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book cover

 

(Title & Copyright Page)

 

PRACTICING DYNAMIC
LEADERSHIP
IN THE WORKPLACE

 

By
John Bartosh

 

 

A COURSE IN MANAGERIAL EXCELLENCE

Every Manager’s or Assistant Manager’s Guide
to More Effective “People Management”

 

Self-published by:
John Bartosh & Associates

For more information,
e-mailE-mail: johnbartosh@yahoo.com

 

Copyright ©2002 by John Bartosh
All Rights Reserved

First Printing 2001

No part of this literature, protected by U.S. common law copyright,
may be reproduced by any means, including photocopying,
without formal written permission by John Bartosh.

1

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

 

A Colorado native, John Bartosh graduated from Metropolitan State College in Denver. He has a BA degree in Psychology. More importantly, John has been successful in the business world for over thirty years, holding various retail management and management-training positions along the way.

John has written, self-published and successfully marketed various “leadership” training programs since 1984, including two editions of The Heart of Management, a forerunner to this more comprehensive, ready-reference, management-training course.

Through the years, John has been referred to by business owners, co-workers and friends as an individual who has a special talent for dealing with people. His unique leadership skills and writing abilities have inspired salespeople, managers, employees and others throughout the country.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

SESSION ONE:
LEARNING SELF-MANAGEMENT

SESSION TWO:
PRACTICING DYNAMIC LEADERSHIP

SESSION THREE:
WINNING WITH EMPLOYEES

SESSION FOUR:
TRAINING THE NEW EMPLOYEE

SESSION FIVE:
GIVING EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONS

SESSION SIX:
MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES AND BUILDING MORALE

SESSION SEVEN:
DEVELOPING A TEAM CONCEPT

SESSION EIGHT:
MANAGING OTHERS CREATIVELY

SESSION NINE:
BECOMING A HIGH-PERFORMANCE MANAGER

 

SUPPLEMENT:
ADDITIONAL LEADERSHIP MATERIALS

Hiring and Firing

Shaping Positive Mental Attitudes

Conducting Staff Meetings

Evaluating Employee Performance

Preparing People for Promotions

Working with Superiors

Improving Customer Relations

CONCLUDING REMARKS

 

 

 

3

INTRODUCTION

 

There are approximately 20 million managers in America. With respect to “people management,” most managers or supervisors settle for reasonable standards of performance.

A few managers are unwilling to settle for average or reasonable achievements. Some number of men and women constantly study, experiment with new techniques and aspire to achieve to the best of their abilities. Such managers seek to grow as individuals, and they continually try to understand themselves as leaders. Indeed, some managers or supervisors strive for managerial excellence!

This leadership-training program was designed to help you attain a measure of managerial excellence. Undoubtedly, you already practice some of the theories and concepts that will be discussed in this course. Nonetheless, you will be exposed to many new ideas and concepts with respect to business leadership. Regardless of how you may now assess your leadership and management abilities, this comprehensive, self-instructing program should add perspective to your thinking and help you to become a high-performance manager.

It is recommended that you read and complete the exercises for each of these nine sessions on a weekly basis. This will allow you the time to carefully study and begin to practice the many important concepts introduced in each session.

Finally, each of the nine session topics should be discussed, at least briefly, during staff meetings. The best way to learn how to apply the leadership concepts offered in this course is to facilitate exercises in “group dynamics.” However you decide to implement the program, the literature should inspire you and improve your ability to manage people more effectively.

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 SELF-CONTRACT

 

I, ___________________________, do hereby agree to actively participate in a business-leadership-training program titled Practicing Dynamic Leadership in the Workplace..

I realize that this course is being offered to me for my personal self-development. So that I can best benefit from the many important leadership concepts and principles contained herein, I agree to open my mind and let myself become more aware of what “people management” is all about.

By being receptive to new ideas, I will gain valuable insight into what it takes to become a high-performance manager. Therefore, I agree to carefully read through each of these nine sessions and complete the personal exercises for each session topic.

Finally, I recognize and accept the fact that learning is a never-ending process. Enthusiastically, I welcome opportunities to learn because I believe that these endless experiences will increase my knowledge and enrich my life.

 

Signature:_______________________________ Date:___________________________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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 HOW TO CONDUCT EXERCISES IN GROUP DYNAMICS

At the end of each of these nine sessions, there will be two or three recommended exercises in group dynamics. Managers or supervisors will have the option to use these suggested exercises as part of their itinerary for staff meetings. Here are some helpful tips on how to conduct exercises in group dynamics:

Any group exercise or discussion is likely to proceed smoothly if the setting is informal. It helps to have the group seated in a semi-circle, whereby the group leader (facilitator) can have direct eye contact with all of those in attendance.

Your discussion should not be a debate. It should be a group of people who think and speak together, really listening to one another and seeking a common conclusion.

The leader (facilitator) should be friendly, relaxed and interested in what each person has to say. He or she must be tactful, fair and objective. The leader should talk as little as possible, just enough to stimulate group thinking and to keep the conversational ball bouncing back and forth. Group members will do their best thinking while preparing to express their ideas, not while the leader is dominating the discussion.

If the group is not experienced in using the discussion method, the leader should point out in the beginning that everyone is expected to take an active part, but that no one is to monopolize the discussion. When group members disagree, they should do so tactfully and calmly. Only one person should speak at a time.

The leader should be prepared with a list of the important topics or concepts to be covered. The discussion should stay focused on the subject at hand; the conversation should not go off on a tangent or get bogged down on some trivial issue. People should have time to think. A little silence may be required to let people formulate their thoughts.

Every group member’s point of view should be given fair consideration. The success of group dynamics depends, largely, on the facilitator’s skill in getting people to think out loud together. As a rule, the leader should bring up a question or topic for discussion, and then have confidence that someone will respond, rather than to call on one person for a response. When someone makes a good point, the leader should make sure that the speaker’s comments are thoroughly discussed.

Group dynamics is a cooperative exercise, which results in a purposeful, meaningful discussion of ideas. Properly conducted, exercises in group dynamics will inspire individuals to think creatively and allow people to personally benefit from an experiential learning environment.

 

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 SESSION ONE

 

 

 

 

 

 

Learning
Self-Management

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRACTICING DYNAMIC
LEADERSHIP
IN THE WORKPLACE

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.”
—Abraham Lincoln

 

“The art of learning is not knowledge, but action.”
— Thomas Edison

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

 

Effective leadership begins from within. To successfully manage others, an individual must first learn how to manage himself or herself. A manager’s initial priority should be to develop a positive mental attitude. Positive thinking reflects one’s optimistic frame of mind. It means making the most out of everyday circumstances and looking at the bright side of things. Developing a more positive mental posture will uplift a person’s spirits and improve an individual’s outlook on life.

Positive thinking does not deny the obstacles and difficulties that a person will encounter. Author Norman Vincent Peale once said, “A positive thinker does not refuse to recognize the negatives, but he refuses to dwell on them.” An individual should strive to replace negative thoughts with more positive ones. A person should be prepared to capitalize on every opportunity. That is what positive thinking is all about.

Personal growth and self-development require an individual to form a habit of thinking in terms of short and long-range goals. A goal is a verbal or written statement of what an individual wants to achieve. Goals can be classified into many areas, including these: personal, family, attitude, spiritual, business and career.

Objectives are specific steps that must be taken or followed to achieve a goal. Objectives have three (3) parts:

1. Condition (At—telling one when and where to move into action)

2. Behavior (I Will—telling one what specific action he or she is taking)

3. Criterion (So That—telling one what he or she will receive from this action)

Goals should be written down, constantly visualized and acted upon on a daily basis. To be effective, goals should be realistic and stated in terms of personal affirmations.

Example: By my speaking in performance terms (goals, objectives, payoffs, etc.), I am increasingly gaining employees’ commitments.

There are three (3) important things to remember and to practice when it comes to writing

goals or personal affirmations:

1. READ your goals at least twice a day.

2. VISUALIZE your goals as if you already achieved them.

3. FEEL THE EMOTION that would be associated with each achieved goal.

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An individual must not try too hard to reach his or her goals. Patience and practice are the keys to success. With each written goal, a person must practice the three steps outlined above until the subconscious mind receives the “picture” that the conscious mind is continually projecting. When the subconscious mind REALLY receives a clear picture of one’s conscious thoughts, through repetition and experiential imagery, the subconscious thought process will steer the individual toward actions that allow the attainment of personal goals.

A high-performance manager must create a cybernetic working unit. “Cybernetic” means management that is aimed at goal-directed thinking and that rewards human achievement. On the job, a manager should set realistic goals. These goals should be broken down into specific objectives, and workers (including the manager) should be rewarded for achieving them.

Every manager or supervisor should establish a reward-centered business environment. A leader must recognize this psychological aspect of human behavior: A man or woman will work harder and acquire better work habits if he or she is continually rewarded for his or her achievements.

There are two (2) basic types of rewards:

1. Tangible rewards (salaries, commissions, bonuses, achievement awards, prizes, etc.)

2. Psychological rewards (praise, compliments, encouragement, etc.)

The successful leader has insight into basic human behavior. He or she understands that employees need psychological rewards as well as tangible rewards for their efforts and achievements.

Employees’ involvement and commitment are essential to long-term corporate success. Employee commitment can be classified into one of four (4) basic areas:

1. Alienated

2. Present and accounted for

3. Interested

4. Committed

The most important consideration with respect to employee commitment is the quality of the relationships that employees have with their manager and with their co-workers. A rewarding manager, who gives people a sense of self-esteem through accomplishment, will secure higher levels of employee commitment.

A manager should always be able to answer the questions: “What is our business?” and “Where are we going from here?” For every manager, there are so many things to do in a day and only so many hours to accomplish these tasks. The high-performance leader accepts responsibilities, holds himself or herself accountable for these activities and is certain that all work assignments

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are satisfactorily completed.

An insightful supervisor will develop and maintain a clear perspective of the company’s “big picture” (basic operational goals and objectives). To manage a results department, a manager must strategically plan ahead and learn to prioritize business goals and objectives. He or she must become a master of time-management and effectively delegate areas of responsibility to those who are ready to handle such assignments.

A high-performance leader is an effective problem-solver. Analyzing problems and making decisions overlap all other managerial responsibilities. Staying in line with goal-directed behavior, the manager can use this problem-solving formula:

1. State the problem.

2. Consider the results from making one decision or another.

3. Outline goals that will provide the desired results.

4. Specify objectives for each of these goals.

5. Initiate action to achieve the specific objectives.

Time is an important part of a manager’s decision-making process. A manager should delay making an important decision only up to that point in time when further delay would jeopardize the quality of that decision. An astute leader realizes that knowledge is a valuable resource when it comes to making decisions and that it takes sufficient time to gather all of the pertinent information.

A manager should question his or her own opinions, and he or she should solicit input from others. When an important decision is called for, it should be well thought out and based on as much information as possible. Such an individual will not be described as a reactive manager, but as an assertive leader who generally uses good business judgment. This manager is able to stand tall in his or her position as a wise decision-maker.

 

 

 

 

11

FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

RE: STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO “LEARNING SELF-MANAGEMENT”

1. Personally commit to learning how to better manage yourself.

2. Strive to develop a more positive mental attitude. Your everyday frame of mind is all important. A glass of water is either half full or half empty, depending on how you choose to look at it. Why not focus on the positive aspects of a particular circumstance and look at life from a more optimistic point of view?

3. Get into the habit of thinking in terms of goals and objectives. Write down your individual and business-related goals as personal affirmation statements. Also, you should write down at least three (3) specific objectives for each of your desired goals.

4. Hold a staff meeting as soon as possible. Inform your workers that, from that point forward, everyone concerned will be actively participating in a goals and objectives business approach.

5. Teach your employees to think in terms of goals and objectives. Design a form that will enable workers to write down their own personal goals and objectives. Or use the “Goal Writing Form” enclosed in this session. Distribute these forms on a weekly or a monthly basis. Carefully explain the goal-writing process and share some of your own goal-writing experiences with your subordinates.

6. You must consider the payoffs (desired results) for reaching particular goals. To keep your employees committed toward attaining their individual goals and collective team goals, you must provide both tangible and psychological rewards for those who achieve or closely approach these goals.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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SESSION-ONE REVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

1. A positive thinker does not refuse to recognize the negatives, but he or she refuses to

___________ on them.

2. What is a goal?

 

 

3. What are objectives?

 

 

4. List the three parts of an objective:

(1)

(2)

(3)

 

5. Goals should be _______________ ___________, ________________ ________________ and ____________ ___________ on a daily basis.

 

 

6. Define a “cybernetic” working unit:

 

 

 

 

 

13

7. List three types of psychological rewards:

(1)

(2)

(3)

8. What are the five steps in the “problem-solving formula”?

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

14

GOAL WRITING SAMPLE

 

Business/Career “Learning Self-management” Goal: By my speaking in performance terms (goals, objectives, payoffs, etc.), I am increasingly gaining employees’ commitments.

 

 

Objective: “Condition” AT 9:00 A.M. sharp on Monday morning,

“Behavior” I WILL hold a staff meeting

“Criterion” SO THAT I can inform everyone of a new goals and

objectives business approach.

Objective: “Condition” AT every opportune time,

“Behavior” I WILL speak in terms of goals, objectives and payoffs

“Criterion” SO THAT we will all get into the habit of conversing in

performance terms.

Objective: “Condition” AT the end of each working day,

“Behavior” I WILL thank those responsible for jobs well done

“Criterion” SO THAT these workers will continue their fine efforts.

 

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GOAL WRITING FORM

(to be copied and passed out to employees on a weekly or monthly basis)

Business/Career Goal: _____________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

Objective: “Condition” AT____________________________________________

_______________________________________________

“Behavior” I WILL_________________________________________

_______________________________________________

“Criterion” SO THAT_______________________________________

_______________________________________________

Objective: “Condition” AT____________________________________________

_______________________________________________

“Behavior” I WILL_________________________________________

_______________________________________________

“Criterion” SO THAT_______________________________________

_______________________________________________

Objective: “Condition” AT_____________________________________________

_______________________________________________

“Behavior” I WILL_________________________________________

_______________________________________________

“Criterion” SO THAT_______________________________________

_______________________________________________

 

16

GROUP DYNAMICS:
EXERCISES RECOMMENDED FOR STAFF MEETINGS

Session Topic: “Learning Self-management”

Exercise: This group dynamics exercise will serve two main purposes. First, the entire staff will be introduced to the goal-setting process. Second, everybody will get into the habit of speaking in more positive terms.

Facilitate a group discussion on the subject of “goal writing.” During the discussion, be on the outlook for those who are speaking in negative terms. Listen for someone who says, “I can’t,” “I might” or “I think.” Get everybody into the good habit of using phrases like: “I can,” “I will” or “I believe.” Be patient but persistent with this advice. People are creatures of habit. Positive mental attitudes are reflected by those who constantly practice positive verbal communications.

Exercise: After all staff members thoroughly understand the goal-writing process, ask everyone to write down at least one business-related goal that they most want to achieve. (You can use the “Goal Writing Form” on the previous page. Copy as many forms as you will need, and pass them out to group members.) Review employees’ goals, and share some of the more interesting ones (after getting permission to do so) with the entire group. Encourage staff members to follow through on their goals. Sincerely compliment those who achieve their personal goals.

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 17

SESSION TWO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practicing
Dynamic Leadership

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRACTICING DYNAMIC
LEADERSHIP
IN THE WORKPLACE

18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Leadership is the art of changing a group
from what it is into what it ought to be.”
— Ronald Reagan

 

“A good leader inspires others with
confidence in him; a great leader inspires
them with confidence in themselves.”
— John F. Kennedy

 

 

 

 

 

 

19

 

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

 

Leadership might best be defined as the effect one has upon group behavior. As a managerial function, leadership has tremendous impact on shaping employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Leadership can be measured by the performance of the group as a whole.

Leadership is a process of interaction with people. A dynamic leader relates with others in such a way as to positively affect integrated behavior among them. And a dynamic leader is an integral member of the group whose goals he or she shares and the realization of which he or she helps to facilitate. A dynamic leader stimulates people to do what they already want to do.

Leadership traits are distributed on a continuum between more authoritarian and more democratic leadership styles. An authoritarian leadership style denotes power and domination as fundamental patterns of managerial influence. The authoritarian manager uses his or her position and authority as the primary means for motivating people into action. Generally, the authoritarian leader lacks self-confidence and has little confidence in others. The group is dominated or controlled by tactics of intimidation and fear.

A democratic leadership style portrays the leader who is not interested in power, but in stimulating people to participate in group activities. The democratic leader has a strong self-concept, respects others and has confidence in group members. He or she encourages interpersonal relationships and puts the interest of the group above personal considerations. The democratic leader facilitates productive role behavior in others and leads group members in their attainment of personal and team goals.

Every leader must appeal to the needs and best interests of the group. Group-centered leadership is much more conducive to effective employee functioning than is the case with supervisory-centered leadership. A manager or a supervisor will not be perceived as a dynamic leader unless he or she satisfies the group’s individual and collective needs.

Earning employees’ trust and respect is essential for every manager who desires to set a positive leadership example. Dynamic leadership requires a manager to practice sound human relations at all times. Employees will trust and respect a manager who shows a genuine interest in them, individually, who is honest and who treats them fairly.

Traditionally, too many managers have tried to demand employees’ respect and increase workers’ production levels on the basis of more authoritarian, threatening, leadership styles. Contemporary leaders must learn to manage others more democratically and from a greater understanding of basic human behavior.

Leaders are made, not born. Every high-performance manager should analyze his or her leadership ability and constantly develop his or her own best democratic leadership style.

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 FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

RE: STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO “PRACTICING DYNAMIC LEADERSHIP”

1. To be an effective leader, you must learn to set a positive leadership example. The odds are that you were promoted to management largely on the basis of your good track record in “sales” or from another department position where you excelled. Now, you must understand that leading people requires more than just setting a good “sales” or “production” example.

2. Dynamic leadership is reflected in your ability to earn others’ trust and respect. Here are five (5) human-relations practices that will help you to earn your employees’ trust and respect.

(1) Give workers more responsibility. Subordinates will take more pride in their jobs if they are given meaningful, challenging work assignments. And workers will respect the idea of being active, integral and productive members of the overall group.

(2) Share inside information with employees. Of course, your superiors may ask you to keep some information confidential, but you can inspire subordinates by letting them in on upcoming events, plans for company growth, etc. If you share important knowledge with employees, they will develop more managerial trust and work harder, as a result.

(3) Maintain consistent work standards. Your subordinates will better respect you if they know what is expected of them in the way of performance standards. And workers who can trust that they will be treated fairly and objectively will perform to the best of their abilities.

(4) Provide subordinates freedom of expression. Employees want and deserve a strong leader, but don’t rule over them with an iron fist. Instead, encourage group members to speak openly and without fear of their being reprimanded for their personal opinions.

(5) Be willing to accept responsibility for your employees. As their leader, you should accept responsibility for your subordinates’ words and actions. Within limits, workers want to believe that their manager will back them up when necessary. Employees will respect you if they can count on you to be supportive during times of personal need.

3. Dynamic leadership includes your ability to mobilize human energies and capabilities. Whatever your unique leadership style represents, it should be compatible with these fourteen (14) managerial characteristics or behaviors:

(1) Set challenging but realistic performance standards.

(2) Make it clear to employees what you consider to be properly completed tasks.

(3) Check, periodically, to see how employees are doing with their work assignments, but let them work on their own, for the most part, without a lot of supervisory hand-holding.

 

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(4) Accept employees’ errors and mistakes as part of their being human, so long as they are making solid efforts.

(5) Compliment your people, and frequently praise them for jobs well done.

(6) Demonstrate positive action as often as you can to let employees know that you “practice what you preach.”

(7) Explain corporate goals and objectives to provide your subordinates with a view of the company’s “big picture.”

(8) Keep workers informed on new developments, and prepare them for any significant changes in corporate policies, etc.

(9) Use psychological factors to foster good morale.

(10) Create a team spirit, and encourage mutual cooperation among staff members.

(11) Train your workers on all facets of the business. Inspire them to seek promotions.

(12) Work closely with your assistant manager and your immediate supervisor(s) in terms of practicing the concept of team management.

(13) Regularly evaluate employees, and solicit ideas on ways they can improve.

(14) Focus on performance and accomplishment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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SESSION-TWO REVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

 

1. With respect to business, define dynamic leadership:

 

 

 

2. Honestly assess your own leadership style:

 

 

 

 

3. List five things to help you earn employees’ trust and respect:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

4. Contemporary leaders must learn to manage others more _______________________ and from a greater understanding of basic human behavior.

5. Leaders are ___________, not born!

 

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 GROUP DYNAMICS:
EXERCISES RECOMMENDED FOR STAFF MEETINGS

 

Session Topic: “Practicing Dynamic Leadership”

 

Exercise: Taking about fifteen (15) minutes, ask people to write down (in one or two paragraphs) their individual definitions of leadership. Facilitate a discussion on the subject of “leadership,” pointing out the numerous advantages of a more democratic leadership style.

 

Exercise: Have your subordinates imagine themselves as the leader to your group. Ask each person to write down five things that would help earn them subordinates’ trust and respect. Then, have each worker verbally share his or her ideas with the staff as a whole. Allow sufficient time for a constructive group discussion centered around the topic of earning employees’ trust and respect.

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 SESSION THREE

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winning
with Employees

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRACTICING DYNAMIC
LEADERSHIP
IN THE WORKPLACE

25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Few people are persuaded by rational argument
unless they are first persuaded emotionally.”
— Roy Garn

 

“The feeling of the heart is a safer guide
than the logic of the head.”
— Emmanual Kant

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

“The ability to deal with people is as purchasable a commodity as sugar or coffee, and I will pay more for that ability than for any other under the sun.”
— John D. Rockefeller

The ability to work with and through people is a manager’s most valuable personal asset.

Human beings are emotional. A manager can readily get his or her point across if his or her words are loaded with emotional appeal.

The four (4) general areas of “Emotional Appeal” are:

(1) Self-preservation

(2) Money

(3) New Experiences

(4) Recognition

Successful communication with others lies in the manager’s choice of the right emotional appeal.

For a manager or a supervisor to gain credibility with employees, he or she must recognize the importance of being believable. A high-performance manager will always be sincere, up-front and honest on the job.

The dynamic leader is very persuasive, but does not use his or her position or given authority as a primary means of influencing subordinates. Every manager should develop a capacity for listening to employees, and he or she should talk to the other person’s point of view. A manager who forms the habit of talking with employees and who can really relate with these people will become more persuasive.

Winning with employees requires a manager to be totally objective. Subordinates want and deserve to be treated fairly and as equals. Any manager who shows favoritism on the job will be up against the wall where morale, motivation and teamwork are concerned. All workers must have an equal opportunity to do all things.

The objective manager is approachable and puts others at ease. Workers should not be afraid to approach their manager to express ideas and opinions, so long as they do so tactfully and in a business-like manner.

Every manager should establish an “open door” policy, which enables employees to speak with their manager, voicing their questions and stating their cases without fear of retaliation or intimidation from the manager. An objective leader will encourage communication and respect

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workers for being totally up-front and honest.

Employees are human. They will make mistakes. Nobody is perfect. Everybody has the right to be wrong. To be objective, a manager must claim his or her right to be wrong, and grant this right to subordinates, as well.

At one time or another, every manager will have to deal with a “problem employee.” An alert leader can detect trouble early and get to the root of the problem before this person disrupts the entire staff.

If the manager can’t resolve the employee’s problem diplomatically, his or her only recourse (for the best interest of everyone concerned) may be to suspend or to discharge the worker. Normally, severe reprimand or firing of a problem employee shouldn’t be necessary. Most of the time, counseling an employee, one-on-one and in privacy, will re-motivate the subordinate and get that troubled individual back on the right track.

When firing a worker seems to be the only alternative, a manager would be wise to admit, in most cases, that failure on the part of the employee is also a reflection of failure on the part of the manager, to a lesser or greater degree. And frequent employee terminations reflect a severe failure on the part of the company’s top-management personnel (poor business policies or operating procedures, for instance).

The single most important rule to remember with respect to business and management is this: Organizations are made up of and they are first dependent on employees; the focus should be on human beings, not on so many systems or machines!

A good approach to winning with employees and sound human relations is this: Employees will work harder and produce more if they feel that their leader is taking a sincere interest in them, individually. Every manager must learn to go by the heart, not always by the book!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

RE: STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO “WINNING WITH EMPLOYEES”

1. You must develop the ability to effectively deal with people from all walks of life. You can accomplish this if you have the interest to do so and if you take the time to really relate with your subordinates.

2. Use the “Emotional Appeal” technique. Knowing what to say and when to say it are powerful management tools. Listen to each of your employees, attentively. Everyone is preoccupied with thoughts concerning his or her personal needs, interests or desires. Choose your words wisely. Talk to the other person’s self-interest and point of view.

3. Only one or two of the four general areas of Emotional Appeal will dominate one’s thinking and keep that person emotionally preoccupied. Carefully analyze an employee’s words and actions. Successful communication depends on your choice of the right Emotional Appeal. Listen and watch for emotional indicators. Experiment until you discover the Emotional Appeal that breaks another’s self-preoccupation. No employee is impossible to reach if you make heavy emotional impact. More often than not, emotionally appealing questions and comments will result in your getting from another the response that you so desire.

4. To gain credibility within the rank and file, you must understand the importance of being believable. If you are rich in character and true to your word, you will enjoy a long-term, successful, management career.

5. Always admit your mistakes. Allow yourself the right to be wrong, and grant this right to others. If you do, employees will have more respect for you.

6. Do not use your position or authority as a primary means for persuading subordinates. Use a more psychological, tactful approach. Knowing what a person thinks of himself or herself will give you a key to his or her character. Communicate with another in a “what’s in it for him or her” context. You will be more persuasive if your comments or instructions let a person know what these things will do for him or for her.

7. Always treat your workers fairly and as equals. Be on guard for those who have tendencies to “play up to you,” and never play favorites!

8. Allow subordinates an equal opportunity to do all things, provided they are ready and qualified for such assignments. If you don’t, an employee may take a “what’s the use” attitude. Weigh each person’s abilities, efforts and accomplishments from a totally impartial stance.

9. Be approachable and put others at ease. Make yourself available to subordinates. Extend them your complete and undivided attention when they want to talk with you.

10. Create an “open door” climate. Allow workers to freely express themselves. Employees

29

should not fear tactics of intimidation or retaliation from you for their making frank comments. Go out of your way to answer a worker’s question, or be able to give the person a full explanation in view of the specific circumstances. Compliment another for his or her candor; respect one for being totally up-front and honest with you.

11. Here is what do with a problem employee:

(1) Try to detect this “difficult” individual right away.

(2) Sit down with the person, and uncover the specific problem.

(3) Let the worker know exactly where he or she stands with you and the company.

(4) Try to arrive at satisfactory solutions or seek satisfactory alternatives.

(5) Do all that you can to steer this person back on the right track.

(6) Accept challenges posed by problem employees; many of these people may surprise you with positive turnarounds.

12. Value your workers and consider them as human beings. Take a genuine interest in your subordinates. Respect them as individuals. If there is one single formula for your management success, it is this: LEARN TO GO BY THE HEART, NOT ALWAYS BY THE BOOK!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

SESSION-THREE REVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

 

1. The ability to work ________ and _______________ people is a manager’s most valuable personal asset.

 

 

2. List the four general areas of Emotional Appeal:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

3. How will you use the Emotional Appeal technique?

 

 

 

 

4. What can you do to let your subordinates know that you are approachable?

 

 

5. How will you handle a problem employee?

 

 

 

 

6. Every manager must learn to go by the ________________, not always by the book!

31

GROUP DYNAMICS:
EXERCISES RECOMMENDED FOR STAFF MEETINGS

 

SESSION TOPIC: “WINNING WITH EMPLOYEES”

 

Exercise: Organize everyone into groups of two people. Practice the Emotional Appeal technique by asking each employee to identify the one dominating area of Emotional Appeal (Self-preservation, Money, New Experience or Recognition) that has the other most preoccupied in life. After the right Emotional Appeals are discovered, have employees briefly talk with each other and to the other person’s self-interests. (This exercise forms sound human-relations practices and teaches people how to properly develop their power of persuasion.)

 

Exercise: To learn how to become a better listener, have workers (one at a time) listen, without interruption or response, to positive comments made about them from everyone else in the group.

This exercise is instrumental in getting people to really listen to others, in accepting sincere compliments from others and in building employees levels of self-awareness and self-confidence. Also, this group dynamics exercise teaches people how to look for the good in others and how to sincerely express the personal qualities that they find.

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32

SESSION FOUR

 

 

 

 

 

 

Training the
New Employee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRACTICING DYNAMIC
LEADERSHIP
IN THE WORKPLACE

33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Delight in teaching others what you have learned.”
— Seneca

 

“No man will ever be a great leader who does not
take a genuine joy in the success of those under him.”
— Unknown

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

Every high-performance manager must be committed to the personal development of new employees. Orienting new workers requires managerial preparation and guidance.

The new employee should begin work at the beginning of the week or on such a day that the manager will be on hand to properly orient the individual to the new business setting.

People have individual limitations with respect to potentials and capacities for learning. The new employee should be brought along according to his or her personal abilities. As company guidelines dictate, the manager should follow a formal training program. Included in this program must be a general explanation of corporate policies, business philosophy and the organization’s preferred approach to customers.

A good training program is comprehensive. It should be loaded with information and follow a format that will enable the new worker to quickly succeed on the job. The manager or supervisor should encourage the new employee to be patient in the beginning so that he or she can build a firm foundation for personal growth and development.

An employee needs to know exactly what is expected of him or her. It is essential that the manager provides the new worker with a written job description. A good job description is understandable, specific and complete. It contains statements that allow the new employee to set personal goals and objectives. The job description should serve as a bond of communication between the employee and the manager. It provides a basic framework for daily business activities.

Workers need a sense of purpose and direction. An effective job description can be a powerful source for employee commitment and result in increased employee production.

After the orientation period, the trainee must learn to work more independently. The manager’s job becomes one of providing the worker assistance, when necessary, and supporting the individual in every way possible. A manager should continue to outline business goals and objectives for the new employee. He or she should help the trainee to establish personal goals and recommend ways that these goals can be achieved. Although the manager may not always be in direct contact with the new worker, there remains a need to communicate with the trainee on a regular basis.

 

 

 

 

 

35

FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

RE: STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO “TRAINING THE NEW EMPLOYEE”

1. Personally commit to the training of all new employees.

2. A newly hired worker will likely feel a little apprehensive in the beginning, as he or she is exposed to an unfamiliar setting. Allow plenty of time to orient this person during his or her first day on the job. Walk the trainee around the business premises. Introduce the new employee to other managers, co-workers, office personnel, warehouse people, etc. The first day should be spent, primarily, in getting the trainee to feel as comfortable as possible in his or her new business environment.

3. For the first few days, you will want to be on hand. Be totally prepared to lead the trainee through the initial orientation period. Right from the outset, you should perceive the new employee’s potential for learning. One individual may be a fast learner, while another person needs to be brought along more gradually.

4. You should guide the trainee through a formal training program. If your company lacks an effective training program, work in conjunction with your superiors to develop one.

5. The new worker should be given an explanation of corporate philosophy early in his or her orientation. Give the trainee answers to these questions: “What is our business?” and “What are our basic operating procedures and customer-service policies?”

6. Company image is extremely important. Be certain that the trainee is aware of company dress codes, standards for employee conduct and other pertinent policies that reflect a professional corporate image.

7. During the orientation period, your perspective should be to prepare the trainee for long-term results. Ask the new worker to be patient so that he or she can build a solid employment foundation—a platform from where high personal achievements and greater corporate profits can be accomplished.

8. Provide the trainee with a meaningful written job description. The best job description can be viewed as a statement of personal and group goals and objectives. It will serve as a means of communication between you and the new employee. The job description should challenge the worker with realistic goals and aim at high levels of performance.

9. The job description should be flexible and kept up to date. Sit down with the trainee, from time to time, and redesign the job description so that the new worker’s role will become even more challenging as he or she grows on the job.

10. When you believe that the trainee is ready, assign him or her larger areas of responsibility, and give the worker the authority to carry out greater tasks and assignments.

36

11. After the formal training period, allow the trainee to work more and more independently from what (up to this stage) has been tight supervision. This does not infer, however, that you should neglect your responsibilities with the employee’s further self-development. It simply means that you should not waste valuable time supervising activities that the trainee is able to handle on his or her own.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37

 SESSION-FOUR REVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

 

1. What will you do to orient the trainee on his or her first day on the job?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. What should the written job description entail?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 4. After the formal training period, allow the trainee to work more and more _____________________ from what (up to this stage) has been tight supervision.

38

 

GROUP DYNAMICS:
EXERCISES RECOMMENDED FOR STAFF MEETINGS

 

SESSION TOPIC: “TRAINING THE NEW EMPLOYEE”

 

Exercise: Conduct a group exercise in teaching “patience” by having your newest employee stand in view of the entire group. Ask this individual to share his or her experiences pertaining to the first few days on the job. Lead a group discussion, asking for ideas and suggestions on how this person may have better benefited if you had brought the trainee along a little more gradually in the beginning. Write down good ideas and suggestions. Incorporate them into your new employee training program.

 

Exercise: To design more meaningful job descriptions, ask each group member to write down what he or she believes to be his or her own specific job description. Allow approximately thirty (30) minutes for staff members to complete this assignment. Facilitate this exercise by having people write these job descriptions in terms that can be associated with personal business goals and objectives.

 

Exercise: Following the format of your company’s formal training program, lead a group discussion on the subject of “new employee orientation.” Ask everyone to contribute ideas on how the organization’s formal-training program and the new-employee-orientation procedure could be improved. Take notes from this meeting, and pass along worthwhile suggestions to your superiors.

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39

SESSION FIVE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giving Effective Instructions

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRACTICING DYNAMIC
LEADERSHIP
IN THE WORKPLACE

40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“If you are to understand others and have
them understand you, know the big
words but use the small ones.”
— Unknown

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

 

To be effective on the job, a manager must be skilled in giving effective instructions. Employees want guidance and direction. Customers want information. At every turn, a manager is required to issue some form of instructions.

A manager or supervisor should not assume anything when giving instructions. He or she must identify with others’ personal reference points, starting with the known and then cautiously moving to the unknown.

Instructions should be simple, clear and complete. Whenever possible, instructions should be demonstrated or dramatized. The manager must learn to give positive instructions. Questions from employees should be encouraged to insure that they fully understand the nature of a manager’s instructions.

A high-performance manager will be tactful when offering instructions. Being tactful reflects a manager’s knack for thinking beforehand and choosing his or her words wisely. Employees prefer to be asked to do something, not told what to do. Oftentimes, tact requires patience and creativeness on the manager’s part. The best instructions are those whereby an employee will eagerly respond and want to do what is asked of him or her.

An astute leader will take another’s self-image at heart and relate what he or she wants done in terms of the worker’s self-interests. Instructions should be issued in a way that will result in affirming another’s self-image or self-concept. Usually, a manager can show an employee how to personally benefit from an assignment or point out “what’s in it for him or her.” The manager who can reassure an employee’s self-worth and who can demonstrate that a worker’s efforts and achievements will be recognized and rewarded will have little trouble giving effective instructions.

A manager should be cautious of issuing too many instructions without allowing the worker ample time to carry out these assignments. To get more things accomplished, the manager would be better off to spread out the workload, giving instructions at more practical, realistic rates. The dynamic leader, who understands people and who delegates new assignments only after previous tasks have been satisfactorily completed, will be well on his or her way to accomplishing whatever it is that he or she wants done.

 

 

 

 

42

FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

RE: STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO
“GIVING EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONS”

1. Keep your instructions simple.

2. Never assume anything when issuing instructions.

3. Don’t go over people’s heads when giving instructions. Try to relate with employees’ individual reference points. Speak in terms that will enable workers to identify with your instructions and thoroughly understand the instructions.

4. Whenever possible, demonstrate or dramatize instructions. Draw an illustration. Point it out. Hold it up. Use body language.

5. Change the tone and level of your voice. Be enthusiastic! Encourage workers when issuing instructions.

6. Give positive instructions. Paint a word picture, portraying what it is that you want accomplished, not what you don’t want done. Remember that people will move toward the mental image that you help them form with your instructions. Always project clear, positive, mental pictures.

7. Encourage questions so that you are confident that another completely understands the nature of your specific instructions.

8. Above all, be tactful! Think before speaking. Carefully select your words. Remember that people would rather be asked, not told what to do.

9. Use common sense. Be creative. Ask something that will result in another wanting to follow your instructions.

10. Be cautious of giving too many instructions—too soon. Spread out the workload. Be certain that an employee has sufficient time to complete his or her assignments.

11. Know your people, individually. Issue instructions and assign tasks that can be realistically achieved, but ones that will also stretch a worker’s ability to perform.

 

 

 

 

 

43

SESSION-FIVE REVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

 

1. What are some of the fundamental principles of giving effective instructions?

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. How can you be more tactful in issuing instructions?

 

 

 

 

 

3. When giving instructions, why is it important to reassure an employee’s self-concept and point out “what’s in it for him or her”?

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Employees prefer to be _____________ to do something, not told what to do.

 

44

 

 GROUP DYNAMICS:
EXERCISES RECOMMENDED FOR STAFF MEETINGS

 

Session Topic: “Giving Effective Instructions”

 

Exercise: Your company has just purchased some new product that enhances safety in the workplace. Workers need to learn how to operate the new or updated safety system. Everybody likes a “show.” Workers will better enjoy and they will pay more attention when watching something being done, rather than just being told about it.

Demonstrate the use of the new safety device, instead of verbalizing about its operation. By supplementing your spoken instructions with a demonstration, employees will find it easier to remember what you have said. They will learn faster because you will be appealing to more than simply their sense of hearing. As you engage more human “senses” when giving instructions, you will make a better impression.

 

Exercise: Effective instruction-giving takes practice. Perhaps you will be trying to explain how to fill out a purchase order, work order, invoice, etc. Let employees practice your instructions by having them fill out these forms for themselves.

 

Exercise: Discuss the basic principles of issuing instructions with the entire group. Ask staff members for their constructive criticism concerning your daily instructions. Be open-minded. Exchange ideas about how you can eliminate costly time when issuing instructions. And solicit suggestions about how you can become more tactful and improve the general effectiveness of your instructions.

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45

SESSION SIX

 

 

 

 

 

 

Motivating Employees
and Building Morale

 

 

 

 

 

PRACTICING DYNAMIC
LEADERSHIP

IN THE WORKPLACE

46

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“We usually persuade others more by the depth
of our convictions and enthusiasm,
than by logic and proof.”
— Henry David Thoreau

 

“If you can give your son only one gift,
let it be enthusiasm.”
— Unknown

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

47

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

The word “motivation” comes from the Latin verb “movere,” which means to move. People are motivated or driven to action either because they fear something or because they want something.

Traditionally, too many managers have relied on using fear as a primary motivational source for employee performance and production. Dictator-like tactics of motivating others by threatening various forms of reprimand or punishment or making workers fear the loss of their jobs is becoming far less effective as the years go by. Today, more managers recognize that maximum levels of employee performance and good company-wide morale can better be achieved by constructively motivating workers—motivation based on an “I want to,” instead of an “I have to” approach.

In addition, no amount of tangible rewards (salaries, commissions, bonuses, benefits, awards, prizes, etc.) will necessarily make employees happy with their jobs. More insightful, dynamic leaders will motivate employees by rewarding them both tangibly and psychologically for individual or collective achievements.

Creative and constructive motivation techniques and good employee morale go hand in hand. When employees are working because they are goal driven and want to reach high standards of performance, they will also be working in a business environment that reflects positive, enthusiastic, group morale.

Morale is intangible. It can’t be touched or seen. But if a company has good morale, everyone will know that it’s there. Positive morale is a reflection of team spirit. It brings all employees together, working toward common corporate goals. Good morale lifts people’s attitudes and paves the way for employees to reach seemingly unattainable levels of performance.

An important rule to remember: Nobody works for a company, nor does anybody work for a particular manager. Everybody works for himself or herself. If a manager realizes that it takes more than paychecks to have happy, contented employees and if the manager endeavors to satisfy subordinates’ individual needs, he or she will be half-way home in building positive morale.

Here are twenty (20) tips for motivating employees and building good morale:

1. Show subordinates that you are genuinely interested in them.

2. Treat your workers as individuals, not as faceless members of the group as a whole.

3. Exchange ideas with your employees, and get their help in suggesting positive corporate changes and putting them into effect.

4. Give justifiable explanations for top-management decisions and actions.

48

5. Make your employees believe that their jobs are secure, so long as they keep their end of the bargain.

6. Try to encourage promotions from within the organization.

7. Have your subordinates realize that they are working with you, not for you.

8. Be sure areas of authority and responsibility are clear.

9. Understand that people want to work for more self-fulfilling reasons than money or benefits alone.

10. Develop a more positive mental attitude, and try to shape others into thinking more positively, as well.

11. Set challenging, but realistic performance goals.

12. Express appreciation, individually and collectively, for jobs well done.

13. Frequently compliment your workers, but be sincere with your words of praise.

14. Get full of enthusiasm, and try to rub your enthusiastic nature off on subordinates.

15. Promote mutual cooperation, but respect people for their individualism.

16. When you must criticize or discipline others, do it privately and constructively.

17. Try to be more sensitive to your employees, and help them to fulfill their personal needs.

18. Foster a team spirit, and give employees a sense of belonging.

19. Take employees into your confidence when you can.

20. Be fair, be honest and be objective. Develop a reputation as a positive example-setter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

49

 FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

RE: STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO
“MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES AND BUILDING MORALE”

1. Realize that workers will perform better and be more productive if you motivate them by getting them to want to achieve high-performance goals.

2. Become more sensitive to the feelings, desires and personal interests of your employees.

3. Offering sincere praise and giving sincere compliments will help you to motivate others and create a high-spirited working environment.

4. Employees’ attitudes largely determine their degree of business failure or success. Try to shape positive mental attitudes.

5. The quality of your relationships with employees will heavily influence workers’ personal attitudes and morale.

6. If you assign tasks with emphasis on performance, rather than on activity, and continually reward individual achievement, you will find it easier to build good morale.

7. Give subordinates feelings of belonging. Recognize workers’ efforts. Praise them often for playing active parts in striving for and achieving specific corporate goals.

8. Become an enthusiastic leader. Enthusiasm is a spirit that spreads!

9. Try to improve the quality of both your expressions and your conversations. Be sincere, be vibrant and be imaginative. Your employees’ morale will improve accordingly.

10. Motivating employees and building good morale are the end results of a combination of psychological factors. Understand basic human behavior. Try to manage from a more humanistic approach.

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

SESSION-SIX REVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

 

1. People are motivated or driven to action either because they ________ something or because they _________ something.

2. Motivation should be based on an “__ _______ ___,” rather than on an “__ _______ ___” business approach.

3. Positive morale is a reflection of ____________ ____________ . It brings all employees together, working toward common corporate goals.

4. Enthusiasm is a spirit that ______________!

5. List five ways that you can motivate workers and manage for better morale:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51

GROUP DYNAMICS:
EXERCISES RECOMMENDED FOR STAFF MEETINGS

 

Session Topic: “Motivating Employees and Building Morale”

 

Exercise: Facilitate a group discussion on the topic of “motivation.” Exchange ideas as to whether greater individual and collective production levels will result from a manager who bases motivation on an “I have to” or on an “I want to” approach. Discuss the long-term implications of both of these managerial methods.

Exercise: Relate some of your problems concerning motivation and morale with the entire group. Ask for suggestions on how group morale could be improved and maintained.

Exercise: To prove that people work for better reasons than receiving regular paychecks, have employees write down the following ten job-related factors:

1. Wages

2. Benefits

3. Job security

4. Interesting, challenging work

5. Opportunity for advancement

6. Good working conditions

7. Recognition of achievements

8. Social aspects of the job

9. Business hours

10. Overall job satisfaction

Now, ask staff members to prioritize their reasons for working from one to ten. Compare notes. Arrive at a group consensus of how these ten factors are prioritized with respect to your specific working unit.

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52

SESSION SEVEN

 

 

 

 

 

 

Developing a
Team Concept

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRACTICING DYNAMIC
LEADERSHIP
IN THE WORKPLACE

53

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“The formula for success is putting the right people in the right jobs and
then sitting on the sidelines
being a rousing good cheerleader.”
— A. Marshall Jones

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

54

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

In today’s competitive business world, more and more emphasis is being placed on the idea of employees working together as a team.

Before a manager or supervisor can develop a true team approach, he or she must achieve balance and equilibrium within the rank and file. Six (6) broad areas of human activity can be found in every organization. These are:

1. Personal activities

2. Busy-work activities

3. Social activities

4. Organizational

5. Sales activities

6. Management activities

The manager will have to deal with each of these activities to some degree. The high-performance manager will shape employees’ behaviors in a way that will achieve an effective balance among all six areas of human activity.

By experimenting and learning from personal experience, a manager will be able to compromise with subordinates. Every manager should accept the interweaving aspects of personal activities, busy-work activities and social activities as part of the company’s total business environment. Priorities will be focused on organizational activities, sales activities and management activities, but the objective leader will arrive at a comfortable balance among all six areas of business activities.

Equilibrium denotes the need for a sense of “pace” associated with employees’ work. A manager should establish proper working paces for employees and maintain satisfactory levels of employee intensity. The manager who has the ability to keep overall business activities in balance and who maintains a healthy equilibrium (pace) for workers will begin to witness a total team concept.

The team-oriented manager grants autonomy (personal freedom) and delegates responsibility to all members of his or her workforce. A manager should assess employees’ abilities and the total workload in combination. A dynamic leader will liberate workers, not contain them.

By granting autonomy and delegating responsibility, subordinates can be kept active and steadily learn how to handle business matters, generally. As a result, everyone begins to think and act as a team, each person playing a meaningful part in daily corporate activities.

55

Most people spend more practical time at work than they do at home. A manager should encourage employees to view their co-workers as members of their other family. Working together as a “family” unit means mutual understanding, mutual respect and mutual problem-solving.

To the extent that employees are attracted to their work environment and to the extent that they understand corporate goals and objectives, workers will apply their best collective abilities and energies toward achieving these goals.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

56

 

 FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

RE: STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO “DEVELOPING A TEAM CONCEPT”

1. Remember the six broad areas of activities that can be found in every business (personal, busy-work, social, organizational, sales and management activities). Although your priorities will lie in favor of organizational, sales and management activities, you should achieve a relative balance by devoting some of your time in supervising the other three areas as well.

2. As a dynamic leader, you must discover and maintain an optimum work pace for each of your workers (See exhibit 7-a).You should appreciate the fact that workers will become mentally fatigued if workloads are unreasonable and if employees are working at stressed activity paces. On the other hand, be sure that employees aren’t lacking in purpose and direction. Too slack of activity paces are reflected by workers who have little pride in their work and who are frequently lazy on their jobs.

Being adequately staffed, having well-defined job descriptions, employees who are realistically challenged—these are conditions that portray an optimum work pace. How well you establish and maintain this equilibrium condition will largely determine your ability to develop a true teamwork business approach.

3. In addition, the extent by which you effectively grant autonomy (personal freedom) and delegate responsibility is a key indicator of how successful you will be in getting staff members to work together as a team. Try to make better use of employees’ respective abilities. When you delegate new areas of responsibility, also give workers the necessary latitude and authority to complete these assignments. At the same time, be certain that individuals understand that they will be held personally accountable for satisfactorily completing these tasks.

4. You should liberate workers, not contain them or curtail their abilities. Assess employees’ abilities and the overall workload in combination. Don’t expect subordinates to “carry you” by delegating tasks that your superiors would consider to be a part of your job description. Know just how much of the workload you can delegate (in part or completely) to others.

In preparing the company’s future leaders, it is important that employees learn how to handle business affairs, in general. You and your subordinates should think and act as a team; everyone should play a meaningful part in working toward collective corporate goals.

5. One of the very best ways to foster a teamwork concept is to practice the theory of “what goes around, later comes around.” Try to teach employees the true meaning of these words. Really, it’s the same as the “Golden Rule”: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you!

Sometimes, workers lose perspective. Get employees to look at daily business circumstances and their business relationships with one another in a longer-term perspective. Things have a way of coming back to those who deserve it the most. Subordinates must believe that what is initially

57

lost from a circumstance will be returned to them many times over in the long run.

Here’s an example: On a commission sales floor, one new salesperson, John, steals a sale that should have been credited to (or split with) another salesperson, Judy. John gets the full commission, but all the other salespeople, including Judy, soon find out that they can’t trust John. John’s greed in the short run will come back to cost him in the long run. If John was a giving or sharing individual, his honesty and outstanding character would (in time) gain him the respect of his co-workers, who would bend over backwards to write up (or split) sales with him, repeatedly!

6. Employees desire feelings of belonging. They want personal identity within their respective groups. Your unique leadership style and methods of management will greatly affect your ability to establish “esprit de corps”—people united, practicing total team concepts in pursuit of collective company goals.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

58

EXHIBIT 7-A

LAZY---------------OPTIMUM WORK PACE---------------PRESSURED

Characteristics of an “Optimum Work Pace”:

—Adequate staff

—People-oriented manager or supervisor

—Competitive, challenging work environment

—Individuals rewarded for their achievements

—Goals and objectives-oriented management

—Goals and objectives-oriented workers

—Everyone committed to realistic corporate goals

—Well-defined areas of responsibility

—Employees are held personally accountable for their responsibilities

—Workers are contented and take pride in their work

—People are happy and enjoy their jobs

—Employees aspire for promotions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

59

SESSION-SEVEN REVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

 

1. What six areas of human activity can be found in every business organization?

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

2. The high-performance manager will shape employees’ behaviors in a way that will achieve an effective _______________ among all six areas of human activity.

3. Equilibrium denotes a sense of ___________ associated with employees’ work.

4. In building a team among staff members, you must grant _____________________ (personal freedom) and delegate _________________________.

5. A dynamic leader will _________________ workers, not contain them.

6. “What goes around, later ___________ around!”

7. List six characteristics of an “Optimum Work Pace”:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

 

 

60

 GROUP DYNAMICS:
EXERCISES RECOMMENDED FOR STAFF MEETINGS

 

Session Topic: “Developing a Team Concept”

 

Exercise: Facilitate a group discussion on the topic of teamwork. With respect to the six areas of human activity (personal, busy-work, social, organizational, sales and management activities) that can be found in any business, exchange ideas with staff members about how you can manage to achieve a more effective balance among these six areas of human activity.

 

Exercise: On the subject of delegating responsibilities, have group members voice or write down what they believe should be additional areas of their responsibility. Review their suggestions, and delegate new assignments to those who you believe are ready to handle such tasks.

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61

 

SESSION EIGHT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Managing Others
Creatively

 

 

 

 

PRACTICING DYNAMIC
LEADERSHIP
IN THE WORKPLACE

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“If you’re doing something the same way
you have been doing it for ten years,
chances are that you are doing it wrong.”
— Charles Kettering

“Ideas are our most precious natural resource.
They built America and they build most companies.
A good manager is constantly on the outlook for them.”
— Charles Schwab

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

When it comes to creativity and generating new ideas, many companies overlook the vast reservoir of talent right within their grasps. Employees are the major source for valuable ideas!

Managers should encourage subordinates to be creative thinkers, and openly solicit employees’ business-related suggestions. Every idea or suggestion deserves a fair hearing.

By way of providing a “suggestion box” or a “new idea submittal form,” the manager can initially screen workers’ suggestions. Better ideas should be channeled through to top-management personnel.

A manager should provide regular feedback to the originator of an idea, and follow through on an employee’s suggestion. By so doing, workers will know that their ideas and suggestions are taken seriously. And employees will be inspired to come up with more, perhaps even better, ideas.

Creative leaders can instill a spirit of friendly competition among workers by looking for ways to throw down a challenge. Many years ago, one of the world’s biggest wage earners was Charles Schwab. The steel magnate, Andrew Carnegie, cheerfully paid Schwab a salary of one million dollars a year. Why? Schwab was not particularly educated in the area of steel fabrication. Nor was he any great financial wizard. Then what made him worth so much to the Carnegie Steel Corporation? Andrew Carnegie answered the question when he said, “Charlie has a positive genius for handling men.”

To give an example of Schwab’s people-management expertise, one day he was confronted by the problem of a mill with an especially poor production level. Schwab asked the mill manager, “Why are your men falling so far below their quotas?”

“I really don’t know,” replied the mill manager. “I’ve tried every trick in the book with them. I’ve threatened them. I’ve cussed them. But nothing works. They’re hopeless.”

“Give me a piece of chalk and meet me over there,” Schwab said, in full view of the workers. Chalk in hand, Schwab questioned one of the employees, “How many heats did your shift make today?”

“Six,” the man told him. Schwab bent over, wrote a large “6” on the floor, and walked away. When the night shift reported for duty, they were curious about the number chalked out on the floor. The day shift workers explained what it meant.

The next morning, Schwab dropped by. But his “6” had disappeared. In its place was a large “7,” put there by the night shift. The day shift rose to the challenge. By the time that they left for home, they were able to erase the “7” and replace it with a bold “8.” The night shift responded with a bigger “9.” The day shift countered with a staggering “11.” In no time, this “hopeless”

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mill was transformed into the company’s biggest producer!

“One of the easiest ways to get things done,” Schwab told the mill manager, “is to stimulate a friendly rivalry. I don’t mean in a money-getting way, but in the desire to excel.”

The fair and friendly rivalry instilled by a creative manager who effectively throws down a challenge will result in workers responding, enthusiastically!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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 FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

RE: STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO “MANAGING OTHERS CREATIVELY”

1. Recognize the fact that employees are the company’s major source for receiving new and valuable ideas.

2. Encourage workers to be creative thinkers. Listen to them and have an open mind to their various business ideas and suggestions. Establish an open-door climate, and create an environment by which individual ideas may be born and developed. Constantly let your employees know that their ideas and suggestions may be valuable to the organization.

3. Get subordinates into the habit of troubleshooting. Solicit their opinions on ways to save time and money. Ask them what they would do to improve overall business operations.

4. Incorporate a procedure for formally submitting ideas and suggestions. Make use of a “suggestion box” or a “new idea submittal form.”

5. Give every submitted idea fair consideration. Look at each proposal as a potential winner. Screen workers’ ideas, and pass along better suggestions to your superiors.

6. Provide employees regular feedback, and follow through on various suggestions. If an idea is rejected, give the worker a fair explanation of why his or her idea was turned down.

7. Be sure to give full credit for valuable ideas, where such credit is due. Praise employees for creative thinking. Recognize individuals who submit worthwhile ideas. Ask workers to submit more creative ideas and suggestions.

8. Whenever you can, instill a friendly rivalry among workers by throwing down a challenge.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SESSION-EIGHT REVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

 

 

1. __________________ are the company’s major source for receiving valuable ideas.

 

2. Every idea or suggestion deserves a ___________ _______________.

 

3. A manager should provide _______________ _________________ to the originator of an idea, and _______________ _________________ on an employee’s suggestion.

 

4. Whenever you can, instill a friendly rivalry among workers by ______________ ___________ ___ __________________.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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GROUP DYNAMICS:
EXERCISES RECOMMENDED FOR STAFF MEETINGS

 

Session topic: “Managing Others Creatively”

 

Exercise: Ask group members to write down three ideas that might result in the company saving valuable time and/or money. Have employees read their suggestions. Thoroughly discuss better ideas, and submit these suggestions to top-management personnel.

 

Exercise: Solicit group suggestions on ways that staff members might be more challenged on the job. Get their ideas on how you can instill a friendly, competitive rivalry among the workforce.

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SESSION NINE

 

 

 

 

 

 

Becoming a
High-performance
Manager

 

 

 

 

PRACTICING DYNAMIC
LEADERSHIP
IN THE WORKPLACE

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“Far better is it to dare mighty things,
win glorious triumphs,
though checkered by defeat,
than to rank with those poor spirits
who neither enjoy nor suffer much
because they live in the gray twilight
that knows no victory or defeat.”
— Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

 

Most managers or supervisors settle for reasonable standards of performance. Dynamic, high-performance leaders, however, strive for managerial excellence.

Every company’s most valuable resource is its people. It is people who plan, who organize and who direct all business activities. It is people who make up budgets and who make important decisions. And it is people who sell products, whose words and actions reflect corporate images and who lead others toward specific corporate goals.

The former president of the New York Central Railroad, A.H. Smith, once said of his industry, “A railroad is 95% men and 5% iron.” Few intelligent business people, regardless of their trade, would disagree.

Management training is an on-going process. People who manage well constantly study themselves and their relationships with others. They view management as a comprehensive subject matter. They recognize the virtually endless scope of conceptual, technical and human situations. Not wanting to settle for the “status quo,” determined managers commit themselves to years of study and self-development.

Dynamic leaders, who learn from their experiences and who continually work to get better at what they do, take pride in themselves for managing well. They read, study and take long-term interests in their business careers.

High-performance managers aspire for personal growth. They are committed to the training and development of others. And the companies that they work for benefit from their attitudes and best individual efforts. Such managers or supervisors portray characteristics of managerial excellence.

 

 

 

 

 

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FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

RE: STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO
“BECOMING A HIGH-PERFORMANCE MANAGER”

1. Determine to strive for managerial excellence.

2. Analyze your personal leadership style. Build self-confidence and lead others by setting a positive example.

3. Win the cooperation of your people by identifying with them, emotionally. Learn to go by the heart, not always by the book.

4. Select a qualified assistant. Consider this person to be a “manager in training.”

5. Work on your communication skills. To the extent that you can truly relate with others, you will become a better manager, accordingly.

6. Develop goals and objectives-oriented thought and behavior patterns. Teach others to become goal-oriented thinkers and doers, as well.

7. Create a reward-centered environment. Reward employees both tangibly and psychologically for their efforts and achievements.

8. Secure employee commitment. Remember that a worker’s satisfaction with his or her job will greatly affect that person’s commitment.

9. Sharpen your skills in giving instructions. Learn the fine art of being tactful.

10. Motivate employees from an “I want to” approach. Whenever possible, talk to the other person’s point of view. Show another “what’s in it for him or her.” Be quick to sincerely compliment others; be slow to criticize. Keep your criticism of another constructive in nature, and do it privately.

11. Learn to be flexible and open-minded. When you make mistakes, fully admit it. Claim your right to be wrong, and grant this right to others.

12. Promote team behavior. Cite collective goals and objectives. Work together as a “family” unit. Believe that collective (team) action will lead to collective (team) success.

13. Grant autonomy (personal freedom) to others, and delegate responsibility. Liberate employees, don’t contain or curtail them.

14. Exercise your ability to mobilize human energy. Get people involved. Motivate them into action.

15. Set challenging but realistic business goals. Make certain that employees are working at

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optimum paces to achieve these corporate goals.

16. Learn to speak in performance terms. Cite goals, objectives and potential payoffs.

17. Hold yourself accountable for your responsibilities. Subordinates should be held accountable for their responsibilities, as well.

18. Be a successful problem-solver. Use the five-step “problem-solving formula.”

19. Become an effective decision-maker. Gather as much information as possible, and make an important decision when any further delay would jeopardize the quality of that decision.

20. Develop an assertive attitude. Be a self-starter and continually take the initiative to move forward.

21. Learn to bounce back from untimely setbacks. Don’t dwell on past mistakes or shortcomings. Quickly re-plan and move on to bigger and better things.

22. Be an objective leader. Never play favorites.

23. Become a good teacher. Knowing how to do something and being able to teach it are two different concepts. Do whatever you can to help make others successful.

24. Be sensitive to others individual interests and needs. Use more powerful, psychological, need satisfiers.

25. Remember that business equals customer. Promote your company’s good image in the

public marketplace, and do everything possible (within company guidelines) to satisfy your customers.

26. Respect your company’s “chain of command” (see “Working with Superiors” in the “Additional Leadership Materials” section). Be certain that subordinates understand and follow the chain of command, as well.

27. Solicit ideas and suggestions from your workers.

28. Inspire creative thinking.

29. Manage a results department. Associate payoffs (desired results) with corporate goals and objectives.

30. Practice the “psychology of winning.” There is a fine line between failure and success in business. Be a tough but fair competitor. Apply yourself to the best of your individual abilities. Follow through on whatever you set out to do. Teach others to do the same.

 

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SESSION-NINE REVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

 

1. Listed in the “From Theory to Practice” segment of this session, thirty (30) characteristics or factors are associated with becoming a high-performance manager. Which of these characteristics or factors are you currently missing or neglecting?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. What will you do to portray all of these traits?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Management training is an ______ ___________ process!

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GROUP DYNAMICS:
EXERCISES RECOMMENDED FOR STAFF MEETINGS

 

Session Topic: “Becoming a High-performance Manager”

 

Exercise: This group dynamics exercise deals with the effects of constructive criticism. Openly criticize an employee in full view of his or her peers. AS THIS IS ONLY AN EXERCISE, BE CAREFUL NOT TO BADLY EMBARRASS OR DAMAGE THIS PERSON’S SELF-CONCEPT. Analyze this worker’s facial expressions and his or her responses to criticism in the midst of others. Evaluate the general effectiveness of such public criticism with input from the group as a whole.

Now call another worker aside, and issue similar critical remarks in a private conversation. Compare the results of this approach with the first method. The moral should be clear: When you must criticize someone, do it privately!

(Important note: Public praise is the most effective incentive of all. So long as your compliments are sincere ones, praise others in view of their peers. Use this approach more often. You will love the results.)

 

Exercise: To generate some excitement among staff members, share some inside information with them. Perhaps your company just topped a competitor in some area, or your firm may have just taken on a new and lucrative account. Maybe the organization has recently experienced a major breakthrough in research and development, or the company has just been publicly recognized (in the newspaper, perhaps) in some manner.

Too many days go by where business activities are strictly routine. Provide employees with a sense of “fanfare” by informing them of more interesting company developments. Tell workers “who” among them has just received a performance bonus, has just been given an achievement award, has earned special recognition, etc. Employees want to feel that something good could happen to them. The idea of future recognition will motivate workers, build better morale and trigger a winning spirit.

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Supplement:
Additional Leadership Materials

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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HIRING AND FIRING

Hiring and firing people requires sound business judgment on the part of the manager.

HIRING

Every company’s “employment application” should be clear, comprehensive and in compliance with Federal and State employment regulations.

Resumes and application forms should be carefully reviewed before the supervisor or personnel manager interviews prospective applicants. The manager must have basic knowledge of an applicant’s background and specific qualifications for the job.

The manager or supervisor must be prepared for each interview appointment. He or she should be punctual for a scheduled appointment.

The setting for job interviews should be a little informal so that both parties will be comfortable and feel at ease during the interview. Interviews should be conducted privately, professionally and without outside interruptions. The manager should be ready to carry on a two-way, meaningful, information-seeking conversation with the applicant.

The interviewer must be in control at all times during interview sessions. A manager should be skilled in asking pertinent, open-ended questions about an applicant’s personal qualifications.

It is the manager’s responsibility to accurately state the facts concerning corporate job descriptions, company policies, pay plans, benefit packages, etc. An applicant should be encouraged to ask questions about the company during interviews so that both parties are learning job-related information from each other. After the initial interview, the manager should take the time to carefully screen top candidates for the job. To be more objective when hiring people, the manager should discuss many applicants’ qualifications with some number of his or her managerial colleagues.

Hiring people requires patience. It is highly recommended that the most qualified applicants be brought back for at least second interviews.

A manager must appreciate the fact that it costs his firm plenty of money to run employment ads, interview people and train new workers. In spite of applicants who have promising qualifications, hiring employees is a risky part of a manager’s overall responsibilities. To put the percentages of success in his or her favor, a manager should carefully consider all of the information available. It is wise to hire individuals who meet, but do not surpass the qualifications for particular jobs.

Immediately after hiring people, the manager must have new employees fill out and sign all applicable “tax forms.” In addition, the manager or supervisor should have new workers read and sign any pertinent “employment agreement forms” or whatever documents the company requires to be signed by new employees.

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FIRING

Firing people should be a manager’s last alternative. Generally speaking, employment terminations can be avoided by managers who are proficient in the areas of employee guidance and counseling. If an organization experiences excessive employee turnover, top-management personnel should look closely at the company’s current “policies and procedures” literature. Some of this material may need to be revised. Every manager must remember that, in many cases, employee terminations reflect failure, not just on the part of departing workers but on the part of management methods, as well.

When it has to be done, these six (6) rules should be followed by a manager who terminates an employee:

1. Firing someone should be a planned circumstance.

2. Firing an employee should take place privately, and the worker should be given a face-to-face explanation.

3. For everybody’s protection, put it in writing.

4. Be considerate when firing someone.

5. Settle up with the discharged worker fairly and quickly. The terminated individual should not be unnecessarily delayed in receiving his or her final paycheck, vacation pay, stock option papers, profit sharing, severance pay, etc.

6. Always offer to give the discharged employee an objective job reference.

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SHAPING POSITIVE MENTAL ATTITUDES

Every employee, either a manager or a subordinate, wants to feel good about himself or herself on the job. Content, happy employees will work hard to hold on to those good feelings. Employees’ attitudes are not merely side effects, but basic elements of business failure or success. The manager must create and maintain a positive-minded work environment.

A worker’s attitude may be shaped by many factors. Perhaps the most significant aspect is the quality of manager-employee relationships. A manager or supervisor should never lose sight of the fact that his or her business relationships with subordinates will have heavy influence on their general mental attitudes.

Developing more positive attitudes goes hand in hand with teaching employees to think in terms of goals, objectives and payoffs. If the manager will delegate assignments with emphasis on performance, instead of activity, and if he or she will reward employees’ achievements, the manager will find it easier to build morale and promote positive thinking.

The general business climate will be very influential in shaping employees’ attitudes and patterns of behavior. Workers want to enjoy a sense of belonging. They desire to be recognized and sincerely praised for playing active parts in achieving specific corporate goals. The high-performance manager will foster a keen sense of employee involvement. He or she will teach others to understand the underlying purpose of their work assignments and help them to find personal satisfaction in their accomplishments.

The hard facts of today’s competitive business world are not so important as how one perceives these conditions. At times, managing a business can be a stressful, frustrating experience. Customer traffic flows may be sporadic, telephones can ring constantly, employees may have personal or business-related problems, etc. There will be periods of storm and stress. The manager should recognize and effectively solve problems, which are bound to arise, but he or she should not dwell on these difficult moments or periods.

A dynamic leader possesses an optimistic frame of mind. Certainly, everyone can stand to improve his or her mental posture. Shaping positive attitudes will enable the manager to

strengthen morale. Being optimistic and having a positive mental outlook can truly work miracles for the manager and for the staff as a whole.

A manager or supervisor can shape positive attitudes as he or she has the ability to generate excitement among the group. The manager’s loyalty, overall attitude and best efforts combine to form the backbone of his or her managerial success. Employees who arrive on the job early, who go the “extra mile” and who boast of their company to friends and relatives—these workers have confidence in management. Such employees feel like active participants of a winning team. Those men and women enable their company to prosper and grow.

Every high-performance manager must become a specialist in person-to-person communications.

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Employees should be taught to reform their attitudes by replacing negative thoughts and expressions with more positive ones. Workers should be asked to withdraw phrases like “I can’t,” “I might” and “I think” from their vocabularies. They should talk in more affirmative terms. Phrases like “I can,” “I will” and “I believe” should be added to everyday conversations.

A manager should look for ways to generate enthusiasm among staff members. Enthusiasm is a positive human emotion. It is an intangible, priceless personal quality. Most importantly, enthusiasm is a spirit that spreads. To be enthusiastic, a manager must become awake and alive. He or she should get full of vigor, increase the number of his or her smiles and improve the quality of his or her expressions and conversations.

The dynamic, charismatic leader will frequently meet with employees, individually and as a group. A manager should discuss problems with subordinates and encourage their thoughts and ideas. He or she should share managerial problems, to some degree, building employee trust and respect in the process. A manager must be understanding and develop a reputation of fairness with workers. In these ways and others, a high-spirited leader can create a climate that is almost “electric”—an atmosphere that shines bright from collective enthusiasm.

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CONDUCTING STAFF MEETINGS

Staff meetings should be planned in advance and have specific agendas. The purpose of staff meetings is to hold constructive, informative sessions. Properly conducted, staff meetings are beneficial in many ways. Employees need to know how they are doing, individually and as a group. Workers need to be informed of new products, policy changes and other company developments.

Oftentimes, executive-level personnel or guest speakers will be present at staff meetings. Employees get the opportunity to meet and get acquainted with top-management people and various factory representatives or other professional people in the industry.

In addition, in-house problems can be discussed and resolved in staff meetings. New goals and objectives can be outlined. The motivational manager or supervisor will capitalize on opportunities to praise employees in front of their peers and compliment the group as a whole.

Whenever top-management personnel are present during a staff meeting, it is important that the manager speaks with his or her superiors about the agenda before the meeting takes place. All management personnel should be on the same page to uniformly represent the company in a group presentation.

A manager should make the most of the time allotted for staff meetings. All personnel should be in attendance. The proceedings should begin on time, without any unnecessary delays. Important topics should be discussed in order of priority, and subordinates should be asked to actively participate in these discussions.

Absentees should have good reasons for not being in attendance. A manager must later relate the more important business matters discussed during the meeting with those who were not able to attend.

Staff meetings allow the manager to get all workers involved in group exercises and in role-playing situations. A portion of each meeting should be reserved so that the manager can facilitate various exercises in group dynamics. Many examples of such exercises have been recommended throughout this nine-session leadership-training course.

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PREPARING PEOPLE FOR PROMOTIONS

An important part of the manager’s job is to be on the outlook for employees who have aspirations and abilities for management careers. The perspective manager or supervisor looks for these kind of personal characteristics, exhibited by those who want to be future company leaders:

Employees who are:

Dependable / Reliable / Punctual

Responsible / Trustworthy / Accountable

Honest / Sincere / Believable

Insightful / Perspective / Creative

Employee-oriented / Customer-oriented

Potential Teachers / Good at relating with others

Competitive, but fair / Team players / Achievement-oriented

Good organizers / Detail proficient

Positive-minded / Open-minded / Willing to learn

Self-confident / Self-motivated / Goal driven

Objective / Fair/ Good problem solver

Attentive / Communicative / Assertive

Unselfish / Giving / Reward-conscious

Resourceful / Independent / Positive example-setter

Everyone should be given an equal opportunity for advancement. An insightful manager will encourage workers who have the abilities and the interests to move up the corporate ladder.

A manager or supervisor should observe subordinates, carefully. Especially, the manager should watch for employees who repeatedly “go the extra mile” and who have a real “willingness to learn.” Management trainees need to be skilled in the areas of leadership and managing human resources.

Preparing the company’s future leaders requires a manager to teach others to the best of his or her ability. A good training manager will continually discuss business matters with those who

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aspire for promotions. The manager should focus on trainees’ various strengths and weaknesses and share more meaningful business experiences with them. Potential managers should be asked how they will go about earning subordinates’ trust and respect, securing employees’ commitments, motivating workers, building morale, developing a team concept, etc.

The manager should make good use of all available management and leadership training materials. Management trainees should be advised to read books on the subject and take courses on business management, humanistic psychology, possibility thinking, business leadership, etc.

Preparing employees for promotion is a developmental process. It requires setting realistic timetables. Trainees must understand the need for patience and realize that their chances of succeeding as dynamic leaders are dependent upon how well they are prepared for advancement.

In the final stages of preparing workers for promotions, the manager should accelerate the training procedure. He or she should list important areas still to be covered, prioritize each of these areas and cover all of the bases with respect to trainees’ management preparation.

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EVALUATING EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE

Employee evaluations are important for two main reasons:

1. Evaluations provide a tool so that employees can measure their performances in relation to where they want their abilities to take them in the future.

2. Evaluations permit managers to sit in conferences with employees to discuss personal business strengths and to mutually decide how any personal weaknesses can be turned into strengths.

Every manager or supervisor should periodically evaluate workers’ performances by way of meaningful employee-evaluation forms. These forms should be used as instruments of self-improvement. A manager must learn to evaluate performances, not personalities. Evaluation conferences should be regularly scheduled and conducted at least twice a year. These evaluations will aid the manager in initiating positive actions, which will result in greater individual and collective achievement. High-performance managers use evaluation sessions as a means to encourage workers and develop employees’ commitments to the organization.

The objective manager will allow employees to appraise themselves before the manager evaluates performances. It should be interesting to see the differences between how subordinates view themselves and how their manager assesses workers’ performance standards.

Evaluation conferences should be held for strategic planning and goal setting, rather than for holding trials over past mistakes or shortcomings. During evaluation meetings, the manager and subordinate should speak in terms of potential and concentrate on future performance. Used in a positive way, evaluation forms and conferences can be very instrumental for motivating workers. Time should be spent on helping employees write down new goals and objectives. Also, the manager should associate payoffs (desired results and/or rewards) with workers’ future achievements. When a manager finds it necessary to reprimand an employee for having a negative attitude, for misconduct, for poor performance, etc., such criticism should be constructive in nature. Critical remarks should reflect positive implications and result in a worker wanting to improve behaviors or standards of performance. An insightful, creative manager will find some way to sincerely praise a worker before taking any actions to reprimand the employee. A high-performance manager is constructively critical only of the subordinates behavior or careless mistakes, not of the worker’s personality. An employee should be able to accept criticism and consider a reprimand as a springboard to improved performance.

Effectively conducted, evaluation conferences will help to motivate workers and gain employees’ commitments to the organization. Regularly scheduled evaluation meetings should be an integral part of every manager’s or supervisor’s management format. Objective conferences that focus on future performances will have positive, morale-building effects on both employees and the manager.

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WORKING WITH SUPERIORS

The view from the “top” of a corporation is usually much different than what employees see from all other levels within a company. Corporate executives must deal with problems that affect the organization’s continued existence.

It is important that top-management personnel project the firm’s “big picture” (basic corporate goals) to all other levels in the organization. If they do, lower-level managers or supervisors can keep business activities in better perspective with overall corporate goals.

Sometimes, lower-level managers don’t understand business decisions made at the top of their company. Much “tunnel vision” could be eliminated if lower-level managers would respect the idea that their superiors’ decisions are based on awesome, bottom-line, profit and loss responsibilities.

To develop and maintain a proper perspective with respect to the company’ s big picture, managers should encourage their superiors to hold regularly scheduled management meetings. Constant communication makes it easier to see things from top-management’s point of view.

Management meetings allow lower-level managers the opportunity to propose potentially valuable ideas and receive additional insight into overall corporate affairs. Also, management meetings enable managers to keep their superiors informed as to what is happening within lower-level managers’ departments. Managers can give superiors constant feedback relative to employees’ progress and customers’ changing needs.

As company growth makes it impossible for the top person to directly control all business matters, a network of authority and communication, flowing from the top of the organization on down, must be created. This strategic form of authority and influence is referred to as the company’s chain of command. Every member of the organization must always respect and follow the company’s chain of command. If not already provided, lower-level managers should request an “organizational chart,” which spells out the corporation’s chain of command. Finally, all managers must make certain that subordinates are fully aware of the company’s organizational chart and that workers strictly follow this order of corporate authority.

So long as the chain of command is adhered to, managers should be allowed to consult with their superiors from an “open door” standpoint. With an open door policy, more effective channels of communication will emerge between lower-level managers and executive-level superiors.

Sometimes, conversing with superiors or a company owner becomes a delicate matter. Managers or supervisors must be careful not to tamper with a business owner’s personal pride. Managers will seldom get positive results by telling a company owner how to run his or her business affairs.

Relating with superiors is mainly a matter of using good common sense. Managers should speak

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with their superiors in performance terms (goals, objectives and payoffs). As they would with their subordinates, managers must remember to be tactful when speaking with superiors.

Lower-level managers must keep in mind that corporate executives are, after all, human beings. Top-management personnel want to be recognized and praised for their efforts, just like everyone else in the organization. Superiors should be sincerely complimented for business-related contributions and accomplishments. Just as important, department leaders should show superiors that they are proud to be contributing members of the company’s total management team.

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IMPROVING CUSTOMER RELATIONS

Business equals customer! On the bottom line, customers define the nature of every business enterprise. And the degree of any company’s success can be measured by the number of that corporation’s satisfied customers.

The total dollar investment and overhead expenses in operating a profitable business are high, and these costs are rising with each passing year. In addition to operational expenses, most companies have to confront the challenges of heavy competition in the marketplace. To meet these risk factors and insure corporate success, corporate leaders have to constantly maintain a business-customer “match” between products or services provided and consumers’ respective needs. Lower and mid-level management personnel must keep corporate executives informed as to customers’ changing interests with regard to products and services.

The high-performance manager will do his or her part to develop and maintain sound customer relations. All employees should be trained to look at business matters from customers’ points of view.

Creating a professional business environment is essential to establishing sound customer relations. Business offices and other facilities should be kept clean, safe and well-lighted. Well-organized and clean working areas reflect a more appealing, customer-oriented, business atmosphere.

Professionalism at every level within the organization is all-important. To project a positive, professional, corporate image, the manager must enforce company dress codes and tightly supervise employees’ behaviors, mannerisms and their approaches to handling customers. Smoking, snacking, drinking soda pop or using profanity in the midst of customers must never be tolerated. And, of course, arguments or shouting matches between workers or between workers and customers must not be permitted.

In handling customer complaints, the manager should try his or her best to solve these problems and do everything (within company guidelines) to satisfy customers, building better customer relations in the process.

Customer complaints should always be taken seriously. After there has been a problem

whereby a customer has contacted a manager or other staff member, the dissatisfied customer may be angry or, at least, defensive in nature. Customer complaints are part of managerial responsibilities. Subordinates who receive customer-complaint calls or who first speak with dissatisfied customers should be instructed to turn these problems over to their immediate manager or supervisor as quickly as possible.

 The manager should allow the customer an opportunity to thoroughly voice his or her complaint. The manager should listen to the customer, attentively, and gather all of the facts.

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The customer wants satisfaction. And he or she deserves to get all of what was agreed upon at the time of purchase and in good condition. If a complaint is justified, the manager should readily admit it. The customer needs to be reassured that the problem will be resolved right away. And the manager must live up to any such promise.

A manager should never “pass the buck” where customer complaints are concerned. He or she should concentrate on solving the problem. Determining who made the mistake (if anyone was directly responsible) is an in-house matter, which can be dealt with after the customer’s problem has been resolved.

Customer complaints can be blessings in disguise. The manager who deals with customers’ problems honestly and diplomatically will generally convert these complaints into real advantages. If a manager acts swiftly to take care of customers’ problems, the chances are good that these customers will have renewed faith and confidence in the company. Satisfied customers will return for additional products or services, and they will go out of their way to refer others to that reputable place of business.

The high-performance manager will do everything possible to promote corporate goodwill. Building long-term repeat and referral business is what managing for improved customer relations is all about!

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CONCLUDING REMARKS

Managerial excellence is not for everyone. What about you? Will you possess the personal initiative and determination to excel in your specific trade? Will you be among the majority who settle for average or reasonable standards of managerial performance, or do you aspire to become one of the very best in your business?

The theme throughout this course has been managerial excellencea guide to more effective people management. Hopefully, you will seek to understand and practice the many principles and concepts associated with dynamic leadership. Undoubtedly, you already apply some number of these managerial qualities. If you do and if you begin to manage in those areas that you have previously neglected, your overall performance will improve, dramatically.

You have just completed a program that was designed to make you think and act in terms of what “people management” is all about. The emphasis has been on how to better manage employees from virtually every standpoint of a manager’s interactions with others. Perhaps you have gained some valuable insight along the way.

The degree of your success as a manager will depend, largely, on how much you think about and begin to practice these important leadership principles and concepts. If you simply “go through the motions” with this training program to satisfy your superiors, you may be overestimating how much you know about effectively managing human resources. Ideally, however, you will have learned a great deal from this material, and you will repeatedly refer back to this guide as a ready-reference source for managerial excellence.

When it comes to learning, there is no real substitute for first-hand, personal experience. But this program should have added to your business perspectives and saved you valuable time next to what could have taken you many years to learn from your own experiences. At any rate, as the author of this leadership-training guide, I want to extend my best in wishing you a successful, a profitable and a self-fulfilling management career!

THE END

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E-mail: johnbartosh@yahoo.com

 

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