A human being in standing position with palms facing forward
This is an imaginary line which divides the body into two equal left and right parts.
Any line which is parallel to median saggital plane and which divide the body into two parts.
This is an imaginary line which divides the body into two anterior and posterior parts.
Two structures present on one side of median siggatal plane, the one close to the line is medial and the one away is lateral.
Two structures present in our body and the one which is forward is as anterior while the second one as posterior.
In hand the surface of palm is called palmer surface while the other surface is called dorsal surface.
The sole of foot is known as planter surface while the other one is dorsal surface.
In the limbs that structure which is near to the root of the limb is known as proximal while the other is distal
Between two structures the one which is at the top is superior and the other is inferior.
A structure close to the surface of the body is known as superficial while the deep structures are known as deep.
When two structures are present on the same side of median siggital plane they are called ipsilateral, and when one is present on the one side and other on the opposite side we call it contra lateral.
In supine position the human body is lying straight, while in prone position body is lying on apposite side so that abdomen and chest is lying bed.
When two or more then two bones combine with each other, they form joint.
In limbs, flexion is that movement in which angle of joint decreases.
In limbs, extension is that movement in which the angle of joint increase.
This movement occurs at the vertebral column and the body tied towards a side
In this movement the structure in moved away from the midline.
In this movement the structure is brought toward the midline.
In this movement the structure moves around its long axis.
In pronation the forearm is moved away in which the palmer surface is rotated to the position of dorsal surface and vice versa.
This is the reverse movement of pronation.
This is the combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction.
This is slight forward movement of the lower jaw.
This is the slight backward movement of the lower jaw.
This is the rotation of foot towards medial side
This is rotation of foot towards lateral side.
Opposition of little finger and thumb:
When little finger and thumb are brought towards each other.
These are connective tissues. Regarding histology bones are composed of
Function of bones:
The functions of bones are:
Types of bones:
These are solid bones like shaft of long bones.
Trabeculi are present in these bones. Ends of long bones are examples of cancellous or spongy bone.
1. According to shape of bones:
∑ Long bones
∑ Short bones
∑ Flat bones
∑ Irregular bones
∑ Sesamoid bones
These are present in the limbs. Their length is more then width and it has two parts
Itís present in long bones which contain bone marrow.
These bones are present in hands and feet these bones are cubiodal in shape short bones are covered by periosteum.
These bones are flat in shape. Flat bones have two layers of compact bone with inner spongy bones. These inner and outer layers are known as tables while the inside spongy bone is known as diploe. Skull bones are examples.
These bones are irregular in shape. Examples are vertebral and pelvic bones.
These bones are small module like, patella is the largest sesamoid bone in our body
2. Regional classification of bones
Vertebra 26 bones
Ribs 24 bones
It occurs†† by two methods:
In this method first cartilage is formed which is then converted to bone, or one is formed form this cartilage.
E.g. limbs bone formation.
In this method bone is directly formed.
e.g. †Skull bones.
These are tow in number left and right. These bones form inferior and lateral walls of pelvic girdle. Hip bone is an irregular bone. It has 3 parts which are:
All these 3 bones unite at acetabulum
It forms the upper expended part of hipbone. And its lower end form 2/5 of acetabulum
Parts of ileum:
It has the following parts:
o Upper end
o Lower end
Its also known as iliac crest. Itís convex in upper direction while concave in the anterior part and convex in the posterior part from medial side. Its anterior end form anterior superior iliac spine and its posterior end form posterior superior iliac spine.
Its lower end is fused with acetabulum and it form 2/5 of acetabulum.
o Anterior border
o Posterior border
o Medial border
Anterior inferior iliac spine is present on anterior border while posterior inferior iliac spine is present on posterior border.
Ileum has three surfaces:
o Gluteal surface
o Iliac surface
o Sacropelvic surface
It forms the anterioinferior part of the hip bone. Itís fused in acetabulum with ischium and ileum.
o Superior ramus
o Inferior ramus
Its superior part s known as superior crest, the medial end of pubic crest is known as pubic tubercle it has three surfaces:
o Medial surface or symphsal surface
o Anterior surface
o Posterior surface
It has 3 borders and three surfaces these are
o Inferior border
o Superior border
o Anterior border
o Pelvis surface
o Pectineal surface
o Obturator surface
This part of hip bone is located at posterioinferior part. It forms 2/5 of acetabulum. It has the following parts:
Body of ischium has 2 ends and 3 borders and 3 surfaces
Ischium body has upper and lower ends.
Ischium body has 3 borders which are anterior, posterior and lateral
Ischium body has 3 surfaces which are pelvic, femoral and dorsal surfaces. Dorsal surface is also known as ischial tubrosity.
Inferior ramus of pubis and ramus of ischium are comboinely known as conjoined ramus
It has two borders
o Upper border
o Lower border
And two surfaces
This is a cup shaped cavity present on lateral surface of hip bone. Margins of acetabulum are deficient inferiorly and this gap is known as acetabular notch. This notch is over bridged by transverse ligament.
Acetabular surface is divided into two parts:
2/5 of acetabulum is formed by ileum. 2/5 is formed by ischium and 1/5 is formed by Pubis. Acetabular margins are deepened by a fibrocartilagenous Rim which is known as acetabular labrum.
This is a large gap in hip bone. Itís covered by obturator membrane except at Obturator groove.
This is the longest and strongest bone of human.
Upper end has the following parts:
It form more then a half of a sphere
Head articulate with acetabulum and form hip joint. There is a central depression known as fovea.
It connects Head with the shaft. Its length is 1.5 inches. Neck shaft angel is 125 Degrees. Neck has two borders which are upper and lower and two surfaces which are anterior and posterior.
This is a quadrangular elevation at the upper end.
It has three surfaces, anterior lateral and medial. On medial surface there is a depression known as trochanteric fossa.
This is a conical prominence at the upper end.
†Inter trochanteric line:
Anteriorly greater and lesser trochanters are connected by a line known as inter trochanteric line.
Inter trochanteric crest:
This is a crest present between two trochanters posteriorly.
This is cylindrical on cross section for anatomical study we divided it into:
In the middle 1/3 it has 3 borders which are lateral, medial, and posterior. Posterior border is also known as linea aspera. It has 3 surfaces which are anterior, lateral, and medial.
In the upper 1/3 the linea aspera is divided into two lines and an extra posterior surface is formed.
In the lower 1/3 again the linea aspera is divided into two lines and an extra posterior surface is formed which is known as popliteal fossa.
Lower end of femur:
Lower end of femur is divided into two condyles:
∑ Lateral condyle
∑ Medial condyle
This is in more alignment with the shaft. It has a prominence known as lateral epicondyle.
Itís on medial side and has a prominence on medial surface known as medial epicondyle
This surface is divided into patellar and tibial parts:
Inter condyler fossa/ notch:
This is a deeper notch present posteriorly and separate lateral and medial condyles.
This is discontinuity in the cortical part of bone. It is presented by (#) sign.
They are small vessels that provide nutrients for other vessels of the body.
This is the largest sesamoid bone of our body, present beneath the tendon of quadriceps muscle. It alters the direction of force for movements and decreases the friction
It is located in front of lower end of femur 1cm above the knee joint.
Itís triangular in shape.
It has 3 borders and 2 surfaces.
Itís rough and non articular.
Lower ľ of posterior surface is non articualr while upper ĺ are articular, articular surface is divided into larger lateral part and smaller medial part.
In the leg we have two bones, larger one is tibia which is laying medially.
This is the expanded part it has following parts:
It is larger than lateral condyle and it has 4 surfaces, which are medial, anterior, posterior and superior. Superior surface is articular.
It has an articular surface for articulation with lateral condyle of femur. Lateral condyle has a surface on its lateral aspect for articulation with fibula.
Itís a small area between superior surfaces of medial and lateral condyles. It is narrow in its middle part. It has an eminence known as intercondyler eminence.
This is an elevated part on anterior aspect of upper end of tibia. It has an upper smooth part and lower rough part. In the junction between these two parts, epiphyseal line passes.
Shaft of tibia has 3 borders and 3 surfaces
It extends form tibial tubrosity to anterior aspect of medial malleolus. It form shin.
Itís also known as interosseos border.
Itís present between anterior and lateral borders.
This is present between anterior and medial borders. It forms the subcutaneous part.
Its present between lateral and medial borders, wide in upper part, it has an oblique line in the upper part known as soleal line. Soleal line divides the posterior part into a triangular upper part and an elongated lower part.
Its smaller then the upper end. It has five surfaces:
This is a strong small process which extends from medial side of lower end of tibia.
This is the smaller bone of leg. It lies laterally.
It is expended in all directions. It has a circular facet for articulation with the tibia. It has an apex known as styliod process.
It form lateral malleolus
It has four surfaces which are:
Shaft of fibula has 3 borders and 3 surfaces:
Its present between anterior and medial borders itís narrow in the upper half.
Itís present between anterior and posterior borders.
Itís present between posterior and medial borders. Itís divided into tow parts by a medial crest.
These bones are located in the ankle region. These bones are seven in number. These are as follows:
bones connect tarsal bones with phalanges.
Phalanges are bones of toes. These bones are small in size they are 14 in number. Big toe has tow phalanges while the rest toes have three phalanges for each toe.
joint formed between metatarsal bone and phalanges is known as
Clavicle is a long bone. It connects upper limbs with the trunk.
This is also known as acromial end. Itís flattened from the above downward. It form acromiclavicular joint with the acromion process.
Its also known as sternal end. Itís rounded and it form sternoclavicular joint with the sternum. It has an articular facet for articulation with the first rib.
Anatomically its divided into two parts:
Lateral 1/3 of the shaft:
This part is flat. It has two borders and two surfaces. The two borders are anterior and posterior and two surfaces are superior and inferior.
Medial 2/3 of shaft:
Medial 2/3 is round. It has 4 surfaces which are:
Scapula is flat bone of shoulder girdle
It has two surfaces, 3 borders, 3 angles and 3 processes
There are two surfaces of scapula they are:
Itís concave and there are ridges on this surface.
Spine of scapula divided it into two parts:
Both these parts are connected with each other by spinoglenoid notch.
Scapula has 3 borders which are:
This border is thin and has suprascapular notch.
This border is thick and there is infraglenoid tubercle present at upper end.
Medial borer is thin
Scapula has 3 angles these are:
Scapula has 3 processes they are:
Spine of scapula:
This is a triangular process, it has 3 borders, and 2 surfaces. Its posterior border is thick and form crest of spine.
This is an elongated process.
It has two borders, lateral and medial, and has two surfaces which are superior and inferior.
This process is present superior to glenoid fossa and is directed laterally and forward.
Humerus is the only bone of arm. It has the following parts:
Upper end has the following parts:
It forms less then a half of a sphere. It articulates with scapula to form shoulder joint.
This is a line which separate head from rest of upper end.
This is a line which separate upper end from shaft.
Itís an elevation present on anterior aspect of upper end.
This is another elevation on lateral side.
Inter tubercular sulcus or bicipatal groove:
This is a groove present between lesser and greater tubercle on anterior side.
Shaft has 3 borders and 3 surfaces:
This surface is present between medial and anterior borders. Its upper part is formed by bicipatal groove.
This surface is present between anterior and lateral borders in the middle part this surface has a tubrosity known as deltoid tubrosity. Radial groove is present for radial nerve.
This surface is present between medial and lateral borders. Radial nerve also passes through this surface.
This end is divided into two parts:
Lower end has two types of surfaces:
This part is divided into two parts:
Itís rounded and articulate with radial head
Its pulley shaped and articulate with ulna.
Non articular part:
It has the following parts:
Itís present on the lateral aspect of lateral condyle.
Itís present on the medial surface of the medial condyle.
Itís present on anterior aspect of lower end in front of Trochlea.
Itís present in front of capitulum on anterior aspect.
Itís present on posterior aspect in front of trochlea.
This is one of the forearm bones. Itís the lateral bone. It form elbow joint with humerus superiorly and wrist joint inferiorly with the carpal bones.
∑ Upper end
∑ Lower end
Upper end of radius has the following parts:
Its disk shaped, it articulate with the capitulum of humerus to participate in elbow joint formation, and also form the upper end fo ulna. Itís covered by hyaline cartilage.
This is the constricted part below the head, its covered by annular ligament.
Tubrosity is present on the medial side of upper end, it has two parts, posterior which is rough and anterior which is smooth
It has three borders and three surfaces:
Its upper half is oblique and lower half is vertical, upper oblique half is known as anterior oblique line.
This border is mirror image of anterior border. The upper oblique line is known as the posterior oblique line.
This is the sharpest border. This border is also known as the introsseus border because interosseus membrane is attached with this border.
There are three surfaces on the shaft of radius. They are:
Lower end is comparatively expanded. It form wrist joint with the carpal bones. It has five surfaces they are:
The lateral surface extends inferiorly and forms Styloid Process.
Ulna is a long bone of forearm. It form elbow joint superiorly and wrist joint inferiorly.
This end form elbow joint with humerus and superior radioulnar joint with head of radius. Upper end has the following parts:
This process project upward and it has five surfaces they are:
This process project anteriorly. It has four surfaces they are:
This is an articular surface for articulation with trochlea of humerus to form elbow joint.
This notch is another articular surface for articulation with radial head to form superior radioulnar joint. Its present on lateral aspect of upper end.
This tubrosity is a roughened area present on anterior aspect of upper end just inferior to coronoid process.
Shaft of ulna has 3 surfaces and 3 borders:
Borders of ulna:
This surface is present between anterior and interossous borders. Nutrient foramina are present in the upper part of this surface.
This surface is present between posterior and interossous borders.
This surface is present between anterior and posterior borders.
Lower end of ulna form the wrist joint with the carpal bones. It has an articular facet which articulates with radius and form inferior radioulnar joint. Posteriomedial side of the lower end extends downward and form styloid process.
These bone form wrist in the upper limb. These bones are 8 in number they form wrist joint with radius and ulna proximally and carpometacarpal joint with metacarpal bones distally they are arranged in two rows proximal and distal.
Proximal row contain 4 bones which are:
Distal row contain 4 bones which are:
These bones are 5 in number. They form carpometacarpal joint proximally with carpal bones and metacarpophalyngeal distally with phalanges. Metacarpal bones have 3 parts:
These bones form skeleton of fingers, they are 14 in number 2 bones are present for thumb where rest of fingers contain 3 phalanges each. Phalanges form metacarpophalangeal joint proximally and interphalangeal joints distally. Thumb has a single interphalangeal joint while the remaining fingers have two interphalangeal joints which are proximal and distal interphalangeal joint.
General information about ribs:
There are 12 pairs of ribs.
The space between ribs is known as intercostals spaces
Increases up to 9th rib and from 9th rib to 12th rib it decrease.
Length of ribs:
It Decrease from above downward.
Ribs are divided into 2 groups
Ribs from 3rd to 9th are typical
1st, 2nd, 10th, 11th, and 12th ribs are atypical ribs.
First seven ribs are known as true ribs, these ribs are also known as vertebrosternal ribs.
8th, 9th, and 10th ribs are known as false ribs or vertebrocondral ribs.
11th and 12th ribs are known as floating ribs.
Form third to ninth ribs are known as typical ribs.
Its oval in shape, its concave and articulate with their respective cartilages.
Posterior end has 3 parts they are:
It has two facets, one larger and one smaller there is a crest between these two facets. Head articulate with the vertebrae.
This is the constricted part between head and tubercle. It has two surfaces anterior and posterior and two borders superior and inferior.
This is present at the junction of neck and shaft it has a medial articular part and a lateral non articular part.
Shaft has 2 surfaces and two borders
Itís directed downward and laterally
This surface is smooth. Itís covered by pleura. Inferior part of this surface has a groove known as costal groove.
Upper or superior border:
Its thick and it has tow lips which are inner and outer lips
Lower or inferior border:
This border form anterior part of costal groove.
This rib has the following differences with typical ribs:
This rib has the following differences with typical rib:
These ribs have the following differences with the typical rib:
This is flat bone. It forms anterior part of rib cage.
Its length is 17 Cm. Its length is more in males then females.
Itís the strongest part. Itís quadrangular in shape.
It has two surfaces which are Anterior and posterior and has 4 borders which are superior, inferior, right lateral and left lateral.
This surface is convex from sides.
This surface is concave.
This border is thick. It has a notch which is known as jugular notch or interclavicular notch. On each side there is another notch known as clavicular notch.
This border form joint with the body of sternum. On anterior side there is a prominence at this junction which is known as sternal angle or angle of Louis.
Lateral border form joint with 1st costal cartilage.
This part is lying between manobrium and xiphisternum. This part has two surfaces which are anterior and posterior, two borders which are right lateral and left lateral, and two ends which are upper and lower.
Anterior surface of body:
This surface is flat and has ill defined ridges.
Posterior surface of body:
This surface is concave and has transverse lines.
Borders of body:
Body of sternum has two borders left and right lateral, these borders have joint with costal cartilages.
Upper end of body:
This end form joint with manubrium.
Lower end of body:
This end form joint with xiphisternum
This is the lowest part of sternum. Itís the smallest part. In the early life its fibrocartilagenous and latter on it become ossified.
General features of vertebral column:
Vertebral column is formed of 33 vertebrae, out of these vertebrae 7 are Cervical, 12 are thoracic, 5 are Lumber, 5 are Sacral, and 4 are Coccygeal.
Spinal nerves arise from this column; first 7 cervical nerves arise above their corresponding vertebrae while 8th and the remaining nerves arise below their corresponding vertebrae.
They are divided into two types they are:
Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumber vertebrae are grouped into true vertebrae, while Sacral and Coccygeal vertebrae into false vertebrae.
These are cartilaginous discs present between vertebrae.
Intervertebral disc formed 1/5 of the total length of vertebral column.
In siggital plain two curvatures are present
Itís present in thoracic and sacral region.
It develops later in life at cervical and lumber region.
In coronal plain:
This is a convex deformity posteriorly of vertebral column.
This is a convex deformity anteriorly of vertebral column.
A typical vertebrae has the following parts:
This part lies anteriorly. Itís cylindrical with flat superior and inferior surfaces
These are short bars extending posteriorly from body of vertebrae. Pedicals are two in number which are left and right.
Laminae are extension from pedicals in the posteriomedial directions. Both laminae united posteriorly in the midline.
Pedicals and laminae combinedly form vertebral or neural arch.
This is a foramina bounded by vertebral body and vertebral arches. Vertebral foramina of all vertebrae form a vertical canal known as vertebral canal. Spinal cord passes through this canal.
This is a process extending posteriorly form the junction of two laminae.
These are two processes extending laterally and slightly backward from the junction of pedicale and laminae.
This process extend upward from the junction of pedicale and laminae
This process extends inferiorly from the junction of pedical with laminae.
At the junction of vertebral body with the pedical there is a narrowing of pedical which give rise to a notch known as superior vertebral notch.
Al the junction of vertebral body with the pedical inferiorly there is another notch known as inferior vertebral notch.
Superior vertebral notch and inferior vertebral notch form foramina known as intervertebral foramina and spinal nerves passes through these foramina.
Thoracic vertebrae are 12 in numbers from 2nd to 8th are typical thoracic vertebrae while 1st, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th are A-typical thoracic vertebrae.
These vertebrae have the following parts:
Body is heart shaped and there are two costal facets for ribs articulation.
It is small and circular in this case.
These are straight.
Superior vertebral notches are shallow and inferior vertebral notches are deep.
Overlap each other from above.
Superior articular process:
This process is directed upward from the junction of pedicle and laminae.
Inferior articular process:
This process is fused with the laminae.
These processes are large. Articular surface has articular facets which articulate with the tubercle of the rib.
Is long, it is directed downward and backward.
It has the following difference with thoracic vertebrae:
These vertebrae have the following differences with the typical thoracic vertebrae:
These two vertebrae have the following difference with the typical thoracic vertebrae:
Lumber vertebrae are 5 in number. First 4 are typical lumber vertebrae while last one is atypical lumber vertebrae.
Typical lumber vertebrae:
These vertebrae have the following features:
L5 is atypical vertebrae. This vertebra has the following features:
∑ Transverse process: are short, thick and strong. Transverse process is pyramidal in shape.
∑ Inferior articular processes and superior articular processes: the distance between these two processes is equal.
∑ Spine: itís shorter, smaller and round at the tip.
∑ Body: body of L5 vertebrae is largest vertebral body of the whole vertebral column.
∑ Pedicle: they are directed backward and laterally.
These vertebrae are seven in number. They are divided into two groups which are typical and atypical.
They are C3, C4, C4, and C6.
They are C1, C2, and C7.
Cervicle vertebra 1 is also known as ATLAS, Cervicle vertebrae two is also known as AXIS, and cervicle vertebrae 7 is also known as vertebral prominence.
First Cervicle vertebrae (Atlas):
Second Cervicle process or Axis:
There is a process at superior aspect of body and this process usually represents the whole body. This process is known as odentoid process.
7th Cervicle Vertebrae or vertebral prominence:
This is a large triangular bone formed by fusion of 5 sacral vertebrae.
This is a small triangular bone. Itís formed by fusion of coccygeal vertebrae