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Human Osteology

Short Note







Important terms used in



Normal anatomical position:

A human being in standing position with palms facing forward


Median saggital plane:

This is an imaginary line which divides the body into two equal left and right parts.


Para median plane:

Any line which is parallel to median saggital plane and which divide the body into two parts.


Coronal plane:

This is an imaginary line which divides the body into two anterior and posterior parts.


Lateral and medial:

Two structures present on one side of median siggatal plane, the one close to the line is medial and the one away is lateral.


Interior and posterior:

Two structures present in our body and the one which is forward is as anterior while the second one as posterior.

Palmer and dorsal surfaces:

In hand the surface of palm is called palmer surface while the other surface is called dorsal surface.


Planter and dorsal surfaces:

The sole of foot is known as planter surface while the other one is dorsal surface.


Proximal and distal:

In the limbs that structure which is near to the root of the limb is known as proximal while the other is distal


Superior and inferior:

Between two structures the one which is at the top is superior and the other is inferior.


Superficial and deep:

A structure close to the surface of the body is known as superficial while the deep structures are known as deep.


Ipsilateral and contra lateral:

When two structures are present on the same side of median siggital plane they are called ipsilateral, and when one is present on the one side and other on the opposite side we call it contra lateral.


Supine and prone position:

In supine position the human body is lying straight, while in prone position body is lying on apposite side so that abdomen and chest is lying bed.



When two or more then two bones combine with each other, they form joint.



In limbs, flexion is that movement in which angle of joint decreases.



In limbs, extension is that movement in which the angle of joint increase.


Lateral flexion:

This movement occurs at the vertebral column and the body tied towards a side



In this movement the structure in moved away from the midline.



In this movement the structure is brought toward the midline.



In this movement the structure moves around its long axis.





Pronation of forearm:

In pronation the forearm is moved away in which the palmer surface is rotated to the position of dorsal surface and vice versa.


Supination of forearm:

This is the reverse movement of pronation.



This is the combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction.


Protration of the lower jaw:

This is slight forward movement of the lower jaw.


Retraction of the lower jaw:

This is the slight backward movement of the lower jaw.


Inversion of foot:

This is the rotation of foot towards medial side


Eversion of foot:

This is rotation of foot towards lateral side.

Opposition of little finger and thumb:

When little finger and thumb are brought towards each other.



These are connective tissues. Regarding histology bones are composed of

  • Matrix
  • Osteocyte
  • Fibrils


Function of bones:

The functions of bones are:

  • Movement
  • Protection
  • Blood cells formation
  • Storage of minerals like Ca++, PO4Ö


Types of bones:

  • Compact bones:

These are solid bones like shaft of long bones.

  • Cancellus or spongy bones:

Trabeculi are present in these bones. Ends of long bones are examples of cancellous or spongy bone.




Classification of Bones:


1.      According to shape of bones:

         Long bones

         Short bones

         Flat bones

         Irregular bones

         Sesamoid bones


Long bones:

These are present in the limbs. Their length is more then width and it has two parts

  • Diaphysis
  • Epiphysis



Epiphysial cartilage:

Itís present at the junction of epiphysis and diaphysis. Bone Growth takes place here.

Marrow cavity:

Itís present in long bones which contain bone marrow.


Short bones:

These bones are present in hands and feet these bones are cubiodal in shape short bones are covered by periosteum.


Flat bones:

These bones are flat in shape. Flat bones have two layers of compact bone with inner spongy bones. These inner and outer layers are known as tables while the inside spongy bone is known as diploe. Skull bones are examples.


Irregular bones:

These bones are irregular in shape. Examples are vertebral and pelvic bones.


Sesamoid bones:

These bones are small module like, patella is the largest sesamoid bone in our body


2.      Regional classification of bones

Axial Skeleton:

  • Skull
  • Cranium 8 bones
  • Face 14 bones
  • Auditory 6 bones
  • Hyoid 1 bone


Vertebra 26 bones

Ribs 24 bones

Shoulder Girdle

  • Scapula 2 bones
  • Clavicle 2 bones


Upper limbs

  • Humerus 2 bones
  • Ulna 2 bones
  • Radius 2 bones
  • Carpal 16 bones
  • Metacarpal 10 bones
  • Phalanges ( phalanx) 28 bones


Lower limbs

  • Femur 2 bones
  • Patella 2 bones
  • Fibula 2 bones
  • Tibia 2 bones
  • Tarsal 14 bones
  • Meta tarsal 10 bones
  • Phalanges 28 bones


Development of bones

It occurs†† by two methods:


Endochandreal method:

In this method first cartilage is formed which is then converted to bone, or one is formed form this cartilage.

E.g. limbs bone formation.


Membranous method:

In this method bone is directly formed.

e.g. Skull bones.


Hip bone

These are tow in number left and right. These bones form inferior and lateral walls of pelvic girdle. Hip bone is an irregular bone. It has 3 parts which are:


  • Ileum
  • Pubis or pubic bone
  • Ischium


All these 3 bones unite at acetabulum


It forms the upper expended part of hipbone. And its lower end form 2/5 of acetabulum

Parts of ileum:

It has the following parts:

o        Upper end

o        Lower end

o        Surfaces

o        Borders

Upper end of ileum:

Its also known as iliac crest. Itís convex in upper direction while concave in the anterior part and convex in the posterior part from medial side. Its anterior end form anterior superior iliac spine and its posterior end form posterior superior iliac spine.

Lower end of ileum:

Its lower end is fused with acetabulum and it form 2/5 of acetabulum.

Borders of ileum:

o        Anterior border

o        Posterior border

o        Medial border

Anterior inferior iliac spine is present on anterior border while posterior inferior iliac spine is present on posterior border.

Surfaces of ileum:

Ileum has three surfaces:

o        Gluteal surface

o        Iliac surface

o        Sacropelvic surface

Pubis or Pubic bone:

It forms the anterioinferior part of the hip bone. Itís fused in acetabulum with ischium and ileum.

Parts of pubic bone:

o        Body

o        Superior ramus

o        Inferior ramus

Body of pubis:

Its superior part s known as superior crest, the medial end of pubic crest is known as pubic tubercle it has three surfaces:

o        Medial surface or symphsal surface

o        Anterior surface

o        Posterior surface

Superior ramus of pubis:

It has 3 borders and three surfaces these are

o        Inferior border

o        Superior border

o        Anterior border


o        Pelvis surface

o        Pectineal surface

o        Obturator surface


This part of hip bone is located at posterioinferior part. It forms 2/5 of acetabulum. It has the following parts:

o        Body

o        Ramus

Body of ischium has 2 ends and 3 borders and 3 surfaces

Ends of ischium:

Ischium body has upper and lower ends.

Borders of ischium:

Ischium body has 3 borders which are anterior, posterior and lateral

Surfaces of ischium:

Ischium body has 3 surfaces which are pelvic, femoral and dorsal surfaces. Dorsal surface is also known as ischial tubrosity.

Conjoined ramus:

Inferior ramus of pubis and ramus of ischium are comboinely known as conjoined ramus

It has two borders

o        Upper border

o        Lower border

And two surfaces

o        Outer

o        Inner


This is a cup shaped cavity present on lateral surface of hip bone. Margins of acetabulum are deficient inferiorly and this gap is known as acetabular notch. This notch is over bridged by transverse ligament.

Acetabular surface is divided into two parts:

  • Articular surface, also called lunate surface
  • Non articular surface, also known as, acetabular fossa.

2/5 of acetabulum is formed by ileum. 2/5 is formed by ischium and 1/5 is formed by Pubis. Acetabular margins are deepened by a fibrocartilagenous Rim which is known as acetabular labrum.


Obturator Foramen:

This is a large gap in hip bone. Itís covered by obturator membrane except at Obturator groove.


Difference between Male & Female Hip bone:

  • Greater Sciatic Notch is 75 degree in female while 50 degrees in male.
  • Acetabulum is larger in males
  • Curvature of Iliac Crest is more Prominent in female.
  • Iliac fossa is deeper in males.
  • Pubic crest is shorter in males
  • Ischial spine are inverted in males
  • Obturator foramen is larger and oval in male





This is the longest and strongest bone of human.


Side determination of femur:

  • Head is directed upward
  • Head is medially directed
  • Shaft is convex anteriorly.


Upper End of femur:

Upper end has the following parts:

  • Head
  • Neck
  • Greater Trochanter
  • Lesser Trochanter
  • Inter trochanteric line
  • Inter trochanteric crest



It form more then a half of a sphere

Head articulate with acetabulum and form hip joint. There is a central depression known as fovea.



It connects Head with the shaft. Its length is 1.5 inches. Neck shaft angel is 125 Degrees. Neck has two borders which are upper and lower and two surfaces which are anterior and posterior.


Greater trochanter:

This is a quadrangular elevation at the upper end.

It has three surfaces, anterior lateral and medial. On medial surface there is a depression known as trochanteric fossa.


Lesser Trochanter:

This is a conical prominence at the upper end.


Inter trochanteric line:

Anteriorly greater and lesser trochanters are connected by a line known as inter trochanteric line.

Inter trochanteric crest:

This is a crest present between two trochanters posteriorly.


Shaft of femur:

This is cylindrical on cross section for anatomical study we divided it into:

  • Upper 1/3
  • Middle 1/3
  • Lower 1/3


Middle 1/3:

In the middle 1/3 it has 3 borders which are lateral, medial, and posterior. Posterior border is also known as linea aspera. It has 3 surfaces which are anterior, lateral, and medial.


Upper 1/3:

In the upper 1/3 the linea aspera is divided into two lines and an extra posterior surface is formed.


Lower 1/3:

In the lower 1/3 again the linea aspera is divided into two lines and an extra posterior surface is formed which is known as popliteal fossa.

Lower end of femur:

Lower end of femur is divided into two condyles:

         Lateral condyle

         Medial condyle


Lateral condyle:

This is in more alignment with the shaft. It has a prominence known as lateral epicondyle.


Medial condyle:

Itís on medial side and has a prominence on medial surface known as medial epicondyle


Articular surface:

This surface is divided into patellar and tibial parts:


Inter condyler fossa/ notch:

This is a deeper notch present posteriorly and separate lateral and medial condyles.




This is discontinuity in the cortical part of bone. It is presented by (#) sign.


Vassa vasora:

They are small vessels that provide nutrients for other vessels of the body.


Vassa Nervosm:

They are small vessels that provide nutrients for the Nerves in our body.




This is the largest sesamoid bone of our body, present beneath the tendon of quadriceps muscle. It alters the direction of force for movements and decreases the friction

Location of patella:

It is located in front of lower end of femur 1cm above the knee joint.

Shape of patella:

Itís triangular in shape.

Side determination of patella:

  • Apex is directed downward.
  • An anterior surface is rough and non- articular.
  • Posterior surface is articular.

Parts of Patella:

It has 3 borders and 2 surfaces.



  • Lateral border
  • Superior border
  • Medial border.


  • Anterior
  • Posterior.


Anterior surface:

Itís rough and non articular.


Posterior surface:

Lower ľ of posterior surface is non articualr while upper ĺ are articular, articular surface is divided into larger lateral part and smaller medial part.




In the leg we have two bones, larger one is tibia which is laying medially.


Side determination of Tibia:

  • Upper end is larger
  • Lower end form medial malleolus
  • Anterior border form shin.


Parts of Tibia:

  • Upper end
  • Shaft
  • Lower end


Upper end of Tibia:

This is the expanded part it has following parts:

  • Medial condyle
  • Lateral condyle
  • Intercondyler area
  • Tibial tubrosity


Medial condyle:

It is larger than lateral condyle and it has 4 surfaces, which are medial, anterior, posterior and superior. Superior surface is articular.


Lateral condyle:

It has an articular surface for articulation with lateral condyle of femur. Lateral condyle has a surface on its lateral aspect for articulation with fibula.


Intercondyler Area:

Itís a small area between superior surfaces of medial and lateral condyles. It is narrow in its middle part. It has an eminence known as intercondyler eminence.


Tibial Tubrosity:

This is an elevated part on anterior aspect of upper end of tibia. It has an upper smooth part and lower rough part. In the junction between these two parts, epiphyseal line passes.



Shaft of tibia has 3 borders and 3 surfaces



  • Anterior
  • Lateral
  • Medial



  • Lateral
  • Medial
  • Posterior


Anterior border:

It extends form tibial tubrosity to anterior aspect of medial malleolus. It form shin.


Lateral border:

Itís also known as interosseos border.


Lateral surface:

Itís present between anterior and lateral borders.


Medial surface:

This is present between anterior and medial borders. It forms the subcutaneous part.


Posterior surface:

Its present between lateral and medial borders, wide in upper part, it has an oblique line in the upper part known as soleal line. Soleal line divides the posterior part into a triangular upper part and an elongated lower part.


Lower end of Tibia:

Its smaller then the upper end. It has five surfaces:

  • Anterior
  • Posterior
  • Inferior
  • Lateral
  • Medial


Medial Malleolus:

This is a strong small process which extends from medial side of lower end of tibia.



This is the smaller bone of leg. It lies laterally.



Side determination of Fibula:

  • Upper end is expended in all directions
  • Lower end forms lateral malleolus.
  • It has a sharp anterior border and a blunt posterior border.


Parts of Fibula:

  • Upper end
  • Shaft
  • Lower end.


Upper end of Fibula:

It is expended in all directions. It has a circular facet for articulation with the tibia. It has an apex known as styliod process.


Lower end of Fibula:

It form lateral malleolus

It has four surfaces which are:

  • Anterior
  • Posterior
  • Lateral
  • Medial


Shaft of Fibula:

Shaft of fibula has 3 borders and 3 surfaces:



  • Anterior
  • Posterior
  • Medial, this is also known as interosseous border.



  • Lateral surface
  • Medial surface.
  • Posterior surface.


Medial surface:

Its present between anterior and medial borders itís narrow in the upper half.


Lateral surface:

Itís present between anterior and posterior borders.


Posterior surface:

Itís present between posterior and medial borders. Itís divided into tow parts by a medial crest.


Tarsal bones Or Tarsus bones

These bones are located in the ankle region. These bones are seven in number. These are as follows:

  • Calcaneum
  • Talus
  • Cuboid bone
  • Navicular
  • Medial Cuneiform bone
  • Intermediate cuneiform bone.
  • Lateral cuneiform bone.


Meta tarsal bones

These bones connect tarsal bones with phalanges. Meta tarsal bones are five in number. One for each toe. First metatarsal bone connects big toe with tarsal bone.


Phalanges (phalanx)

Phalanges are bones of toes. These bones are small in size they are 14 in number. Big toe has tow phalanges while the rest toes have three phalanges for each toe.

The joint formed between metatarsal bone and phalanges is known as Meta tarsophalangeal joint. There are two interphalangeal joints proximal and distal.



Clavicle is a long bone. It connects upper limbs with the trunk.


Parts of clavicle:

  • Lateral end or Acromial end.
  • Medial end or Sternal end
  • Shaft.


Lateral end of clavicle:

This is also known as acromial end. Itís flattened from the above downward. It form acromiclavicular joint with the acromion process.


Medial end of clavicle:

Its also known as sternal end. Itís rounded and it form sternoclavicular joint with the sternum. It has an articular facet for articulation with the first rib.



Shaft of clavicle:

Anatomically its divided into two parts:

  • Medial 2/3
  • Lateral 1/3


Lateral 1/3 of the shaft:

This part is flat. It has two borders and two surfaces. The two borders are anterior and posterior and two surfaces are superior and inferior.


Medial 2/3 of shaft:

Medial 2/3 is round. It has 4 surfaces which are:

  • Anterior
  • Posterior
  • Superior
  • Inferior


Side determination of clavicle:

  • Lateral end is flat and medial end is round.
  • There is a groove on inferior surface.
  • Medial part of shaft is convex anteriorly while lateral part is concave anteriorly.



Scapula is flat bone of shoulder girdle


Parts of scapula:

It has two surfaces, 3 borders, 3 angles and 3 processes


Surfaces of scapula:

There are two surfaces of scapula they are:

  • Costal surface
  • Dorsal surface


Costal surface:

Itís concave and there are ridges on this surface.


Dorsal surface:

Spine of scapula divided it into two parts:

  • Supraspinatus fossa.
  • Infraspinatus fossa.


Both these parts are connected with each other by spinoglenoid notch.


Borders of scapula:

Scapula has 3 borders which are:

  • Superior
  • Lateral
  • Medial


Superior border:

This border is thin and has suprascapular notch.


Lateral border:

This border is thick and there is infraglenoid tubercle present at upper end.



Medial border:

Medial borer is thin


Angles of scapula:

Scapula has 3 angles these are:

  • Superior angle
  • Inferior angle
  • Lateral angel or glenoid fossa


Processes of scapula:

Scapula has 3 processes they are:

  • Spine of scapula
  • Acromion process
  • Coracoid process


Spine of scapula:

This is a triangular process, it has 3 borders, and 2 surfaces. Its posterior border is thick and form crest of spine.



Acromion process:

This is an elongated process.

It has two borders, lateral and medial, and has two surfaces which are superior and inferior.


Coracoid process:

This process is present superior to glenoid fossa and is directed laterally and forward.


Side determination of scapula:

  • Lateral angle is glenoid fossa.
  • Dorsal surface has a spine.
  • Lateral border is thick and has infraglenoid tubercle.


Humerus is the only bone of arm. It has the following parts:

  • Upper end
  • Shaft
  • Lower end


Upper end of humerus:

Upper end has the following parts:

  • Head
  • Anatomical neck
  • Surgical neck
  • Greater tubercle
  • Lesser tubercle
  • Intertubercular sulcus ( Bicipatal groove)



It forms less then a half of a sphere. It articulates with scapula to form shoulder joint.


Anatomical Neck:

This is a line which separate head from rest of upper end.



Surgical neck:

This is a line which separate upper end from shaft.


Lesser tubercle:

Itís an elevation present on anterior aspect of upper end.


Greater Tubercle:

This is another elevation on lateral side.


Inter tubercular sulcus or bicipatal groove:

This is a groove present between lesser and greater tubercle on anterior side.

Shaft of humerus:

Shaft has 3 borders and 3 surfaces:



  • Anterior border
  • Medial border
  • Lateral border.



  • Anteriomedial surface
  • Anteriolateral surface
  • Posterior surface.


Anteriomedial surface:

This surface is present between medial and anterior borders. Its upper part is formed by bicipatal groove.


Anteriolateral surface:

This surface is present between anterior and lateral borders in the middle part this surface has a tubrosity known as deltoid tubrosity. Radial groove is present for radial nerve.



Posterior surface:

This surface is present between medial and lateral borders. Radial nerve also passes through this surface.


Lower end of humerus:

This end is divided into two parts:

  • Medial condyle.
  • Lateral condyle.


Lower end has two types of surfaces:

  • Articular surface
  • Non articular surface


Articular part:

This part is divided into two parts:

  • Capitulum
  • Trochlea



Itís rounded and articulate with radial head



Its pulley shaped and articulate with ulna.


Non articular part:

It has the following parts:

  • Medial epicondyle
  • Lateral epicondyle
  • Coronoid fossa
  • Radial fossa
  • Olecranon fossa


Lateral epicondyle:

Itís present on the lateral aspect of lateral condyle.


Medial condyle:

Itís present on the medial surface of the medial condyle.


Coronoid fossa:

Itís present on anterior aspect of lower end in front of Trochlea.


Radial fossa:

Itís present in front of capitulum on anterior aspect.


Olecranon fossa:

Itís present on posterior aspect in front of trochlea.



This is one of the forearm bones. Itís the lateral bone. It form elbow joint with humerus superiorly and wrist joint inferiorly with the carpal bones.


Parts of radius:

         Upper end


         Lower end


Upper end of radius:

Upper end of radius has the following parts:

  • Head
  • Neck
  • Tubrosity



Its disk shaped, it articulate with the capitulum of humerus to participate in elbow joint formation, and also form the upper end fo ulna. Itís covered by hyaline cartilage.



This is the constricted part below the head, its covered by annular ligament.



Tubrosity is present on the medial side of upper end, it has two parts, posterior which is rough and anterior which is smooth


Shaft of radius:

It has three borders and three surfaces:


Borders of radius:

  • Anterior
  • Posterior
  • Medial


Anterior border:

Its upper half is oblique and lower half is vertical, upper oblique half is known as anterior oblique line.


Posterior border:

This border is mirror image of anterior border. The upper oblique line is known as the posterior oblique line.


Medial border:

This is the sharpest border. This border is also known as the introsseus border because interosseus membrane is attached with this border.


Surfaces of radius:

There are three surfaces on the shaft of radius. They are:

  • Anterior surface.
  • Posterior surface.
  • Lateral surface.


Lower end of radius:

Lower end is comparatively expanded. It form wrist joint with the carpal bones. It has five surfaces they are:

  • Anterior surface
  • Posterior surface
  • Lateral surface
  • Medial surface
  • Inferior surface.


The lateral surface extends inferiorly and forms Styloid Process.



Ulna is a long bone of forearm. It form elbow joint superiorly and wrist joint inferiorly.


Parts of ulna:

  • Upper end
  • Shaft
  • Lower end.


Upper end of ulna:

This end form elbow joint with humerus and superior radioulnar joint with head of radius. Upper end has the following parts:

  • Olecranon process
  • Coronoid process
  • Trochlear notch
  • Radial notch
  • Ulnar tubrosity



Olecranon process:

This process project upward and it has five surfaces they are:

  • Posterior surface.
  • Lateral surface.
  • Medial surface.
  • Superior surface.
  • Anterior surface or articular surface.


Coronoid process:

This process project anteriorly. It has four surfaces they are:

  • Medial surface
  • Lateral surface
  • Anterior surface
  • Superior surface.


Trochlear notch:

This is an articular surface for articulation with trochlea of humerus to form elbow joint.


Radial notch:

This notch is another articular surface for articulation with radial head to form superior radioulnar joint. Its present on lateral aspect of upper end.


Ulnar Tubrosity:

This tubrosity is a roughened area present on anterior aspect of upper end just inferior to coronoid process.


Shaft of ulna:

Shaft of ulna has 3 surfaces and 3 borders:


Borders of ulna:

  • Anterior border
  • Posterior border
  • Lateral border or interossous border.


Surfaces of ulna:

  • Anterior surface.
  • Posterior surface.
  • Medial surface.


Anterior surface:

This surface is present between anterior and interossous borders. Nutrient foramina are present in the upper part of this surface.




Posterior surface:

This surface is present between posterior and interossous borders.


Medial surface:

This surface is present between anterior and posterior borders.


Lower end of ulna:

Lower end of ulna form the wrist joint with the carpal bones. It has an articular facet which articulates with radius and form inferior radioulnar joint. Posteriomedial side of the lower end extends downward and form styloid process.

Carpal bones:

These bone form wrist in the upper limb. These bones are 8 in number they form wrist joint with radius and ulna proximally and carpometacarpal joint with metacarpal bones distally they are arranged in two rows proximal and distal.

Proximal row contain 4 bones which are:

  • Scaphoid
  • Lunate
  • Triquetral
  • Pisiform

Distal row contain 4 bones which are:

  • Trapezium
  • Trapezoid
  • Capitate
  • Hamate


Meta carpals

These bones are 5 in number. They form carpometacarpal joint proximally with carpal bones and metacarpophalyngeal distally with phalanges. Metacarpal bones have 3 parts:






These bones form skeleton of fingers, they are 14 in number 2 bones are present for thumb where rest of fingers contain 3 phalanges each. Phalanges form metacarpophalangeal joint proximally and interphalangeal joints distally. Thumb has a single interphalangeal joint while the remaining fingers have two interphalangeal joints which are proximal and distal interphalangeal joint.



General information about ribs:



There are 12 pairs of ribs.


Inter costal spaces:

The space between ribs is known as intercostals spaces


Obliquity of ribs:

Increases up to 9th rib and from 9th rib to 12th rib it decrease.


Length of ribs:




It Decrease from above downward.


Classification of ribs:

Ribs are divided into 2 groups

  • Typical ribs
  • A typical ribs


Typical ribs:

Ribs from 3rd to 9th are typical


Atypical ribs:

1st, 2nd, 10th, 11th, and 12th ribs are atypical ribs.


Another Classification:

True ribs:

First seven ribs are known as true ribs, these ribs are also known as vertebrosternal ribs.


False ribs:

8th, 9th, and 10th ribs are known as false ribs or vertebrocondral ribs.


Floating ribs:

11th and 12th ribs are known as floating ribs.


Typical ribs:

Form third to ninth ribs are known as typical ribs.



  • Anterior end
  • Posterior end
  • Shaft


Anterior end:

Its oval in shape, its concave and articulate with their respective cartilages.


Posterior end:

Posterior end has 3 parts they are:

  • Head
  • Neck
  • Tubercle



It has two facets, one larger and one smaller there is a crest between these two facets. Head articulate with the vertebrae.



This is the constricted part between head and tubercle. It has two surfaces anterior and posterior and two borders superior and inferior.



This is present at the junction of neck and shaft it has a medial articular part and a lateral non articular part.



Shaft has 2 surfaces and two borders



  • Outer
  • Inner



  • Superior
  • Inferior


Outer surface:

Itís directed downward and laterally


Inner Surface:

This surface is smooth. Itís covered by pleura. Inferior part of this surface has a groove known as costal groove.


Upper or superior border:

Its thick and it has tow lips which are inner and outer lips

Lower or inferior border:

This border form anterior part of costal groove.


First rib:

This rib has the following differences with typical ribs:


  • Head is round and articulate with T. vertebrae only.
  • Neck is rounded.
  • Tubercle is larger and make joint with angle of rib
  • Shaft has two surfaces which are upper surface and lower surface
  • It has two borders which are inner and outer.
  • Upper surface has grooves which are separated by scalene tubercle.


Second rib:

This rib has the following differences with typical rib:

  • Length of 2nd rib is twice of 1st rib.
  • Angle is slight
  • It has two surfaces which are outer and inner
  • Outer surface has a groove




Tenth rib:

  • Its length is very short
  • Its head has a single articular facet


11th and 12th ribs:

These ribs have the following differences with the typical rib:

  • These ribs have pointed ends
  • These ribs are short
  • Neck and tubercle are absent
  • 12th rib has no angle and costal groove.




This is flat bone. It forms anterior part of rib cage.

Parts of sternum:

  • Manubrium
  • Body
  • Xiphoid process or Xiphisternum



Length of sternum:

Its length is 17 Cm. Its length is more in males then females.



Itís the strongest part. Itís quadrangular in shape.

It has two surfaces which are Anterior and posterior and has 4 borders which are superior, inferior, right lateral and left lateral.


Anterior surface:

This surface is convex from sides.


Posterior surface:

This surface is concave.

Superior border:

This border is thick. It has a notch which is known as jugular notch or interclavicular notch. On each side there is another notch known as clavicular notch.


Inferior border:

This border form joint with the body of sternum. On anterior side there is a prominence at this junction which is known as sternal angle or angle of Louis.


Lateral borders:

Lateral border form joint with 1st costal cartilage.


Body of sternum:

This part is lying between manobrium and xiphisternum. This part has two surfaces which are anterior and posterior, two borders which are right lateral and left lateral, and two ends which are upper and lower.


Anterior surface of body:

This surface is flat and has ill defined ridges.


Posterior surface of body:

This surface is concave and has transverse lines.


Borders of body:

Body of sternum has two borders left and right lateral, these borders have joint with costal cartilages.


Upper end of body:

This end form joint with manubrium.


Lower end of body:

This end form joint with xiphisternum



Xiphisternum or Xiphoid process:

This is the lowest part of sternum. Itís the smallest part. In the early life its fibrocartilagenous and latter on it become ossified.


Vertebral column:

General features of vertebral column:



  • Spine
  • Spinal cord



Vertebral column is formed of 33 vertebrae, out of these vertebrae 7 are Cervical, 12 are thoracic, 5 are Lumber, 5 are Sacral, and 4 are Coccygeal.


Spinal nerves:

Spinal nerves arise from this column; first 7 cervical nerves arise above their corresponding vertebrae while 8th and the remaining nerves arise below their corresponding vertebrae.


Type of vertebrae:

They are divided into two types they are:

  • True or movable vertebrae.
  • False or fixed vertebrae.


Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumber vertebrae are grouped into true vertebrae, while Sacral and Coccygeal vertebrae into false vertebrae.


Inter vertebral disc:

These are cartilaginous discs present between vertebrae.



  • In males its 28 inches
  • In female its 24 inches


Intervertebral disc formed 1/5 of the total length of vertebral column.



In siggital plain two curvatures are present

  • Primary
  • Secondary



Itís present in thoracic and sacral region.



It develops later in life at cervical and lumber region.


In coronal plain:

There is a curvature at thoracic region itís convex towards right side.



This is a convex deformity posteriorly of vertebral column.



This is a convex deformity anteriorly of vertebral column.



This is a convex deformity accruing laterally.


Typical Vertebrae:

A typical vertebrae has the following parts:



This part lies anteriorly. Itís cylindrical with flat superior and inferior surfaces



These are short bars extending posteriorly from body of vertebrae. Pedicals are two in number which are left and right.



Laminae are extension from pedicals in the posteriomedial directions. Both laminae united posteriorly in the midline.


Vertebral or Neural arch:

Pedicals and laminae combinedly form vertebral or neural arch.


Vertebral foramina:

This is a foramina bounded by vertebral body and vertebral arches. Vertebral foramina of all vertebrae form a vertical canal known as vertebral canal. Spinal cord passes through this canal.


Spine or spinous process:

This is a process extending posteriorly form the junction of two laminae.


Transverse process:

These are two processes extending laterally and slightly backward from the junction of pedicale and laminae.


Superior articular process:

This process extend upward from the junction of pedicale and laminae


Inferior articular process:

This process extends inferiorly from the junction of pedical with laminae.


Superior vertebral notch:

At the junction of vertebral body with the pedical there is a narrowing of pedical which give rise to a notch known as superior vertebral notch.


Inferior vertebral notch:

Al the junction of vertebral body with the pedical inferiorly there is another notch known as inferior vertebral notch.


Intervertebral foramina:

Superior vertebral notch and inferior vertebral notch form foramina known as intervertebral foramina and spinal nerves passes through these foramina.

Thoracic Vertebrae:

Thoracic vertebrae are 12 in numbers from 2nd to 8th are typical thoracic vertebrae while 1st, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th are A-typical thoracic vertebrae.


Typical thoracic vertebrae:

These vertebrae have the following parts:



Body is heart shaped and there are two costal facets for ribs articulation.


Vertebral foramina:

It is small and circular in this case.



These are straight.


Vertebral notch:

Superior vertebral notches are shallow and inferior vertebral notches are deep.



Overlap each other from above.


Superior articular process:

This process is directed upward from the junction of pedicle and laminae.


Inferior articular process:

This process is fused with the laminae.


Transverse process:

These processes are large. Articular surface has articular facets which articulate with the tubercle of the rib.



Is long, it is directed downward and backward.


First thoracic vertebrae:

It has the following difference with thoracic vertebrae:

  • Superior vertebral notch is deep
  • Spine is thick, long and horizontal


9th and 10th Thoracic vertebrae:

These vertebrae have the following differences with the typical thoracic vertebrae:

  • There is absence of inferior costal facets


11th and 12th Thoracic vertebrae:

These two vertebrae have the following difference with the typical thoracic vertebrae:

  • These vertebrae have a large single articular costal facet.
  • Transverse processes are small and do not have any articular facet.

Lumber vertebrae

Lumber vertebrae are 5 in number. First 4 are typical lumber vertebrae while last one is atypical lumber vertebrae.


Typical lumber vertebrae:

These vertebrae have the following features:

  • Body is larger and wider. Its anterior surface has more length then posterior surface
  • Vertebral foramina are triangular in shape. Its size is larger then thoracic but smaller then cervical vertebral foramina.
  • Its short and strong
  • Its vertical and a quadrangular plate.
  • Laminae are short and thick.
  • Transverse process is thin in lumber vertebrae. Its tapering on transverse process of lumber vertebrae we have an accessory process.
  • Superior articular processes are apart from each other. On the posterior surface we have a process known as mamillary process.
  • Inferior articualr processes are lying near to each other as compare to superior articular process. There is an articular facet present on this process.


Atypical lumber vertebrae:

L5 is atypical vertebrae. This vertebra has the following features:

         Transverse process: are short, thick and strong. Transverse process is pyramidal in shape.

         Inferior articular processes and superior articular processes: the distance between these two processes is equal.

         Spine: itís shorter, smaller and round at the tip.

         Body: body of L5 vertebrae is largest vertebral body of the whole vertebral column.

         Pedicle: they are directed backward and laterally.


Cervical Vertebrae:

These vertebrae are seven in number. They are divided into two groups which are typical and atypical.


Typical cervicle vertebrae:

They are C3, C4, C4, and C6.


Atypical Cervicle vertebra:

They are C1, C2, and C7.


Cervicle vertebra 1 is also known as ATLAS, Cervicle vertebrae two is also known as AXIS, and cervicle vertebrae 7 is also known as vertebral prominence.



Typical Cervicle Vertebrae:

  • Body: is small and broader from side to side
  • Vertebral foramina: is larger and triangular.
  • Spine: is small and biffed
  • Transverse process: has a foramen which is known as foramen transversarium. Vertebral artery passes through these foramina.
  • Superior articualr process: this process has small facet which is divided backward and upward.
  • Inferior articualr process: has a facet which is directed forward and downward.


First Cervicle vertebrae (Atlas):

  • There is no body
  • There is no spine
  • There is bony ring which has anterior and posterior arches of lateral bony part.
  • Superiorly it form atlanto occipital joint and inferiorly it forms atlanto axial joint.


Second Cervicle process or Axis:

There is a process at superior aspect of body and this process usually represents the whole body. This process is known as odentoid process.


7th Cervicle Vertebrae or vertebral prominence:

  • Spine of this vertebrae is largest thatís why known as vertebral prominence.
  • Transverse process has foramen but vertebral artery does not pass through it.



This is a large triangular bone formed by fusion of 5 sacral vertebrae.


Parts of sacrum:

  • Base or upper end
  • Apex or lower end
  • Borders:
    • Superior
    • Inferior
    • Right lateral
    • Left lateral
  • Surfaces:
    • Pelvic surface
    • Dorsal surface.


This is a small triangular bone. Itís formed by fusion of coccygeal vertebrae


Parts of coccyx:

  • Base or upper end
  • Apex or lower end
  • Two surfaces:
    • Anterior
    • Posterior




Skull Bones









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Important terms used in. 2

Anatomy. 2

Normal anatomical position: 2

Median saggital plane: 2

Para median plane: 2

Coronal plane: 2

Lateral and medial: 2

Interior and posterior: 2

Palmer and dorsal surfaces: 2

Planter and dorsal surfaces: 2

Proximal and distal: 2

Superior and inferior: 2

Superficial and deep: 2

Ipsilateral and contra lateral: 2

Supine and prone position: 2

Joint: 2

Flexion: 2

Extension: 2

Lateral flexion: 2

Abduction: 2

Adduction: 2

Rotation: 2

Pronation of forearm: 2

Supination of forearm: 3

Circomduction: 3

Protration of the lower jaw: 3

Retraction of the lower jaw: 3

Inversion of foot: 3

Eversion of foot: 3

Bones: 3

Classification of Bones: 3

Development of bones. 4

Hip bone. 4

Ileum: 4

Upper end of ileum: 4

Lower end of ileum: 4

Borders of ileum: 4

Surfaces of ileum: 4

Pubis or Pubic bone: 4

Parts of pubic bone: 4

Body of pubis: 4

Superior ramus of pubis: 4

Ischium: 4

Ends of ischium: 5

Borders of ischium: 5

Surfaces of ischium: 5

Conjoined ramus: 5

Acetabulum: 5

Obturator Foramen: 5

Difference between Male & Female Hip bone: 5

Femur 6

Side determination of femur: 6

Upper End of femur: 6

Shaft of femur: 6

Note: 6

Fracture: 6

Vassa vasora: 6

Vassa Nervosm: 6

Patella. 7

Location of patella: 7

Shape of patella: 7

Side determination of patella: 7

Parts of Patella: 7

Borders: 7

Surfaces: 7

Tibia. 8

Side determination of Tibia: 8

Parts of Tibia: 8

Upper end of Tibia: 8

Shaft: 8

Lower end of Tibia: 9

Fibula. 9

Side determination of Fibula: 9

Parts of Fibula: 9

Upper end of Fibula: 9

Lower end of Fibula: 9

Shaft of Fibula: 9

Tarsal bones Or Tarsus bones. 9

Meta tarsal bones. 9

Phalanges (phalanx) 10

Clavicle. 10

Parts of clavicle: 10

Lateral end of clavicle: 10

Medial end of clavicle: 10

Shaft of clavicle: 10

Side determination of clavicle: 10

Scapula. 10

Parts of scapula: 10

Surfaces of scapula: 10

Borders of scapula: 10

Angles of scapula: 10

Processes of scapula: 11

Side determination of scapula: 11

Humerus. 11

Upper end of humerus: 11

Shaft of humerus: 12

Lower end of humerus: 12

Radius. 13

Parts of radius: 13

Upper end of radius: 13

Shaft of radius: 13

Borders of radius: 14

Surfaces of radius: 14

Lower end of radius: 14

Ulna. 14

Parts of ulna: 14

Upper end of ulna: 14

Shaft of ulna: 14

Surfaces of ulna: 15

Lower end of ulna: 15

Carpal bones: 15

Meta carpals. 16

Phalanges. 16

Ribs. 16

Number: 16

Inter costal spaces: 16

Obliquity of ribs: 16

Breadth: 16

Classification of ribs: 16

Another Classification: 16

Typical ribs: 16

First rib: 17

Second rib: 17

Tenth rib: 17

11th and 12th ribs: 17

Sternum.. 18

Parts of sternum: 18

Length of sternum: 18

Manubrium: 18

Body of sternum: 19

Xiphisternum or Xiphoid process: 19

Vertebral column: 19

Synonymous: 19

Vertebrae: 19

Spinal nerves: 19

Type of vertebrae: 19

Inter vertebral disc: 19

Length: 19

Curvatures: 19

Kyphosis: 19

Lardosis: 20

Scoliosis: 20

Typical Vertebrae: 20

Body: 20

Pedicals: 20

Laminae: 20

Vertebral or Neural arch: 20

Vertebral foramina: 20

Spine or spinous process: 20

Transverse process: 20

Superior articular process: 20

Inferior articular process: 20

Superior vertebral notch: 20

Inferior vertebral notch: 20

Intervertebral foramina: 20

Thoracic Vertebrae: 20

Typical thoracic vertebrae: 20

First thoracic vertebrae: 21

9th and 10th Thoracic vertebrae: 21

11th and 12th Thoracic vertebrae: 21

Lumber vertebrae. 21

Atypical lumber vertebrae: 21

Cervical Vertebrae: 22

Typical cervicle vertebrae: 22

Atypical Cervicle vertebra: 22

Typical Cervicle Vertebrae: 22

Sacrum.. 23

Parts of sacrum: 23

Coccyx. 23

Parts of coccyx: 23

Skull Bones. 24