The legendary cruiser Aurora, was handed over to the Russian Navy after modernization on 15th July at the Kronstadt marine plant. The following day, thousands of people lined the banks of the Neva River in St. Petersburg to watch the traditional anchorage of the historic warship on Petrogradskaya Embankment.
The Aurora had been undergoing modernization, which is estimated at around 800 million rubles ($13 million USD), since September 2014.
Built at the Baltic shipyard in St. Petersburg, the Diana-class first rate cruiser Aurora was launched in a ceremony on 11th May, 1900, with Russian Emperor Nicholas II and members of the Russian Imperial family in attendance. The Emperor named the ship after a sailing frigate that had defended Russia’s Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the Pacific Ocean during the Crimean War (1853-56).
The Aurora was commissioned on 29th July, 1903, and covered more than 100,000 miles and took part in three wars. In Soviet days, it was believed that the Aurora salvo was a signal to the start of an armed uprising on October 25, 1917 (the Great October Socialist Revolution). The cruiser was badly damaged during the defence of Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) during the Great Patriotic War against fascist Germany in 1941-1945. The ship was repaired and moored at Petrogradzklaya embankment in 1948.
Before 1956, the Aurora was used as a training base for the students of the Nakhimov Naval College located in St. Petersburg. The St. Andrew flag of the Russian Navy went up on the Aurora in 1992.
Unlike the Soviet years when the ship was used for propaganda purposes, the newly restored Aurora will be the venue of a new historical exposition, which will open late in July. It will include nine rooms devoted to the cruiser’s participation in three wars - the 1904-1905 Russian-Japanese war; the First World War and WWII.
On This Day: Count Hilarion I. Vorontsov-Dashkov Was Born Topic: Imperial Russia
Portrait of Count Hilarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov (1868)
Artist: Frederike Emilia O'Connell (1823-1885). State Hermitage Museum
Note: this article has been amended from its original by Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia
On 8 June (O.S. 27 May) 1837, Hilarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov, was born in St. Petersburg. A notable representative of the Vorontsov family, Vorontsov-Dashkov served as a prominent Russian statesman, military leader, and entrepreneur during the reigns of Emperors Alexander III (1881-1894) and Nicholas II (1894-1917). His most prominent positions included Minister of Imperial Properties in 1881-97 and the Governor General of the Caucasus Viceroyalty (1801–1917) in 1905-15.
Having received a good education at home, Vorontsov-Dashkov entered the Moscow University in 1855. However, having studied only a few months, he entered military service as a volunteer in the Life Guards Horse Regiment and in 1858 was promoted to the rank of cornet. Vorontsov-Dashkov participated in hostilities in the Caucasus: in August 1859 he took part in the assault of Imam Shamil’s headquarters in the village of Gunib in Daghestan. In 1860 the count was made adjutant to the Commander of the Caucasian Army, Prince A. I. Bariatinsky, and two years later became commander of his personal escort.
In 1865, in the rank of colonel, Vorontsov-Dashkov was sent to serve as chief of staff to General D. I. Romanovsky, in Turkestan. In 1866, the count took part in the campaigns of Bukhara, commanded the assault columns in the capture of Uratube and Dzhuzak; was promoted to major general and appointed assistant military governor of the Turkestan Region. However, after the appointment of K. P. von Kaufman as Governor-General of Turkestan, Vorontsov-Dashkov left Central Asia and returned to St. Petersburg.
From 1867 to 1874 he served as commander of the Life Guard Hussar Regiment, and then - Chief of Staff of the Guards Corps under the command of Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich (the future Emperor Alexander III), and at the same time as a member of the Committee for arrangement and formation of the troops and the Council of the General Directorate of the State Horse Breeding. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-78, the count commanded the Guards Corps and served as chief of cavalry of the Ruschuksky squad, and from October 1878 led the 2nd Guards Infantry Division for the next three years.
After the accession to the throne of Emperor Alexander III in June 1881, Hilarion was appointed chief of His Majesty's Guards and chief superintendent of state breeding. This position was granted to the count owing to his previous work as vice-president of the Imperial Tsarskoye Selo Racing community and the president of the St. Petersburg Imperial Trotter Society. In August 1881 he became Minister of the Imperial Court and the Chancellor of the Chapter of Russian Imperial and Royal Orders. Among other assignments, he also was one of the founders and active members of the "Holy Warriors" - a secret society, designed to protect the Russian Emperor.
In 1893 Vorontsov-Dashkov was appointed chairman of the Committee for considering nominations for the awards. In May 1897 he was dismissed from the posts of chief superintendent and minister and transferred to the State Council of the Russian Empire. On his initiative, the specific capital was turned to the acquisition of landed property. He also participated in the preparation of the "Institution of the Royal Family" (1896) and the work of the Special Council for the Nobility (1897). Instead of the institute of rural chiefs, whose introduction he regarded as detrimental to the financial system of Zemstvo institutions, the count proposed to create an institution of county officers, which would unite in its hands all the functions of government. Vorontsov-Dashkov opposed the restriction of land redistribution, believing it unnecessary to restrict the right of peasants to withdraw from the community, and generally offered to abolish the peasant commune.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 recalled Vorontsov to active service, and he ascended to the helm of the Viceroy of the Caucasus, commander of the troops of the Caucasus Military District and the troop ataman of the Caucasian Cossack troops. On his initiative in 1905 the order to close the Armenian schools was cancelled, and in 1896, he adopted the sequestration of property of the Armenian Apostolic Church, as well as held the provincial and regional meetings for the drafting of the introduction of zemstvo in the Caucasus. During the revolutionary movement in the Caucasus in 1905-1906, he took a number of harsh measures to suppress it.
In 1904-1905, Hilarion served as the chairman of the Russian Red Cross Society, and participated in other community and charitable organizations, donated significant funds to establish scholarships, grants, for the improvement of the Crimea.
With the outbreak of World War I, Vorontsov-Dashkov was appointed commander of the Caucasian Army, but almost took no part in the development of operations and lead of hostilities, having passed the command of the army to General A. Z. Myshlaevsky, and after his dismissal, to General N. N. Yudenich. The jurisdiction of Vorontsov- Dashkov was focused on the questions of the rear of the Russian army. In August 1915, after Emperor Nicholas II assumed command of the Russian armed forces, he replaced Vorontsov-Dashkov with Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholaevich as Viceroy of the Caucasus. A relieved Vorontsov-Dashkov openly wrote to Nicholas II: “Now, I can live out the remainder of my days in peace.” He died within a year.
Count Hilarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov died on 28 January (O.S. 15 January) 1916, in the Vorontsov Palace at Alupka in the Crimea, and was buried in the family estate near the Annunciation Church in the village of Novotomnikovo, Shatsky County (today - Morshansk district, Tambov Region).
Vorontsov-Dashkov received numerous awards, including the Order of St. George, 4th (1867) and 3rd (1915) degrees, of St. Alexander Nevsky (1883), St. Vladimir, 1st degree (1894), St Andrew (1896), French Legion of Honor (1883).
He married in 1867 Countess Elizaveta Andreevna Shuvalova, daughter of Count Andrej Petrovich Shuvalov. His youngest son Alexander's descendents represent the only continuation of the Vorontsov family in the male line.
On This Day: First State Duma of the Russian Empire Opened Topic: Imperial Russia
The state reception marking the opening of the First State Duma in St. George's Hall in the Winter Palace, St. Petersburg, 1906.
In attendance are Emperor Nicholas II (center), the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna (left) and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna (right).
Note: this article has been edited and updated from its original by Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia
The State Duma as a legislative and advisory institution of the Russian empire was established under the Manifesto of Emperor Nicholas II of 6 August, 1905 ‘On establishment of State Duma’.
During the October political strike Nicholas II issued the Manifesto of 17 October, 1905 under which the State Duma was attributed legislative rights. ‘Statute on election to the State Duma’ and election law of 11 December, 1905 defined the objectives and terms of Duma functioning and the order of its members election.
The State Duma was in charge of preparation and preliminary consideration of bills; examination of state revenues and costs along with financial estimates of ministries and chief departments; cases on disposal of properties and a part of state income, on construction of public railways, on establishment of companies on shares; cases submitted for consideration by imperial orders; estimates and apportionment of Zemstvo duties. The State Duma could make inquires to ministers regarding the acts that it considered illegal.
The State Duma was elected for 5 years term. But it could be dissolved by the emperor before the end of this period. The emperor could also appoint new elections and the time of convocation. Women, the military and the urban poor were deprived of the elective right. The elections were held in accordance with curia system. With this objective four curia were created: of landowners; urban; of workers and of peasants. During the elections of February – March 1906 the most successful was the Constitutional and Democratic Party (of cadets). On 10 May (O.S. 27 April), 1906 a state reception for the deputies of the First State Duma of the Russian Empire was held in St. George's Hall of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. After the welcoming address of Emperor Nicholas II the deputies went to Tauride Palace which became their work residence. Cadet S. A. Muromtsev was elected the Duma’s chairman.
The first Russian State Duma of the Russian Empire had functioned for 72 days. The central issue was agrarian problem: deputies proposed several projects but all of them were rejected by the Ministers Council as ‘inadmissible’.
On the whole within 2,5 months of work Duma had accepted 391 inquiries regarding illegal actions of government and approved two bills: on death penalty abolishment (it was initiated by the deputies) and on allocation of 15 million rubles to those having suffered from bad harvest (submitted by the government). On 8 July, 1906 the government decided to dissolve the Duma and organize new elections.
Within 11 years there had been elected four State Duma’s convocations. On 19 October (O.S. 6 October), 1917 the State Duma of the fourth convocation was dissolved by the Provisional government due to the establishment of 25 November (O.S. 12 November) the date of the election to the Constituent Assembly on and the beginning of election campaign.
On This Day: Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire Approved Topic: Imperial Russia
Note: this article has been edited and updated from its original by Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia
On 6 May (O.S. 23 April), 1906 Emperor Nicholas II approved the new version of ‘Fundamental laws of the Russian Empire’. The revision of Fundamental laws was made ‘… in order to strengthen the foundations of the renewed state system’.
Basic national laws of the Russian Empire - a set of regulations on the general principles of the Russian political system - were first codified under M. M. Speransky in 1832, and in 1833 Emperor Nicholas I by issuing the Manifesto of the enactment of “The Code of Laws of the Russian Empire” declared their coming into force. In 1906, the Basic Laws were revised due to the publication of the Manifesto 30 October (O.S. 17 October) 1905, the establishment of the Council of Ministers, the State Duma, the reorganization of the State Council.
The document approved on 6 May (O.S. 23 April) consisted of an introductory section and five chapters (82 articles): On essence of the supreme monarchial authority; On rights and duties of Russian subjects; On laws; On State Council and State Duma and their way of activity; On Ministers Council, ministers and heads of particular departments.
The fundamental laws secured the state system of the Russian Empire, the state language, the essence of the supreme authority, the legislation order, the principles of organization and activity lines of central state institutions, the rights and duties of the Russian subjects.
According to the fundamental laws the supreme monarchial authority and governing authority belonged to the Emperor. However he conducted the executive power ‘in close unity with the State Council and the State Duma’. Henceforth it was defined that ‘no new law can appear without the approval of the State Council and the State Duma and take effect without being approved by the Emperor’.
However the monarch’s prerogatives remained quite dominant: the fundamental laws could be revised only on his initiative; it was he who assigned and dismissed ministers and supreme dignitaries, conducted the foreign policy, was proclaimed the ‘sovereign leader of the Russian Army and Navy’; had sole rights for mintage; on his behalf the war was declared and the peace concluded, the legal proceedings conducted, titles, orders and other state decorations awarded.
For the first time the Fundamental laws proclaimed the rights of civil freedom. The Russian subjects were guaranteed the right of personal immunity, sanctity of the home and property, the right to hold meetings, create societies and unions (with the objectives not contradicting with laws); the freedom of faith and the right to ‘express their ideas verbally and in writing as well as spread them by means of the press’ but ‘within the limits established by law’.
The renewed Fundamental laws were conferred with a special legal force. They were changed only in a special legislative order. The initiative of their revision belonged exclusively to the emperor. The latter, authorized to issue the decrees which had a provisional force of laws (during the periods when Duma suspended its work) however could not apply this authority to the Fundamental laws.
On the threshold of the State Duma convocation the Fundamental laws of 6 May (O.S. 23 April), 1906 represented the fundamental legislative act which regulated the separation of powers between the Emperor’s authority and the Parliament (the State Council and the State Duma) instituted under the Manifesto of 17 October, 1905.
For more information on the Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, please refer to the following article:
On This Day: Russian Empire State Emblem and State Seal Approved Topic: Imperial Russia
Note: this article has been edited and updated from its original by Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia
On 23 April (O.S. 11 April), 1857 Emperor Alexander II approved the detailed description of the State emblem and seal.
The double-headed eagle became the Russian state symbol at the end of the 15th century. The emblem’s composition and design continued to change repeatedly over the centuries.
The images of the double-headed eagle in the first half of the 19th century were quite varied. It could bear one or three crowns, hold a sceptre and orb, a wreath or Peroun, a torch in its claws; with raised or spread wings.
During the reign of Emperor Nikolai I two designs of the state eagle were officially established. One had spread wings, bore one crown over two heads, a sacred image of St. George on his chest and sceptre and orb in his claws. The second type had raised wings bearing the titular emblems: of Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberia on the right; of Poland, Taurida and Finland – on the left.
In 1856 in the course of heraldic reform conducted under the guidance of Baron Bernhard Kohne the design of the state eagle was changed under the influence of German models. At the same time the direction of the image of St. George depicted on the eagle’s chest was turned to the right in accordance with the West-European rules of heraldry. The design of the Lesser Emblem of Russia was made by artist Alexander Fadeyev and approved by the Emperor on 20 December (O.S. 8 December), 1856. This variant of the emblem differed from the previous ones not only by the eagle’s design but also by the number of titular emblems on its wings. The right wing bore the shields with emblems of Kazan, Poland, Chersonesos Taurica and the united emblem of Kiev, Vladimir and Novgorod; the left wing contained the shields with the emblems of Astrakhan, Siberia, Georgia and Finland.
On 23 April (O.S. 11 April), 1857 the Emperor approved the whole set of emblems: the Great one, the Middle one and the Lesser State Emblem; titular coats of arms of the Emperor’s family members and the patrimonial coat of arms of the Emperor. Also approved were the designs of the Great, Middle and Lesser State Seals, seals boxes and the seals of higher and lower offices and persons. The Minor State Emblem – the double-headed eagle with all the attributes –was the one for general use. The Great and Middle Emblems represented complicated compositions with the Lesser Emblem at the center of it and the emblems of all the lands under the Emperor’s title around it including other supplementary elements (holders for shields, pedestal, etc.). These two Emblems were used in particular cases of especial importance.
On 12 June (O.S. 31 May), 1857 the Senate issued the Decree with the description of the new Emblems and norms for their use. In total the document approved of 110 designs lithographed by the artist A. K. Beggrov. The act was followed by a series of other acts establishing new models of the State Emblem. At that time the first stamp appeared with the double-headed eagle on it.
The State Emblem of Russia adopted in 1857 remained practically unchanged up to 1917.
The Presidential Library Will Digitize Tsar's Marches Topic: Imperial Russia
Note: this article has been edited from its original by Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia
The Russian Institute of Art History has provided scores of the marches approved by Nicholas II to the Boris Yeltsin Presidential Library in St. Petersburg for digitization. This unique material from the special collection of the Institute will join the digital collection of the Presidential Library, will be made fully available on the website and in electronic reading rooms in Russia and abroad.
Military or parade march as a genre has its roots in the age of Peter I. The regular march music appeared with the development of the regular army: in 1711, a decree was issued on the staff of regimental bands. The Preobrazhensky Life Guards Regiment, founded in 1691 by Peter the Great, was the first to have a march raising the spirits for parades, see to the war and support the soldiers' spirits during the long tedious marches. When the legs of soldiers failed, they were supported by music. Before the appearance of march this function was performed by a marching song. By 1716, the Preobrazhensky Regiment orchestra included 40 musicians, and from 1722 all the regiments were obliged to have orchestras - wind or mixed type.
File from the manuscripts room, Russian Institute of Art History, which includes the marches, is an unpublished album of notes containing 252 sheets of musical notations of marches with the author's marks and blots. The best works of this genre were selected for the regiments personally by Emperor Nicholas II and were supposed to raise the morale of the Russian army.
Muses, alas, fell into silence when guns spoke and the revolutionary broke out. As a result, the album was not published. And only now, owing to the innovative technologies of the Presidential Library, it got a chance to be published in electronic form.
Among the scores, which are being digitized, there are such marches as, "Martial Spirit" by Fr. Von Blon, "A Dashing Unit" by Yu. Lengardt, the famous march of 1914 by I. Walch "Marching into Paris," which glorifies the victory over Napoleon. Most of the scores were written for brass bands of mixed composition.
Basically, the Russian Institute of Art History delivered to the Presidential Library military marches, which, according to the Emperor Nicholas II, who select them, “would give moral support the soldiers going up the line.”
The extensive collection of scores, which are currently digitized by the Presidential Library, will also feature "Montenegrin" march by L. Minkus from the ballet "Roxanne" and Cesare Pugni's march from the ballet "The Little Humpbacked Horse."
On This Day: State Council of the Russian Empire Established Topic: Imperial Russia
The centenary session of the State Council in the Mariinsky Palace on May 7, 1901 is represented
on Ilya Repin's huge canvas, now exhibited in the State Russian Museum in St. Petersburg
Note: this article has been edited from its original by Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia
The State Council appeared in Russia after the liberal reforms of Emperor Alexander I. On 7 April (O.S. March 26), 1801 the emperor abolished the Council under the tsar’s court established by the Empress Catherine II in 1768. Under his decree of 11 April (O.S. 30 March 30), 1801 was created a deliberate body named in the decree “The Indispensable Council”. At the same time M.M. Speransky, a statesman, was charged with preparation of the liberal reforms program for the entire state bodies’ system.
According to Speransky the project “at the top of the whole state system and its last link” should be the State Council “that will consolidate legislative power, judicial and executive authorities which will ascend to the supreme power through it”. Speransky’s explanatory note said that up to now: “the ideas on the law execution were the subject of personal trust and passing from hands to hands they were never unified or respected”. Later the note “On the necessity of the State Council establishment” made the basis for the emperor’s speech that he delivered at the Council grand opening.
The history of the State Council dates back to 13 January (O.S. 1 January), 1810 when Emperor Alexander I issued a manifesto on its establishment. It would become the supreme state advisory body to the sovereign in Imperial Russia.
The State Council was the supreme state advisory legislative body in Imperial Russia. It investigated the bills introduced by ministers before the emperor’s approval, budgets and staffs of the state establishments, complaints about the Senate departments’ decisions. For these purposes the Council had a Commission for laws’ execution, and the State office headed by the state secretary. The State office along with records management was in charge of the edition of bills’ texts that were brought up for the discussion and executed the laws. The bills were first investigated by the departments and then were brought up at the State Council general meeting and after the emperor’s approval took effect as laws. At the same time the emperor could second the opinion of majority as well as of minority or reject both.
The Mariinsky Palace on St. Isaac's Square was the seat of the State Council of the Russian Empire up until February 1917
The State Council had played an important role in the preparation and the issue of the first Complete code of laws and the Russian Empire Code of Laws. Under the reign of Alexander II it participated in the development of the reforms’ legislative basis of 1860-1870.
Originally the State Council consisted of 35 persons assigned by the emperor, in 1890 there were 60.. The emperor presided the State Council. During his absence the president was a Council member assigned by the emperor annually. From 1812 to 1865 the State Council chairman was also the chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers.
After the manifesto of 29 October (O.S. 17 October), 1905 the State Council was transformed into the upper chamber of the Russian parliament. Half of its members were appointed by the emperor, another half was elected from various categories of society such as clergy, Zemstvo, Assemblies of Nobility, Academy of Science and Universities as well as manufacturers and traders (partly by indirect elections). The State Council also investigated the bills adopted by the State Duma before they were approved by the emperor. Since the Duma and the Council had equal legislative rights for emperor’s consideration were submitted only those bills which were approved by both chambers of the parliament.
After the February revolution of 1917 the State Council of the Imperial Russia ceased to exist due to the changes in the Russian political system.
On This Day: The Order of St. Catherine Established Topic: Imperial Russia
The Order of St. Catherine was established in the memory of an unsuccessful Pruth march in 1711 when a small and poorly equipped Peter’s army was encircled by the enemy’s superior forces. According to the legend, the future wife of Peter I the Great, Catherine Skavronskaya, who shared with the emperor all the burden of the field life, bribed the Turkish pasha with her jewels. Owing to a successful battle and the bribe of the Turkish commander, the tsar and the army were saved.
In the Order’s statute published back in 1713 on behalf of Catherine it was noted that the award had been established in gratitude to her patroness, the saint great martyr Catherine, for liberation from a possible Turkish captivity. On the day of this saint, 5 December (O.S. 24 November), 1714 Peter I decorated with his own hands the future empress with the just established order of Saint Catherine or Liberation.
The Order of St. Catherine became the highest decoration for women in Russia. During Peter I lifetime Catherine was the only holder of the order. When she took the throne after her husband’s death, she started to grant the award to the highest nobles. The first to receive the order were Peter’s daughters Anna and Elisabeth followed by seven more women. In total during 200 years of the order’s existence it was awarded 734 times.
The Order was of two classes – big cross and a smaller or dame cross. The big cross was awarded to the ladies of the emperor family, other state families and 12 dames of the empress closest milieu; the smaller cross could be hold by 94 dames. The order of the First Class was worn on the white ribbon put over the right shoulder accompanied with the eight-point star covered with diamonds. The dames wore the award on the white bow embroidered with the devise: “For love and fatherland”.
On 16 February (O.S. 5 February) 1727 the order of St. Catherine was awarded to the only male, a young count A.A. Menshikov who was very shy.
In 1797 Paul I legalized the tradition according to which every new born grand duke became a holder of the St. Andrew the First-Called and every new born great duchess received the order of St. Catherine. After the christening the child was girdled with a blue Andrew’s ribbon or a scarlet Catherine one.
On This Day: Tsarskoye Selo Railway Opened in Russia Topic: Imperial Russia
Arrival of the first train from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo on 11 November (O.S. 30 October) 1837
On 11 November (O.S. 30 October 30), 1837 in St. Petersburg was officially opened Russia's first passenger railway between St. Petersburg, Tsarskoe Selo and Pavlovsk.
On 27 April (O.S. 15 April), 1836 was promulgated the Decree of Emperor Nicholas I on the approval of the “Regulations on the establishment of cooperative association for the construction of a railroad from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoe Selo with extension up to Pavlovsk”. The founders of the association were: master of ceremonies of the Imperial Household Count Alexei Bobrinsky, merchants Benedikt Cramer and Ivan Conrad Plit and an Austrian nobleman Franz von Gerstner.
The construction of the railway commenced on 13 May (O.S. 1 May), 1836. It was led by an Austrian engineer, professor of Vienna University of Technology Franz Gerstner.
The entire route, except for the area adjacent to St. Petersburg, which was not acquired by the association, was divided into sections given over to contractors and artels of 30-40 people. Technical construction management was performed by 17 engineers, five of which had already carried out similar work on the railways of Britain. Excavation works carried out by hand, long-distance transportation was made by carting.
In the midst of the construction about 1,800 workers were engaged on the track (peasants of Petersburg Province, Vologda Province and other surrounding provinces) and 1,400 soldiers of the paramilitary construction battalions of the General Directorate of Railways.
Rolling stock, rails and rail fasteners were purchased abroad, but some cars for freight, steam machines for water supply, water pipes, travel arrangements were made in St. Petersburg. Originally the railroad was built from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoe Selo but was later extended to the suburban town of Pavlovsk, the total length of the route rose to 27 km.
The first test journey of a horse-drawn train from Tsarskoye Selo to Pavlovsk took place on 9 October (O.S 27 September), 1836.
15 November (O.S. 3 November) the first steam engine was brought to the railroad from England and 18 November (O.S. 6 November) took place test drives of a steam locomotive on the stretch between Tsarskoe Selo - Pavlovsk. By the time of the opening of the road Russia obtained 6 locomotives, 44 passenger and 19 freight cars bought in Britain and Belgium. Steam locomotives were created on the basis used in Europe for the types of locomotives being in use, but the some changes were made to their structure due to the increased track width (1829 mm). At the request of Gerstner, steam locomotives were required to have the power of 40 horsepower and be able to move several cars with three hundred passengers with the speed of 40 versts per hour.
Grand opening of the Tsarskoe Selo Railway took place on 11 November (O.S. 30 October 30), 1837. Distinguished guests and numerous residents of the capital gathered at the newly constructed building of the station on Zagorodnyj prospectus. F. Gerstner got on the locomotive and at 12:30 a. m. a train of 8 cars moved away from the platform. 35 minutes later the train arrived at Tsarskoe Selo. On the way back Gerstner, willing to demonstrate all the opportunities of the railroad and locomotive, developed a fantastic speed for the time, bridging all the way from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoe Selo in 27 min. The average speed was 51 km/h, at times it exceeded 60 km/h. St. Petersburg Gazette wrote the next day: “Sixty miles per hour, terrible to think ... Meanwhile, you sit quietly, you do not notice this speed, terrifying imagination, only the wind whistles, just a horse blazes with a fiery lather, leaving behind a white cloud of steam. What is the force that carries all these huge crews with the swiftness of the wind in the desert, which destroys the power of space, consumes time? This force is a man’s intellect!".
After the opening of the road the completion work began, and trains (one or two pairs) circulated only on Sundays and public holidays. From 12 February (O.S. January 31), 1838 began the daily circulation of the two pairs of horse-drawn trains. From 16 April (O.S. 4 April) 1838 only the locomotive-drawn trains were used. In 1838, the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology created a locomotive "Agile" for Russia's first railway.
Rates at Tsarskoye Selo railway, established in 1838, did not change significantly until the second half of 1870. The fare for a journey from the capital to Tsarskoe Selo in the first class coach was 75 kopecks in silver, in the second class – 50 kopecks, in the third class – 35 kopecks and in the fourth - 20 kopeks. Travel tickets were made of brass and called "cans." They were reusable, so the administration did not spend anything for their reproduction. From April 1860 the railway administration replaced "cans" with paper tickets of different colors: for the 1st class coaches they were white, for the 2nd class - pink and the 3rd class - green.
At the grand meeting of the Imperial Russian Technical Society which marked the 50th anniversary of the start of construction of railways in Russia, it was noted that "Tsarskoe Selo Railway in respect of its general importance for the network of Russian railways and the purpose of its construction, will be regarded as a memorable Poteshny Regiment and the boat of Emperor Peter I, which provided Russia with glorious and victorious Guard, Army and Navy".
On This Day: Russia Established Diplomatic Relations With USA in 1809 Topic: Imperial Russia
Note: This article has been edited and updated by Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia
On 5 November (O.S. 24 October 24), 1809 John Quincy Adams, the future U.S. President and U.S. Secretary of State as well as the first U.S. Ambassador in Russia presented his credentials to the Emperor Alexander I, which marked the formal establishment of diplomatic relations between Russia and the United States.
In the first half of the 18th century Russian traders started to actively develop the lands in North America. Many Russian settlements were founded in the Aleutian Islands, mainland of Alaska, in what is now the Canadian provinces of Yukon and British Columbia and American states of Washington, Oregon and California. Gradually the Russian Empire proclaimed its sovereignty over the territory occupied by Russian settlers.
In late 1790s London hosted the first official meeting of Russian and American diplomats – the U.S. envoy in Britain Rufus King and the Russian ambassador at the court of St. James S. R. Vorontsov. At this meeting there was talk about the conclusion of a trade treaty between Russia and the United States, as well as about the appointment of an American envoy to St. Petersburg. In 1799 followed the opinion of the Emperor Paul I: «We are more willing to establish the mutual missions, since their government by its behavior in the present circumstances has won our every respect ... thus, as soon as the abovementioned States appoint their Minister, we will do the same. " In April of 1803 Levett Harris was appointed the American consul in St. Petersburg.
Despite the fact that consular relations between Russia and the U.S. had already been established, formal contacts continued to be made via the diplomatic representatives of the two countries in London. Therefore, in June of 1806 in Washington, the issue of appointment of an envoy to St. Petersburg was raised. In October 1807 the Head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia Nikolai Rumyantsev expressed the willingness of the Russian government to exchange diplomatic representatives with USA.
The first American envoy to Russia was appointed John Quincy Adams, the future sixth president of the United States. His candidacy was proposed by President James Madison and received the approval of Senate in July, 1809. J. Q. Adams, son of the second U.S. President John Adams, had once been in Russia. In addition, he had acquired a significant diplomatic experience being the U.S. envoy in Netherlands and Prussia. The main purpose of the American mission was all-round development of friendly relations and mutual understanding with Russia, as well as providing a favorable environment for the development of trade between the two countries. 13 (25) October J. Q. Adams arrived in the capital of the Russian Empire and October 24 (5 November) presented his credentials to the Russian Emperor. Following the ceremony, a lengthy private conversation took place between Adams and Alexander I, who expressed his firm intention to promote Russian-American trade. "There should not be any conflicting interests or reasons for rupture between the United States and Russia, while the trade between the two countries could be very useful for each of them," said the emperor.
During the World War I Russia and the United States were Allies. However, after the revolution of 1917 the United States refused to recognize the Soviet government. In 1918-1920 American troops took part in a foreign intervention supporting the White Army and at the domestic front the U.S. started a struggle against communist and socialist movement.
Impetus for a new political dialogue between the USSR and the U.S. were the trade relations which established between the two countries in late 1920s - early 1930s. A significant role in the normalization of relations with the Soviet Union played the interest of the U.S. business circles in trade with the Soviet state.
October 10, 1933 U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt sent a message to the chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR Mikhail Kalinin on the establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR and the USA. A reply message was sent to the U.S. on October 17, 1933. November 16, 1933 People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR Maxim Litvinov and President Roosevelt exchanged notes on the establishment of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries. The first Soviet Ambassador to the United States was appointed Soviet diplomat A. Troyanovsky, and the first U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Russia was William Bullitt.