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Saturday, 29 April 2017
This Week in the News - The Romanovs and Imperial Russia
Topic: News


The Last Empress. Documents and Photographs exhibition opened this week in Moscow

This Week in the News is a new feature on my Royal Russia News blog. It includes a link and brief summary to a full-length article published in the past week from a variety of English language media sources.

This new initiative is a courtesy to those who do not have a Facebook account, or for some reason cannot view the Royal Russia Facebook page - now, with more than 93,000 followers from around the world!

Royal Russia is pleased to offer our dedicated followers with the following full-length articles, on a variety of topics covering the Romanov dynasty, their legacy, monarchy, and the history of Imperial and Holy Russia, for the week ending 29 April 2017:


In pictures: St Petersburg’s Winter Palace ransacked after the Bolshevik Revolution

Images from the archives of the Hermitage museum are on show at London's Calvert 22 Foundation for one weekend only. 

Russian Czar’s mansion in Turkey to be restored for tourism

A historic mansion in the Sarikamis district, which served as mansion to the last Russian Czar Nicholas II for hunting tours, will be restored and turned into a boutique hotel, the governor of Turkey's eastern Kars province told local media representatives.

The mansion was built in 1896, after Kars fell under Russian occupation as a consequence of the Russian-Ottoman war of 1877-1878. Although it is locally known as "Catherine's Mansion" it had been destined as a health resort for Nicholas' sick son Alexei, and generally served as a recreational ground and hunting facility for the Russian czar and his family.

From the editor: I did some digging through the Russian newspapers about the hunting lodge. An article in HA REGNUM notes that the hunting lodge was built in the years 1900-1902 (in another version, in 1894-1895). The article claims that Nicholas II visited Russian troops stationed in the Caucasus in December 1914, and stayed at the hunting lodge.

The article also discusses a theory that one of the doctors had advised the Imperial family to bring Alexei to Kars, with the hope that the dervishes could help find a way to cure his haemophilia. They add that some historians have even suggested that Alexei was smuggled into the hunting residence for rehabilitation in 1914. This would pad the secrecy theory, however, there is no evidence to support it—Paul Gilbert 

St. Petersburg's 3 oldest hotels and their famous guests

St. Petersburg has a number of hotels more than a century old, but only three of them – the Grand Hotel Europe, Hotel d'Angleterre and Astoria – have managed to keep their original names, along with plenty of stories about the celebrities who stayed there.

From the Editor: On a more personal note . . . back in the 1990s, when I used to offer an annual Romanov tour to Russia, our groups stayed in either the Astoria or Angleterre Hotels. The rates back then were affordable, today they cater only to the rich and famous—Paul Gilbert


The Last Empress. Documents and Photographs Exhibition opened today (27 April) in the Exhibition Hall of the State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF) in Moscow.

The exhibition is dedicated to the 25th anniversary of the Russian Federation and the 25th anniversary of the State Archive. The exhibit presents a variety of multimedia from other archival sources, including photographs, letters, diaries, drawings, of Alexandra and her family, as well as vintage newsreels.
The Head of the Russian Imperial House HIH Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna attended a special preview yesterday (26 April).

The Head of the Russian Imperial House HIH Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna arrived in Moscow on 26 April

Yesterday, Her Imperial Highness attended the preview of 'The Last Empress. Documents and Photographs Exhibition' in the Exhibition Hall of the State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF) in Moscow.

In this interview with Channel "360" News, Her Imperial Highness shares her impressions on the exhibition, as well as the controversy surrounding the film 'Mathilda'.

On 29 April, Her Imperial Highness will visit the New Jerusalem Monastery in Istra.

Glinka's 'Life for the Tsar', Finale 'Glory'

Take a moment to watch and listen to this absolutely brilliant performance, performed by the Mikhailovsky Theatre Orchestra and Choir conducted by maestro Aleksey Karabanov, on 6 March, 2013, in the State Hermitage Museum, Saint-Petersburg. 

Disclaimer: the links published on this page are for information purposes only, and may not reflect the opinions of Paul Gilbert and/or Royal Russia.


Posted by Paul Gilbert at 10:00 PM EDT
Updated: Sunday, 30 April 2017 6:57 AM EDT
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Memorial Apartments of Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich in St. Petersburg
Topic: Constantine Constantinovich, GD

Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich (1858-1915)
This article was researched from Russian media sources and written by Paul Gilbert, Founder of Royal Russia © 2017

Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich (1858-1915) was an accomplished Russian poet, who wrote under the nom de plume K. R. and was an excellent translator of Goethe, Schiller and Shakespeare’s works. He was the son of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich (1827-1892), a grandson of Emperor Nicholas I, and also a senator and a president of the Academy of Sciences. He inherited the Marble Palace in 1888. During his time there the Marble Palace became the centre of cultural life in the capital. Musical evening parties were held in the rooms of the palace. Intellectuals of the capital (Afanasy Fet, Apollon Maikov, Anton Rubinstein, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, etc.) gathered there, read and discussed the best works by foreign and Russian writers, staged performances in which Konstantin Konstantinovich, his wife Grand Duchess Elizabeth Mavrikeyevna and their children took part. 

The rooms which were designed in the 1880s–1900s, were miraculously spared during the turbulent years of revolution and war in the 20th century. During the Soviet era, the palace successively housed the Ministry of Labour (1917–19), the Academy of Material Culture (1919–36), and, most notably, the main local branch of the Moscow-based Central (i.e. National) Lenin Museum (1937–91)  and only in 1992 was transferred to the Russian Museum. In 1998, the Memorial Apartments of Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich opened in the original interiors located on the ground floor of the palace facing Millionnaya Street. 

The Working Study of Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich (above and below).

The Library of Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich. Photo © FRITZ VON DER SCHULENBURG  

The Gothic Music Room of Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich (above and below).


The Working Study of Konstantin Konstantinovich is the main room of his private apartments, one which reflect the Grand Duke’s personal tastes. The walls are covered with gilded Spanish leather wallpaper bearing the Romanov coat-of-arms, the ceiling is decorated with mahogany, and oak parquet floors. A secret door hides the personal chapel of the August poet. Konstantin was a very religious man - the existence of the chapel next to his desk was not a whim, but a spiritual need. Every day an icon of a saint, who was worshiped on this day was brought to the chapel from the house church of the Marble Palace, which was located on the third floor. Some of these icons can be seen today in the grand duke’s hidden chapel. Grand Duke Konstantin was the only person who used the chapel, no one else in the household was permitted to enter it, not even his children. Konstantin and Elizabeth had nine children - six sons and three daughters. Their photos - along with portraits of his wife and mother - decorate the shelves in the office of the poet.

The Library features open shelves of cabinets filled with old books on science, literary and theater magazines, dictionaries and art albums. It was in this room, that the Grand Duke kept only those books which he needed at hand, for engaging in literature, or in preparation for meetings of the Academy of Sciences.

Between the office and the library is the Music Room. The walls here are also decorated with leather wallpaper and oak wood paneling. The Gothic design was not just a fad, but a reflection of the personal taste of the owner. He traveled extensively, taking an interest in European architecture the German Gothic style in particular.

This small room is decorated throughout with oak wood paneling. The shelves and walls are adorned with icons, Easter eggs and portraits of loved ones. Previously, on the wall hung a large icon of St. Constantine. One of the carved panels of the Gothic room has a secret door. It leads into the inner corridor, which connects the apartments with the private bathroom of Konstantin Konstantinovich. 

The Memorial Apartments of Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich in the Marble Palace consist of seven rooms: a vestibule, Library, Music Room, Working Study, Reception Room, Large living room, and Small Lounge (part of the private apartments of Grand Duchess Elizabeth Mavrikeyevna). Entry is gained through an inner courtyard (see above photo), situated directly to the left of the main entrance to the palace museum. Admission is 600 Rubles ($10 USD), and worth every Ruble!

© Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia. 29 April, 2017


Posted by Paul Gilbert at 4:00 PM EDT
Updated: Saturday, 29 April 2017 4:18 PM EDT
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St Petersburg's Landmark Cathedral to Get Patriarchal Status
Topic: Russian Church

Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Kirill I arrives at St Isaac’s Cathedral to deliver a Divine Liturgy in 2009
This article was originally published by the TASS News Agency on 28 April 2017

The status of the Patriarchal Cathedral that St Petersburg’s landmark Cathedral of St Isaac may get after its transfer to the administrative control of the Russian Orthodox Church will impart special spiritual significance to it, Alexander Volkov, the press secretary of the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Kirill I told TASS on Thursday.

He said that His Holiness Kirill would take on the role of the father superior of the cathedral if the transfer did take place.

"If you take a possible form of administration at the St Isaac’s after its transfer then I think this particular form (the Patriarchal Cathedral) will be correct for this particular cathedral from the point of view of both Petersburg and the entire country," the Rev Volkov said. "The patriarchal status will give it special significance from the standpoint of its place in the Church."

He recalled that several other churches in Russia had this status and the decades of application of such administrative patterns had proved their efficacious nature.

"The boldest instance in this case is the Cathedral of the Savior in Moscow," the Rev Volkov said. "It has a special place in the life of the Russian Church and of our entire society, as all the key events take place there."

"The Cathedral of the Savior is the center of Russia’s spiritual life and it’s only natural that the Supreme Hierarch of the Church leads services there quite often - the fact that many believers also find to be very important," he said.

The Rev Volkov recalled that all the proprietary and financial issues related to the Cathedral of the Savior fell into the realm of powers of the Board of Trustees the Cathedral’s Fund.
Kirill I makes several trips a year to St Petersburg, his native city. The next visit is to take place on April 30.

The main item on Kirill I’s agenda during this trip will be to venerate the memory of his spiritual teacher, the late Metropolitan Nikodim of Leningrad and Novgorod (b. 1929, d.1978), and to lead a liturgy in the Holy Trinity Cathedral of the city’s biggest monastery, the Laura of St Alexander of the Neva.

His Holiness will not visit the St Isaac’s that has turned into a centerpiece of red-hot public debates in Russia society after the decision of St Petersburg Governor, Georgy Poltavchenko, to turn it over to the Russian Church. "A visit there is off the Patriarch’s agenda now," the Rev Volkov said.

He did not confirm a report by the RBC news agency that the official transfer of the cathedral on Russia Day, a national holiday marked on July 12. "I’ll refrain from saying anything about specific dates because they are the subject of our contacts with the appropriate state authorities," he said.
"I think any date on which the transfer will take place will be a really good day," the Rev Volkov said.

The compound of the St Isaac’s cathedral is owned by the government of St Petersburg. Simultaneously, the cathedral enjoys protection at the federal level, while UNESCO has placed it on the world heritage list.

© TASS News Agency. 29 April. 2017


Posted by Paul Gilbert at 2:08 PM EDT
Updated: Saturday, 29 April 2017 2:16 PM EDT
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Cyrille Boulay Offers Russian Imperial and European Royal Treasures in Cannes Auction
Topic: Auctions


The Cyrille Boulay Auction House will host two auctions on 19th and 20th May 2017 in Cannes, France, offering yet another magnificent selection of Russian works of art with an Imperial Provenance, as well as European royal treasures.

The first auction on 19th May will feature items from the Marquis Collection of Giuseppe de Morpurgo (1816-1898), a wealthy banker and politician from Trieste, he was a member of the Imperial Council of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the second half of the 19th century. The collection includes items of the Bourbon-Orléans-Napoleon families, the French nobility, and other royal families.
Of particular note are items of the Austrian Imperial family, the Habsburgs. Among these are personal items of Empress Elizabeth "Sisi", porcelain items from the service of Archduchess Stephanie, photographs, and more.

The second auction on 20th May will items of the Russian Imperial Family. Of particular note are Fabergé items, a collection of 27 colour lithographs of the Coronation of Emperor Alexander III in 1883, as well as works of art, militaria, icons, photographs, and more.

Fabergé frame with photograph of Emperor Alexander II, 1894

© Oliver Coutau-Begarie / Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia. 29 April. 2017


Posted by Paul Gilbert at 9:00 AM EDT
Updated: Saturday, 29 April 2017 10:00 AM EDT
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Friday, 28 April 2017
Exhibition: Silvio Dagnini. the Architect, the Artist, the Builder
Topic: Alexander Palace

Silvio Dagnini (1867–1942) was the last court architect of the Alexander Palace
Photo © Tsarskoye Selo State Museum Preserve
From 25 April to 30 December 2017 a display room near the Third Antechamber of the Catherine Palace hosts the architect Silvio Dagnini’s 150th anniversary exhibition titled Silvio Dagnini: the Architect, the Artist, the Builder.

Silvio Dagnini (1867–1942) was the last court architect of the Romanovs. His work at Tsarskoye Selo included renovations of Nicholas’ and Alexandra’s rooms in the Alexander Palace, a tunnel connecting the palace and the Kitchen Building, and the surviving wrought-iron gate to the palace from Dvortsovaya Street.

The exhibition presents over fifty objects from the Dagnini family holdings
Photo © Tsarskoye Selo State Museum Preserve
The exhibition presents over fifty objects from the Dagnini family holdings such as a card table by the architect’s design and his personal arm chair, writing accessories, photographs and mandolin. A rare exhibit is the Red Cross badge, instituted in 1899 by the Red Cross Community for those who showed exceptional service to the Community, and awarded to Dagnini on 14 November 1914.    

Supplemented from the collection of Tsarskoye Selo are Dagnini’s designs marking the main periods of his professional life. His technical drawings of the building for the Red Cross Sister Community of Tsarskoye Selo are especially noteworthy, as well as a chair from the furniture set of the Alexander Palace’s Semi-Circular Hall. Its design was personally approved by Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. The chair was produced by Fyodor Meltzer’s factory, whose craftsmen created most of the furniture for the palace.

Dagnini’s drawing for the surviving wrought-iron gate to the palace from Dvortsovaya Street
Photo © Tsarskoye Selo State Museum Preserve
© Tsarskoye Selo State Museum Preserve. 28 April, 2017


Posted by Paul Gilbert at 7:21 PM EDT
Updated: Friday, 28 April 2017 7:39 PM EDT
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Thursday, 27 April 2017
Ivan the Terrible Statue in Russian Town Confiscated Within One Hour
Topic: Ivan IV, Tsar

Monument to Tsar Ivan IV in Alexandrov
This article was originally published in The Moscow Times on 27 April 2017

A statue of Ivan the Terrible installed in a central Russia town was removed just one hour after it was erected, the Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper has reported.

The statue was installed in Aleksandrov on April 27 ahead of schedule by individuals claiming to be the foundation’s representatives, Elena Shulga, deputy head of Alexandrov district, told the newspaper. 

The monument commemorating the infamous Russian tsar was paid for by donations collected by the conservative Russki Vityaz foundation. Its sculptor, Vasili Selivanov, said the monument was installed to see if “everything fit.”

“We checked if he [the pedestal] was right, and decided to mount the tsar on it so that everything would be okay during the ceremony, and there will be no setbacks. Then we went for lunch,” said Selivanov, “When we got back, the statue was already gone!"

 It later transpired the statue had been confiscated by the city administration and placed under the guard of the municipal authorities because it was installed ahead of its planned unveiling and without documentation.

Ivan the Terrible lived in Aleksandrov for three months at the end of 1564. It was here he initiated a government policy called Oprichnina, where black-clad security forces spied on and terrorized members of the political opposition. 

The statue of Ivan the Terrible in Alexandrov would have been the second monument to the first Russian tsar. Another monument was installed in late 2016 in Oryol.

Although a controversial historical figure, Ivan the Terrible played a key role in forming the modern Russian state and expanding its territories into modern-day Kazan.

© The Moscow Times. 27 April, 2017


Posted by Paul Gilbert at 4:07 PM EDT
Updated: Thursday, 27 April 2017 4:11 PM EDT
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Wednesday, 26 April 2017
Boris Yeltsin Had Plans to Demolish Lenin's Mausoleum and Restore Monarchy
Topic: Bolsheviks

In 1998 President Boris Yeltsin (left) ordered Sergey Vadimovich Stepashin (right) to demolish Lenin's mausoleum 
During an interview with Istorik magazine earlier this week, former Russian prime minister Sergey Vadimovich Stepashin, claims that in 1998 acting Russian president Boris Yeltsin gave him an order to demolish Lenin's mausoleum in Moscow's Red Square.

Stepashin chaired the Ministry of Interior from March 1998 to May 1999, and it was during his term in office that he made an official visit to England.

"When I came back, I went to his office and Yeltsin said:
"Sergey Vadimovich, I made a decision to demolish the mausoleum."
I told him: "Well, but how does it relate to the Ministry of Interior?"
"The Ministry of Interior should secure order," he answers.
"Well," I say, "I am a minister and should fulfill orders of the Chief Commander, the only thing I can't secure, Boris Nikolayevich, is that you still will be the president and I will be a minister after such a decision," Stepashin recalls. 

According to him, he started persuading Yeltsin not to demolish the mausoleum. 

"If you trust me, then please listen to me, I tell you honestly, it is not the right time. From the Christian point of view, Lenin's body should not be demonstrated. It is a sin. But it is not the right time to demolish the mausoleum. Don't do it! Doesn't it incommode you?"
Yeltsin grumbled, but listened to my arguments," Stepashin said.
Since 2007 Stepashin is the head of the revived Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society (IOPS).
Yeltsin's sympathetic interest in a restoration of the monarchy

In 1994, unconfirmed reports in the media suggested that Yeltsin also had plans to restore the monarchy in Russia. According to economist and strategist Vladimir Lvovich Kvint events would have taken the following turn: Parliament would vote for the restoration of the monarchy, or Yeltsin would organize a referendum, and the people, tired of the fighting among political leaders would agree. Yeltsin was not in favour of an absolute monarch, but a constitutional monarchy with more power than that of those in Britain and Europe. 
© Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia. 26 April, 2017


Posted by Paul Gilbert at 2:29 PM EDT
Updated: Thursday, 27 April 2017 6:34 AM EDT
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Tuesday, 25 April 2017
Last Years of the Court at Tsarskoye Selo, Volume II, 1910-1914
Topic: Books

Last Years of the Court at Tsarskoye Selo, Volume II, 1910-1914
by General Alexandre Spiridovich
I am pleased to announce that copies of Last Years of the Court at Tsarskoye Selo, Volume II by General Alexandre Spiridovitch are now available from the Royal Russia Bookshop.

General Alexandre Spiridovitch (1873-1952) served as personal security chief for the Emperor Nicholas II and his family from 1906-1916. He was also responsible for the security of the Imperial residences. Spiridovitch was a pillar of honesty and trust, articulate, and intelligent, loyal to his God, the Tsar and Mother Russia. He was truly a gentleman beyond reproach.
Like a richly painted canvas, Spiridovitch’s memoirs offer the reader a glimpse into the private world of the last tsar of Russia and his family. His personal eye witness accounts reveal details about their day-to-day lives, the Imperial residences, as well as interesting assessments of the men and women at the Russian Court, including the grand dukes and grand duchesses, as well as ministers and other officials.

In 2010, I published the first English translation of Volume I (409 pg., 59 photos) of General Spiridovitch's memoirs, which cover the years 1906-1910. 
Volume II (442 pg., 65 photos), which cover the years 1910-1914, was published by Royal Russia in the spring of 2017.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank Bruce Parker for tracking down a French edition of this volume, to Mark Strologo for permission to translate and publish his great grandfather's memoirs, and to Katherine Alexandra Hines for her dedication at taking on the monumental task of translating both volumes of 'Sasha's' memoirs, in order that they may be accessible to an English readership.
IMPORTANT! Please note that due to the conditions established in the translation and publishing agreement between Royal Russia and the copyright owner, this title is exclusive to the Royal Russia Bookshop. I regret that this title will not be available for purcahse from, or through other booksellers.

© Paul Gilbert @ Royal Russia. 25 April, 2017


Posted by Paul Gilbert at 8:27 AM EDT
Updated: Tuesday, 25 April 2017 9:20 AM EDT
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Monday, 24 April 2017
Pierre le Grand, a Tsar in France. 1717
Topic: Peter the Great

Louis XV, King of France, aged 7, welcoming Tsar Peter I of Russia, at the Tuileries Palace during his visit to France in 1717.
Artist: Gorski
The exhibition called «Peter the Great, a Tsar in France. 1717» will be on display in the Grand Trianon from 30 May to 24 September 2017. It is dedicated to Tsar Peter the Great’s trip in and around Paris in May and June 1717, and will commemorate the 300th anniversary of this diplomatic visit. The fruit of exceptional collaboration between the Palace of Versailles and the Hermitage Museum, the exhibition will present over 150 works including paintings, sculptures, decorative artworks and tapestries, as well as plans, medallions, scientific instruments, books and manuscripts, two thirds of which belong to the collections of the prestigious museum in Saint Petersburg.

 A member of the house of Romanov and son of Tsar Alexis Mikhailovich (1645-1676) and Nataliya Naryshkina (1651 – 1694), Peter I (1672-1725) embarked on a second journey to the West 20 years after the « Grand Embassy » which took him to Europe for the first time in 1697-1698. He arrived in France on 21 April 1717 and remained until 21 June. He stayed at Versailles twice and was accommodated in the Grand Trianon, from 24 to 26 May and from 3 to 11 June 1717. The exhibition visit will lead visitors step by step through the trip which, although official, nonetheless allowed a certain amount of freedom since Peter I, being little accustomed to French Etiquette and with his imposing figure and unpredictability, departed from protocol on multiple occasions. His encounter with Louis XV particularly shocked onlookers when, flouting the ceremonial custom of the court, he spontaneously took the young king, aged 7, in his arms. A number of memorialists, including Saint-Simon, the Marquis de Dangeau and Jean Buvat, left precious testimonies allowing us to retrace the journey.

 Although there were political and economic aims to the stay, such as a project for an alliance with France against Sweden and the signature of a trade agreement, the reforming Tsar and founder of modern Russia most particularly wanted to see the finest of France in order to adapt certain models for his own empire. During the two months that Peter the Great spent in Regency Paris, his visits and discussions with French people provided him with food for thought and had an influence on the works he started in 1703 in Saint Petersburg and the surrounding area.
© Château de Versailles. 25 April, 2017


Posted by Paul Gilbert at 6:44 AM EDT
Updated: Monday, 24 April 2017 7:01 AM EDT
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Saturday, 22 April 2017
This Week in the News - The Romanovs and Imperial Russia
Topic: News

Opposition to the release of the controversial film Mathilda, intensifies throughout Orthodox Russia
This Week in the News is a new feature on my Royal Russia News blog. It includes a link and brief summary to a full-length article published in the past week from a variety of English language media sources.
This new initiative is a courtesy to those who do not have a Facebook account, or for some reason cannot view the Royal Russia Facebook page - now, with more than 92,000 followers from around the world!
Royal Russia is pleased to offer our dedicated followers with the following full-length articles, on a variety of topics covering the Romanov dynasty, their legacy, monarchy, and the history of Imperial and Holy Russia, for the week ending 22 April 2017

Tsar was taken to new home and told 'Citizen Nicholas, you may enter' then he, his wife and children were shot dead

Russian revolution 100 years ago saw rule of imperial dynasty come to an undignified end as the Romanov family’s bodies were burned, dumped in mine shaft and showered in acid. Andy Lines reports in 'The Mirror'. 

The Kremlin of Rostov the Great: Last Masterpiece of medieval Russia

William Brumfield writes about this magnificent ensemble, which has remained mostly unchanged over the centuries. 

The Corpse in the Kremlin's Front Yard Tests the Strength of Putin's Faith

Simon Shuster writes in 'Time Magazine' how the Russian Orthodox Church upped the anti this week in their campaign to have Lenin's remains moved out of Red Square, a challenge which ultimately tests the strength of Russian president Vladimir Putin's faith.

Orthodox faithful believe that the tomb honors a communist who didn’t merely persecute Christians – he ordered the murder of Tsar Nicolas II, who has since been canonized as an Orthodox Saint. 

As Russian Film Row Escalates, 'Experts' Malign Looks Of Last Tsar's Lover + Trailer For Matilda (In Russian, No Subtitles)

Opponents of 'Matilda' continue to fan the flames regarding the upcoming film about an affair between the ballerina, Matilda Kshesinskaya, and the Russian Tsar Nicholas II.

Disclaimer: the links published on this page are for information purposes only, and may not reflect the opinions of Paul Gilbert and/or Royal Russia. 


Posted by Paul Gilbert at 3:33 PM EDT
Updated: Saturday, 22 April 2017 3:58 PM EDT
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