two years to devise a development plan for the project suggested by Putin and get it approved with UNESCO.
Kremlin Visitors Can See the Restored Kutafya Tower Again Topic: Kremlin
Kremlin visitors will see the restored Kutafya Tower, which is almost 500 years old. After the completion of the year-long renovation work, the passage through the tower to the Kremlin will be opened, ITAR-TASS reports.
The site, one of the main entrances to the Kremlin, was renovated "at repeated requests" of visitors, the chief Kremlin manager's press secretary Viktor Khrekov told ITAR-TASS. Visitors complained that they had to wait sometimes for hours in any weather to pass through checkpoints to go on an excursion or for a Kremlin Palace concert. Now, it will take less time and will be more comfortable, Khrekov assured.
The major repair with the modernization of the checkpoint at the Kutafya Tower was carried out by the Kremlin management and the Federal Guard Service. Before the repair, seven check points were opened to enter the Moscow Kremlin. There are 16 now, and all are in buildings with heating, ventilation and other appropriate systems.
According to specialists, up to 6,000 people can pass through the new check points in an hour and a half, for example to go to the State Kremlin Palace. The Federal Guard Service says that the examination procedure is improved. There is everything necessary for people with disabilities for comfortable visits to the Kremlin, Khrekov noted.
The Kutafya Tower was built by Milan architect Aleviz (Aliosio) Fryazin in 1516. Its height is 13.5 m at present. It was surrounded by a ditch and the Neglinka River with one gate, which was closed tightly with a drawbridge. The tower prevented intruders from entering. In 1685, the tower was decorated with the white stone openwork "crown".