Personal Diaries and Letters of Nicholas II Presented at the Presidential Library Topic: Nicholas II
Diary entry of 19 February 1896 on the death of Peter A. Cherevin, who served as Assistant Minister of the Interior
and chief of police. "Unspeakably sorry for him; hard to lose such a loyal and honest friend," wrote Nicholas
On the birthday of Emperor Nicholas II (1868-1918), which is celebrated on May 18, the Boris Yeltsin Presidential Library in St Petersburg, presents rare materials, telling both about the best days of the young sovereign, about tragic events that fell to his lot. They are featured in diaries and letters of Nicholas II, as well as memoirs of contemporaries - in Russian only.
Nicholas II began to write daily records as a child. The archive of his diaries consists of 50 voluminous notebooks covering the period from 1882 to 1918.
The Berlin publishing house "Slovo" was one of the first in 1923 to publish the "Diary of Emperor Nicholas II", which is presented on the Presidential Library portal. No less valuable than the notes made by Nicholas II's hand, editorial notes and explanatory notes are presented, in which the role of the emperor in the events of 1890-1906 is analyzed and evaluated.
In the preface to the diary it is said that the reign of Emperor Nicholas II is one of the darkest pages of Russian history. Started on the day of the coronation of the emperor by the tragedy of Khodynka, it ends with an "unheard of cataclysm, which Russia dropped two hundred years ago. The catastrophe crept up after the calm, externally brilliant reign of Alexander III, when Russia seemed at the apogee of its strength, and this circumstance prompts the transfer of the burden of responsibility to the personality of the successor. The personality of the last tsar was in tragic accordance with the pernicious disintegration, which at that time undermined the huge body of the Russian monarchy".
At first the future of the successor to the throne seemed successful. "1890. January 5. Friday", - wrote Tsarevich Nicholas in his diary. "As always, after the ball I felt myself fine, but my legs are weak". "We skated with Sandro and Sergei. We drank tea with them. At 9:30 we went to Sergei for an ordinary fortune telling, which ended in dancing. We had supper at one pm".
Immediately after birth, the heir of the royal family was enrolled in the lists of several guards regiments and was appointed chief of the 65th Infantry Regiment of Moscow. At the age of five he is the chief of the Life Guards of the Reserve Infantry Regiment. In 1884, Nicholas II enlisted in active military service, in July 1887 he began regular military service in the Preobrazhensky regiment and in 1891 received the rank of captain, and a year later - colonel.
Pages from Nicholas II's 1912 diary
The military principle in the education of the Tsarevich clearly prevailed. Alexander III seemed to deliberately neglect the classical education of his successor. In notes to the same edition of “The Diary of Emperor Nicholas II”, Witte says that when he proposed an heir to the chairmen of the committee for the construction of the great Siberian route in 1892, Alexander III expressed extreme amazement and asked if Witte knew that the heir was quite a boy, that he has children's opinions?...Many statesmen close to the throne ironically mocked the education received by the heir. And two years later this "boy", due to the premature death of Alexander III, had to take control of the greatest state.
The "Correspondence of Wilhelm II with Nicholas II" (the period from 1894 to 1914) presented on the Presidential Library portal clearly shows the brewing Anglo-German conflict with the far-reaching plans of Wilhelm to push Russia and England in the Far East. And he succeeds in this, Nikolas is not averse to showing himself as a commander. In the "Diary" for 1903 he notes that "only now he takes power".
Further in the notes to the Tsar's diary A. Kuropatkin, the former Minister of War, explains the psychology of the emperor: "I told Witte that our Emperor had grandiose plans in his head: to take Manchuria for Russia, to join Korea with Russia. He dreams to take Tibet. He wants to take Persia, to seize not only the Bosporus, but also the Dardanelles…".
While the Emperor dreamed of "washing his boots" in the Mediterranean Sea, relations with Japan became tense. In January, the Japanese ambassador in St. Petersburg, Kurino, implored the approximate tsar to speed up the answers to the notes of Japan, which for weeks remained without movement. He sought a personal reception from Nicholas. But the Emperor was invariably "busy". At the New Year reception of diplomats, he recalled the power of Russia and did not advise "to tempt its patience and peace". Then, as Nikolas wrote in his diary, "three weeks of visits to the theater and hunting, followed by balls, shows, walks and quiet family joys followed".
The Russian-Japanese war, the economic crisis and discontent that swept the majority of the working population led to an explosion - on January 9, 1905, the troops and police of St. Petersburg used weapons to disperse the peaceful march of workers who were going to petition the tsar.
In 1914 Russia entered the First World War. Failures on the fronts, economic dislocation, the growth of anti-war sentiments and general discontent with the autocracy led to mass protests against the government and the dynasty. On the question of the expediency of the abdication of Nicholas II, all the commanders of the fronts answered positively, with the exception of Admiral A. Kolchak, Commander of the Black Sea Fleet. And then on March 2 (15), 1917, Nicholas II decided to abdicate, this is stated in the work presented on the Presidential Library portal "Renunciation of Nicholas II: eyewitness recollections, documents".
The details about the fate of Nicholas II can be found in the electronic collection of the Presidential Library, which is dedicated to the 400th anniversary of the Romanov House celebrated in 2013. The collection includes about a thousand digitized documents, most of which were previously unknown to the general audience.
Royal Russia Planning Nicholas II Conference for 2018 Topic: Nicholas II
Next year marks the 100th anniversary of the death of Russia's last emperor and tsar Nicholas II. Royal Russia is planning to mark, what is considered one of the most significant events in 20th Russian history, by hosting a one-day conference in London, England. This event will bring together historians, authors and other experts, who will present lectures on the life and reign of Russia's last emperor and family.
Whether you live in the UK, Europe or overseas - all are welcome. The event is scheduled to take place in London, England on Saturday 27th October, 2018. Please note that the venue will be announced in the Fall of 2017.
While the event is still more than a year away, I am pleased to confirm the following two lectures:
Nicholas II in Post-Soviet Russia. Speaker: Paul Gilbert, Founder of Royal Russia
Royal Russia Founder Paul Gilbert discusses a series of significant events which have taken place since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. These events have helped Russia re-evaluate it's assessment of the life and reign of the country’s last emperor Nicholas II. This lecture is based on research for Gilbert's forthcoming book, to be published next year.
Journey to Ekaterinburg. Speaker: Paul Gilbert, Founder of Royal Russia
Royal Russia Founder Paul Gilbert will recount his journeys to Ekaterinburg in 2013, 2016, as well as the centenary events to be held in July 1918. This presentation will feature Gilbert's personal photographs taken in the Ural city, including Ganina Yama, Porosyonkov Log and Alapaevsk.
Royal Russia has enjoyed a large and faithful following in the United Kingdom for more than 25 years. These are people, who share a common interest in the life and reign of Nicholas II and his family.
As it is my eventual plan to return to England, and take up permanent residence in the next few years, I thought this would be a perfect opportunity to meet fellow Romanovphiles, monarchists, and Orthodox Christians, to discuss and exchange ideas and information on the life and reign of Nicholas II. Perhaps this event will be the precursor of future Royal Russia events in the UK?
What Events are Planned?
The conference will provide historians, authors and other experts to share and discuss their research, on the life and reign of Russia's last emperor and tsar. This will be acheived through a series of 6-8 lectures and discussions, complimented by slide presentations, etc.
Please note that a nominal fee will be charged for attendance to help cover costs - this will be announced at a later date.
Invitation to Historians, Authors and Experts
I would like to take this opportunity to extend an invitation to historians, authors and other experts to submit their interest in participating in this event. Presentations based on previously unpublished materials will be given priority. A small honourarium will be paid to each speaker. It is important to note that interested speakers are under no obligation to commit to this event at this time, but simply express their interest in participating.
Interested? Please submit a brief summary of your presentation to me at firstname.lastname@example.org Note: please type 'Nicholas II Conference' in the 'Subject' box of your email, so that it is delivered to the appropriate folder in my mailbox.
Appeal for Assistance from Prospective Attendees
I would like to emphasize that this event is still in the planning stages, therefore am appealing to friends and interested attendees living in England for their assistance with ideas, suggestions, and volunteers to help bring the event together would be greatly appreciated.
I would be very interested in hearing from any one who can suggest a venue or church hall that could host such an event. I have a limited budget to work with, so the venue should be economically priced, and be able to provide seating for 50-100 people, the necessary equipment for powerpoint presentations, and the means to supply light refreshments.
I invite prospective attendees and volunteers to submit their ideas and suggestions on how Royal Russia could make this an informative and enjoyable event for all.
Interested? Please submit your suggestions and comments in writing to me at email@example.com Note: please type 'Nicholas II Conference' in the 'Subject' box of your email, so that it is delivered to the appropriate folder in my mailbox.
I am very excited about the prospect of hosting such an event in England, and look forward to meeting old and new friends to share our mutual interest in Russia's last Emperor and Tsar, as well as one the Russian Orthodox Church's most revered Saints.
Note: This event is in the very early stages of planning and development. I will be traveling to England later this year to start making arrangements for this event. Further updates will be posted here as additional details become available. Thank you for your patience and understanding - PG
Putting up a monument to Tsar Nicholas II would mark Montenegro’s permanent gratitude to Russia as the centuries-old benefactor
Serb National Council (SNC) that unites members of the community of ethnic Serbs living in Montenegro has filed a petition with the authorities of the country’s old royal capital Cetinje to erect a monument to the last Russian emperor as a symbol of gratitude to the Russian Tsars for centuries of assistance to Slavic people.
"We are turning to you with an initiative to erect a monument to Tsar Nicholas II Romanov of Russia," says the petition, a copy of which the SNC sent to the TASS bureau in Belgrade.
SNC leader Momcilo Vuksanovic told TASS the Council had sent an official letter to Mayor Aleksandr Bodanovic and the president of Cetinje city hall, Jovan Martinovic. It lists the historic landmarks in the Montenegrin-Russian relations, which started in 1711 when Tsar Peter I sent his emissaries to Montenegro.
The letter makes special emphasis on the permanent material assistance and political support that Russia accorded to Montenegro as of the beginning of the 18th century, adding that it eventually led up to the rise of an independent Montenegrin state.
"Metropolitan Peter I bequeathed to his nephew, Metropolitan II, as he was dying: ‘Pray to God and stay with Russia’," the petition reads. "It was with Russia’s assistance that the Cetinje Monastery became the spiritual and, on top of that, legislative power center. It was thanks to Russian aid that the first general school and printing house were opened in Cetinje in 1834 and the first Montenegrin calendar and then the first Serb abecedary was printed in 1835."
"During the reign of Prince Daniel [the first prince in the Petrovic-Njegos dynasty, on the throne from 1852 through 1860 — TASS] Russia played the decisive role in the international recognition of the status of our country," the SNC said. "Russia continued helping Montenegro. This country would not have survived as an independent state without Russia’s assistance."
"Putting up a monument to Tsar Nicholas II in Cetinje would mark Montenegro’s permanent gratitude to Russia as the centuries-old benefactor," the petition said. "It would be an act symbolizing gratitude for all the good things Russia has done for us, and a signal that we have not forgotten our own history or identity," it said.
The latest census suggests that Montenegro, a country with a population of 622,000 has about 180,000 ethnic Serbs. The sad fact of the situation is that the newest state ideology in Montenegro assumes assimilation of the Serbs living there since the times long gone.
The numeric strength of the ethnic Serb population reduces with each new census as people are scared and have to conceal their real ethnicity.
Montenegrin Serbs are known to have the most sincere admiration of Russian culture and history among the Balkan Slavs. They respect historic ties with Russia and try to contribute to their development as long as opportunities avail themselves.
An exhibition of photographs Towards the Russian Tsar. The Romanovs - Royal Service, dedicated to the last Russian emperor Nicholas II and his family, opened on 5th April 2017 at the Russian Center of Science and Culture in Belgrade. The project is a joint project between the Sretensky Monastery in Moscow, and the Pravoslavie.ru portal, in cooperation with Studio Russkiy Czar, with the participation of Archbishopric of Belgrade-Karlovac.
The aim of this project is to provide the Serbian public, with a closer look at the life and service of the family of the last Russian Tsar, and to awaken the memory of the Romanovs. Nicholas II and his family enjoy a special love and reverence among the Serbian people. The exhibition has been particularly popular among parents and teachers, who wish to teach their children and students about the role that Nicholas II played in the history of their country.
Awakening memories of the imperial martyrs is of special importance during 2017, the year which marks 100 years since the beginning of the great Russian tragedy, and 2018, which marks the 100th anniversary of the death and martyrdom of the last Russian emperor and his family, who have since been canonized by both the Russian and Serbian Orthodox churches .
At the same time, the organizers tried to select photographic material, which first shows the members of the Imperial family, their way of life and service for the benefit of the Fatherland and their people.
The exhibition consists of black and white photographs from the historical archives and personal albums of the Romanov family. The exhibition is divided into themes.
The first section of the exhibit features portraits of Emperor Nicholas II and his family. Included are prominent ceremonial portraits, through which viewers can see the faces of members of the imperial family, as well as to get acquainted with the fashion and style of clothing of the late 19th and early 20th century.
The second section is composed of genre photographs. Within this section, photographs from the personal albums of the Imperial family are showcased. Visitors can see images Nicholas II and his family during happier times: walks in the parks, conversations, recreation, and children playing games. These photos are rare, personally taken by family members.
The third and final section include photographs composed of military subjects. Visitors see the tsar blessing his troops before going off to war, inspecting new weapons, giving orders to the army, sharing the secrets of military art with his son and heir.
Also featured are photographs of the Empress and her four daughters the Grand Duchesses, who all engaged in humanitarian assistance as nurses during the First World War. They attended the wounded, assisting them by both deed and word.
Since August 2016, the exhibition has been held in more than 20 cities and towns in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
The exhibition Towards the Russian Tsar. The Romanovs - Royal Service, runs until 19th April 2017 at the Russian Center of Science and Culture in Belgrade.
On This Day: Emperor Nicholas II Abdicates Topic: Nicholas II
Today, marks the 100th anniversary of the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II, bringing an end to more than 300 years of the Romanov dynasty and the monarchy in Russia.
The Emperor issued the following statement (which was suppressed by the Provisional Government) on 15 March (O.S. 2 March) 1917:
In the days of the great struggle against the foreign enemies, who for nearly three years have tried to enslave our fatherland, the Lord God has been pleased to send down on Russia a new heavy trial. Internal popular disturbances threaten to have a disastrous effect on the future conduct of this persistent war. The destiny of Russia, the honor of our heroic army, the welfare of the people and the whole future of our dear fatherland demand that the war should be brought to a victorious conclusion whatever the cost. The cruel enemy is making his last efforts, and already the hour approaches when our glorious army together with our gallant allies will crush him. In these decisive days in the life of Russia, We thought it Our duty of conscience to facilitate for Our people the closest union possible and a consolidation of all national forces for the speedy attainment of victory. In agreement with the Imperial Duma We have thought it well to renounce the Throne of the Russian Empire and to lay down the supreme power. As We do not wish to part from Our beloved son, We transmit the succession to Our brother, the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich, and give Him Our blessing to mount the Throne of the Russian Empire. We direct Our brother to conduct the affairs of state in full and inviolable union with the representatives of the people in the legislative bodies on those principles which will be established by them, and on which He will take an inviolable oath. In the name of Our dearly beloved homeland, We call on Our faithful sons of the fatherland to fulfill their sacred duty to the fatherland, to obey the Tsar in the heavy moment of national trials, and to help Him, together with the representatives of the people, to guide the Russian Empire on the road to victory, welfare, and glory. May the Lord God help Russia!
In private, Nicholas was devastated that his generals no longer had confidence in him and recorded in his diary, “All around is betrayal, cowardice and deceit!”
Royal Russia presents the following articles drawn from media sources around the world on a variety of topics which relate to this historic day, on the abdication, the Russian Revolution, Lenin and the Russian monarchy:
The following is a Legitimist examination of the 3 March 1917 (15 March 1917, new style) abdication of Nicholas II and the subsequent 15 March 1917 (28 March 1917, new style) deferral of the throne by Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Emperor Nicholas II's laying down of "the supreme power."
"Monarchy has always been a guarantor of stability, especially an Orthodox monarch. We live in an Orthodox country and we profess Orthodox values and the monarch has always been the Anointed of the Lord," says Alexander Fomin of the All-Russian Monarchist Center.
As the centenary of the abdication of the last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II, approaches, Liadan Hynes traces the story of the tsar and his wife - from their meeting as teenagers to their execution at the hands of the secret police.
Mikhail Rodzianko is credited as the man who persuaded Nicholas II to abdicate. A century later, his descendants struggle with his legacy. Modern-day conservatives and nationalists blame “traitors” for the events of 1917 that led to the destruction of the Russian Empire — and Rodzianko is one of their targets.
The 100th anniversary of the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, has attracted little notice. It is the opinion of most historians that Nicholas was a failure: feckless, dimwitted, reactionary—and henpecked to boot. But as Robert Massie makes clear in his admirable biography, Nicholas and Alexandra, the real Nicholas was more complex, more human and more interesting than the caricature.
Patriarch Kirill to Prayerfully Commemorate 100th Anniversary of Tsar Nicholas II Topic: Nicholas II
The “Reigning” or “Enthroned” Icon of the Mother of God
This article was originally published by Pravoslavie.ru, on 10th March 2017.
The centenary of the abdication from the throne of the holy Royal Martyr Tsar Nicholas II will be marked by a Patriarchal Divine Liturgy, as established by the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church at its March 9th meeting in Moscow, reports the site of the Moscow Patriarchate.
The prayerful commemoration will take place March 15, on the anniversary of Tsar Nicholas’ stepping-down from the throne, which is also the day of the “Reigning” or “Enthroned” Icon of the Mother of God which miraculously appeared in the village of Kolomenskoye, near Moscow, on the same day as the tsar’s abdication. The appearance of the icon was perceived by the faithful as a sign that the Mother of God would protect the Russian land in the stead of the tsar, from which it takes its name.
The Reigning Icon is kept at the Kazan Church in Kolomenskoye Park where it was found, and is one of modern Russia’s main sacred objects. Patriarch Kirill is scheduled to celebrate the anniversary Liturgy in this church.
Rare Vintage Cars of the Last Russian Emperor on Display in Moscow Topic: Nicholas II
The favourite automobiles of Russia's last emperor Nicholas II are currently on display at the Sokolniki Exhibition and Convention Centre in Moscow. The exhibit is hosted by the Oldtimer-Gallery, Russia’s largest exhibition of vintage cars and technical Antiques, held twice a year in Moscow.
The exhibition dubbed The First Motors of Russia features more than 50 automobiles, motorcycles and other vehicles manufactured for the local market or used in Russia before 1917. The highlight of the exhibit is a collection of 28 automobiles from His Imperial Majesty's Personal Garage, including the favourite automobile of Russia's last Tsar Nicholas II, a French Delaunay-Belleville.
It was Prince Vladimir Nikolaevich Orlov (1868-1927), who in 1904 first drove to the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoye Selo, a Delaunay-Belleville that caught the interest of the Emperor. For many years, Prince Orlov was considered one of the most trusted men of Nicholas II’s entourage, who voluntarily served as the personal chauffeur to the imperial family.
In the early 20th century, Nicholas II took a particular interest in the new mode of transport. By 1917, his collection of 56 automobiles rivalled that of any European monarch of US president. The first garage for the Imperial fleet was built at Tsarskoye Selo, near the Alexander Palace in late 1905 - early 1906. Additional garages were constructed at Peterhof, St. Petersburg, and by the spring of 1911 at Livadia.
The exhibition The First Motors of Russia runs from March 8-12 at the Sokolniki Exhibition and Convention Centre in Moscow.
Myrhh-Streaming Bust of Tsar Nicholas II in Simferopol Topic: Nicholas II
Bust of Emperor Nicholas II at the Memorial Chapel to the Holy Royal Martyrs in Simferopol, Crimea
This article was originally published by Pravoslavie.ru, on 6th March 2017.
It has been revised and edited by Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia
Russian social media has been awash with activity this past week, over a myrhh-streaming bust of Tsar Nicholas II in Simferopol. The claim has prompted ridicule, consternation and awe in Russia. Russian Orthodox Church officials in Crimea have refuted these claims.
Deputy of the State Duma of Russia and a former Prosecutor General of the Republic of Crimea Natalia Poklonskaya and local church warden of the chapel of the Holy Royal Martyrs in Simferopol have reported about a myrrh-streaming bust of Tsar Nicholas II at the parish, reports pravoslavie.fm.
Chapel warden Alexei has stated that “Natalia Vladimirovna saw the first myrrh-streaming, and I also looked but did not attach any importance to it... Then a parishioner told us that something is happening with the bust. We decided to look closer and we saw that it was the grace of God—myrrh. The rain passed and it turned out that the whole bust was covered in myrrh. Generally it’s a sign. After all, we have myrrh-streaming icons: the first myrrh-streaming icon of the Royal Family, then the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God, the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God, and others.”
On the morning of February 22, at 6:30 AM, Alexei went to the chapel as usual to pray, and while reciting the Creed he noticed that there were drops on the face of the Kazan Mother of God Icon. Others noticed it as well. It then turned out that other icons were streaming as well. Then on March 3, the warden noticed an unusual shine on the bust after a rain, finding droplets of a very different consistency from rain water, like resin that was very difficult to separate and collect.
According to Poklonskaya, people have already come to the bust with their children, looking for healing. The Russian Orthodox Church has not made any official statement on the occurrence either way.
Representatives of the Simferopol and Crimean Diocese, however, have investigated the icons in the chapel and the bust standing outside, but found no traces of the miraculous occurrence. They have called on the local priest to continue monitoring the situation.
Miraculous myrrh streaming is typically associated with icons and the relics of saints in Orthodoxy, manifesting the grace of God present in the sacred objects, and is often used for healing.
“A study of the situation connected with the statement of the State Duma Deputy about the possibility of the myrrh-streaming bust of the Tsar-Passion Bearer Nicholas II, situated near the chapel of the Holy Royal Passion Bearers… and also of several icons inside the chapel itself, was carried out on site by a commission… At the time of the visit to the chapel… traches of myrrh on the bronze bust of the Tsar-Passion Bearer Nicholas and on the icons in the chapel were not found,” reads a message of the diocesan press service.
However, to come to a final conclusion, the commission has tasked the local priest with continuing to observe the icons and bust, and to report any signs of myrrh to the bishop and commission immediately.
For more information (and photos) on the bust of Emperor Nicholas II in Simferopol, please refer to the following link:
An exhibition dedicated to the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II opened today in the foyer of the main building of the Pskov Museum-Reserve. Historic documents and photographs present the events which transpired from 28 February (O.S.) to 2 March (O.S.) 1917, which resulted in the emperor’s abdication.
It was 100 years ago, on 2 March (O.S.) / 15 March (N.S.) 1917, that Russia’s last emperor signed the act of abdication, bringing an end to the Romanov dynasty and the Russian monarchy. The abdication was signed on the Imperial train, which had been diverted to a railroad siding in the city of Pskov.
Among the exhibits is a genuine telegraph, used at the Pskov railway station to send and receive telegrams in 1917.
The exhibition runs from 2nd to 19th March 2017 in the foyer of the main building of the Pskov Museum-Reserve.
For more information on the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II, please refer to the following articles:
Exhibition: Nicholas II and His Family in Portraits by Nikos Floros Topic: Nicholas II
The Grand Palace at Tsaritsyno in Moscow is the venue for the exhibition The Family of Nicholas II in Portraits by Nikos Floros. The exhibit presents unique three dimensional portraits of the seven members of the family of Russia’s last emperor and tsar. The exhibition which was previously held in St Petersburg in June 2016, is a tribute to the family of Nicholas II by the famed Greek artist and sculptor.
The three dimensional sculptural portraits of Emperor Nicholas II, Empress Alexandra Fedorovna, Tsesarevich Alexei and the Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia, as well as a portrait of the Empress Catherine II were created by hand from aluminium in the style of surreal pop art. They represent a new technique created and patented by the artist in 2003.
The exhibition Nicholas II and His Family in Portraits by Nikos Floros runs from 1st March to 21st May 2017 in the Grand Palace at Tsaritsyno in Moscow
For more information on Nikos Floros and his tribute to Emperor Nicholas II and his family, please refer to the links below: