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                                             ISSN: 0898-6827  
      A   A   C   A   R       B   U   L   L   E   T   I   N  
              of the Association for the Advancement  
                    of Central Asian Research  
                       Editor: H. B. PAKSOY  
                     Vol. IV, No. 2, Fall 1991  
         EDITORIAL ADDRESS: BOX 2321  AMHERST, MA 01004   
                  SHOULD BE SENT TO THE EDITOR.  
                          IN THIS ISSUE  
     --  Sultan H seyin Baykara (r. 1469-1506),  RISALE-I  
     HUSEYIN BAYKARA. In commemoration of the 550th  
     anniversary of Ali Shir Navai (1441-1501).  
     --  Alfred Rehder, SAKSAUL  
     --  News of the Profession  
     --  Bibliography  
     --  Book Reviews  
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     2    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
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     4    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  

                     RISALE-I H SEYIN BAYKARA    

          Central Asians are currently celebrating the 550th  
     birth anniversary of the acclaimed Central Asian poet  
     and statesman Ali Shir Navai (1441-1501). AACAR  
     BULLETIN joins the celebration by reproducing in  
     transliteration the contents of a pamphlet written in  
     Navai's lifetime praising Navai's work. Due to  
     technical difficulties (none of which would have  
     constituted an obstacle, save for the limitations of  
     our budget), the Chaghatay text below cannot contain  
     all of the appropriate diacritics. For the same  
     reasons, at times some superfluous diacritics have also  
     crept in. For those with facility in the original  
     Chaghatay, we trust this would but be a minor irritant.  
          To our knowledge there is no translation of this  
     work. Reportedly of Uyghur descent, Navai was one of  
     the premier literati and statesman of his time, wrote  
     voluminously and with apparent ease in Chaghatay, a  
     Turkish dialect, and Persian, and concomitantly was the  
     long serving 'prime minister' (perhaps better described  
     as the boon companion) of the Timurid H seyin Baykara  
     (r. 1469-1506) of Herat and Khorasan. Much of his  
     writings remain untranslated.[1] In 1500,  zbeks --a  
     newly constituted confederation on the historical  
     pattern of previous Turkish confederations[2]--  of  
     Shibani (a.k.a. Shaybani) Khan entered Transoxiana.  
     Shibani Khan declared the end of the Timurids. Shibani  
     himself fell in battle in 1510, fighting against the  
     Safavids (dynasty r. 1501-1736)[3] of Shah Ismail (r.  
     1501-1524). Shah Ismail was in return defeated by the  
     Ottoman Sultan Selim I (r. 1512-1520) at Chaldiran, in  
     1514.[4] Shibani and  zbeks also fought Bab r, founder  
     of the "Moghul" empire in India,[5] portions of which  
     events are covered in Baburnama.[6] Bab r sought and  
     received the aid of Shah Ismail and his kizilbash  
     5    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
          A direct descendant of Timur (d. 1405), Sultan  
     H seyin Baykara (r. 1469-1506), ruled Herat and  
     Khorasan.[7] The politics of the place and period was  
     apparently such that Baykara saw it fit to praise Navai  
     in writing. The occasion must have been after Navai  
     completed his MUHAKEMAT AL-LUGHATEYN, in which the  
     relative merits of Turkish (in its T rki, otherwise  
     known as Chaghatay, dialect spoken in Central Asia) and  
     Persian are discussed.[8] The method of arguments  
     adumbrated in that work can not necessarily hold in  
     today's environment. However, the implications are  
     clear. Navai, as well as Baykara, are making their  
     positions clear: they are on the side of T rki.  
     Earlier, under the patronage of Sultan Mahmud of the  
     Turkish Ghaznavid dynasty,[9] the Persian poet Firdawsi  
     collected the fragments of the old Persian epics and  
     reworked them into his SHAHNAMA.[10]  
          This pamphlet by Baykara was first discovered in a  
     regional library of the Turkish Republic, bound with  
     the works of another medieval author. It appears to be  
     the only known copy.  
          The facsimile of the Baykara pamphlet and its  
     Latin alphabet transliteration were published in the  
     Turkish Republic by I. Ertaylan, immediately after the  
     Second World War. Compliments of the AACAR BULLETIN,  
     facsimiles of the original of this pamphlet and its  
     Latin alphabet transliteration, have been sent  
     separately to various educational and research  
     institutions in Central Asia. We trust that they will  
     be made available to the rest of Central Asians, as a  
     part of this year long Navai celebration.  
     1. For the collected works of Navai, see A. S. Levend,  
     ALI SIR NEVAI (Ankara, 1965-68) 4 Vols. T rk Dil Kurumu  
     Yayini. See also ENCYCLOPEDIA ISLAM.  
     6    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     2. See H. B. Paksoy, "Z. V. Togan: The Origins of the  
     Kazaks and the  zbeks" presented to the 42nd Annual  
     Meeting of the Association for Asian Studies. (Chicago.  
     April 6, 1990).   
     3. Roger M. Savory, IRAN UNDER THE SAFAVIDS (Cambridge  
     University Press, 1980).  
     4. S. J. Shaw & E. K. Shaw, HISTORY OF THE OTTOMAN  
     EMPIRE AND MODERN TURKEY (Cambridge University Press,  
     1976-1978) Two Vols. Second Printing 1978.  
     5. For the period, see Lt. Col. Sir Wolseley Haig & Sir  
     (Cambridge, 1922-1953), Vol III, TURKS AND AFGHANS  
     (Cambridge, 1928). M. G. S. Hodgson, in his THE VENTURE  
     CIVILIZATION (Chicago, 1974), 3 Vols., suggests that  
     the above cited 1928 volume should now be corrected  
     with other readings. See also V. Smith, OXFORD HISTORY  
     OF INDIA (Oxford, 1958).  
     6. THE BABUR-NAMA IN ENGLISH, (Memoirs of Babur) Anette  
     S. Beveridge, Tr. (London, 1922). It has been reprinted  
     in 1969.  
     ASIA Vol. II, ULUG BEG. (Leiden, 1963).   
     8. Ali Shir Navai, MUHAKEMAT AL-LUGHATEYN, Robert  
     Devereux (Tr.) (Leiden, 1966).   
     9. C. E. Bosworth, THE GAZNAVIDS: THEIR EMPIRE IN  
     AFGHANISTAN AND EASTERN IRAN, 994-1040 (Beirut, 1973)  
     (2nd Ed.)  
     7    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     10. Theodor N ldeke, (Tr.) (Bombay, 1930).  
                     RISALE-I H SEYIN BAYKARA  
     Subhanahu ve ta'ala.  
     Hamd   sena ol padisahlar padisahiga, kim her padisah,  
     kim andin azimrak m mkin bolmagay, anin seraperde-i  
     azamet u celali tigresinde kemine geda durur.  
          Huday ki her sah-i enc m-sipah  
          Aning dergehide ir r kah-i rah  
     Callat azamatuhu ve celaluhu ve ammat makramatuhu ve  
     navaluhu ve d r d-i bi intiha ol risalat tahtgahinin  
     mesned-nisinige kim her taht-giri, ki meh e-i livasi  
     koyasdin  tkey, anin saye-i alemide sefaathah-i  
          Resuli kim r s ld r bar a hayli  
          Ir r kevn u mekan aning tufeyli  
     Sallallahu alayhi ve ala alihi ve hulafa'ihi ve  
     ashabihi. Bu rakamning rakimi ve bu tahrirning  
          S rgen bu varak y zige hame  
          Bir gam-zede-i siyahname  
     Al muhta  ila rahmatillahi'l-Malik al-gafur, fakir-i  
     hakir Sultan Huseyn bin Mansur mundak beyan kilur kim,  
       n Tengri tabaraka ve ta'ala kainatni ademdin v cudga  
     likturdu ve mahlukatning yokin bar kildu, bari  
     aferinisdin maksud insan irdi, kim andin haber bir r.  
     Ba v cud ol, kim beni Ademni cemi'i mahlukatga m kerrem  
     8    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     kildi, kim mundin artuk mertebe bola almas. Ve mundin  
     biyik r tbeni akil baver likmas; velikin bu nimet  
     s krin eda kilganda vade kildi, kim inayetni taze ve  
     nimet bi-endaze kilgay, kim bu maniga muhbir durur.  
     Eger i aning nimetlerining s kri edasida kisining her  
     ser-i muy bir til ve alardin her til hejd m ming senaga  
     kayil bolsa, andak kim sezavar durur. S kr-i nimet  
     becay kilt rmek m mkin irmes velikin her kisi  z hod  
     haliga s kr-i nimet eda kilmay hem bolmas.  
          Aning s krin ayturda bolma mel l  
           zi bils n er kilsa red ya kabul  
          Nikim Tengri emr etti me'mursin  
          Veli evvelce m mkin turur sa'y kil  
          Ki huy eylegey Tengri S krige til  
     Emma ger i halayikga s kr vacib turur velikin   n ayet-  
     i kerime sabit turur. Mundin malum bolur, kim hedaya ve  
     ni'am tagi m tefavit bolgay. Si'ir:  
          Hak nuri bile eger i r sen-d r cem  
          Hursid bile velik teng bolmadi sem  
     Bes ka an, kim insanning hilkati meratibide tafav t  
     zahir ve Hak ta'alaning ni'met ve ihsanida dagi her  
     kisige  z makduriga g re in'am kilgan cihetdin tefav d  
     araga kirdi. Elbette kirek, kim s kr edasida tagi  
     tefav t bolgay.   
          Gedaga s kr isi bolgay gedaca  
          Velikin padisaha padisaca  
     9    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     Pers yakin, boldi kim padisahlar, kim alarni Hak Ta'ala  
     alem m lkide tac-bahs u taht-nisin kildi, belki  
     zillullah-i fil'l-arzayn itti, h k mleri alem ilige  
     revan ve dehr ili kulluklarida natuvan. Beyt:  
          Kaslarida halk isi efkendelik  
          Emirleriga il itib bendelik  
     Mukarrer turur, kim bu cemaatga s kr-i nimet edasi  
     efzunrak ve s kr-g zarlik tili uzunrak kirek bolgay ve  
     bu salatin arasida tagi ba'zidan ba'ziga tevaf t bar.  
     Nidin, kim Hayy-i Kadir ve padisah-i bi vezirning  
     inayeti bar aga yeksan bolmadi. Ve ting-dest birmedi.  
     Ol cema'atdin kim alarga s kr-i ni'met baridin k prek  
     vacib-turur. Hayalga andak kil r, kim biri bu fakir-i  
     natuvan ve bu sikeste-i bisaman turur, kim eger y z  
     ming yil  mr tapib y z ming til bile s kr-g zarlik  
     kilsam, aning in'amining y z mingidin birige eda-yi  
     s kr kila almagaymin. Ni e tagi bu nev bolsa, hatir  
     tiler, kim ol kerem u inayet ve ol eltaf-i  
     binihayetning k ridin azi beyanga kilgey; belki mingdin  
     biri kalem tili bile varak y zige bitilgeni ol c mledin  
     biri bu, kim eger i ba'zi selatinga bu sikeste  
     bendesidin k prek memleket ve cah ve hezayin ve sipah  
     birdi; velikin alarning k nglige bu cihetdin gurur yol  
     tapdi ve s kr g zarlik iside f tur y zlendi. Bu fakirge  
     himmeti nasib kildi, kim y z alarga birgence sevket ve  
     milk k ngl mni magrur kila almas ve ubudiyyetim  
     esbabiga kkusur salmas. Eger alarding ba'zinin itimadi  
     aning lutf u keremiga boldi ve eger alardin ba'zini  
     dena'et-i neseb cihetidin mat'un kildi. Emma bu  
     za'ifning yitti ve belki yitmis ataga a aba u ecdadimin  
     saltanat ve belki vilayetga m serref ve makrun itti.  
     Eger basidin saltanat  bheti ve gururidin fakrul fena  
     ehliga istigna ve ser b lendlig yitk rdi. Bu natuvandin  
     ol rafi'ussan g ruhga hakisarlik bile niyazmendlik  
     yitk rdi. Beyt:  
     10    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
          Ger alem ilige sah kildi  
          Fakr ehliga haki rah kildi.  
     Ve bazi hem bolgay kim, alarni hilye-i z hd u ta'at  
     araste ve ziver-i ilm u belagat bile piraste kilib  
     turur. Ve likin bi sikestening hatiriga bu tarikni  
     m stahsen ve dilpezir ve ol azizlerni makbul u binazir  
     k rk zdi ve alar ruhiga mindin fatiha bile istimdad ve  
     ol ruhaniyyetlerdin mining isimge k p f tuh k sad  
     tig rdi ve ba'zining zamanida ihtiyarlik evlad-i  
     barif'at ve itibarlik erkan-i devletdin fukara ve  
     mesakinge ve ri'aya-yi mesakkat ayinga zulm-i bihad ve  
     te'addi-i bi'aded boldi. Bu  ftadening asrida fukara u  
     mesakin bu gamlardin sad ve ri'aya-yi namurad bu  
     kayidlardin azad boldi. Ve ba'zinin zamanida sud r-i  
     zulm-pise ve nuvvab-i haric-endise evkafni bozdilar ve  
     aning hasili bile meclis-i ays u tarab yasab neva-yi  
     fisk u f cur t zdiler. Bu miskin evkafga muta'ayyin  
     kilgalar bari harablarni ma'mur ve istihkak ehlin  
     saduman u mesrur kildilar. Ve alar zamanida evkaf  
     bozulgan cihedtin talebe mgm m ve m derris  mahrum  
     bolsa hala s k r, kim darussaltana'da tahmina y z  
     havza-i ders bolgay, kim faza'yil-i diniyye ve ulum-i  
     yakiniyye ukar ve Rum aksasidin  in serhaddiga digince  
     demi Islam biladidin kabil talibler bu avaze ve  
     m zakere-i biendazeni isidib, gurbet masakkatin ihtiyar  
     kilib bu tahtgaha y zlen rler. Tagi Tengri inayetidin  
     evkaf hasili bar aning harc mukabelesiga yiter ve  
     r zgarlari feragat bile  ter ve bu mezk r bolgan  
     m derrisliga yakin hanikah bolgay, kim her kaysida  
     ihtiyac ehli bigayet ve istihkak hayli binihayet  
     horsend u behrmend bolurlar. Ve eger ol zamanlar  
     vakrak i havfidin tacir-i mahacir ve kutta ul-tahrik  
     bimidin sayir guraba ve m safir meskendin bir maksadga  
     ve vatandin bir mabedga yitmekde k p su  det ve bihad  
     uk bet k rerler irdi. Bu zamanda siyaset sarsari ol  
     11    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     mahz l kavning v cudi has u hasakin memalik destidin  
     it r b turur; belki duzeh atesgedesiga tig r b turur.  
     Ve m safirga her menzilde bir ribat-i rh nihad belki  
     emniyyet i  n bir kal'a-i sipihr-b nyad savuklarda reh  
     neverdlerga andin vaye ve isigda cihan-gerdlerga andin  
     saya saya ve pehahdin baska tagi her dilhan anda hasil  
     ve tilegen nime asanlik bile vasil ve her kaysida ehl-i  
     tesad def'i ve kutta ul-tarik men'i    n sipahidin  
     fevci ve m te'ayyen yasaglikdin g ruhi m temekkin ve  
     eger ba'zinin vaktida mesacidisikleri medaris ve cemaat  
     ehli cemaat ilkide mahbus irdi. Bu fakir zamanida  
     muhasibler fikri mesacid hisabiga yetismes ve bav cud  
     bu cemaat ehli anda sigismas; her kaysiga anca revnak  
     ve ihtiram ki ka'be-i mu'azzamada Mescid-i Haram ve  
     eger ba'zi eyyamda ser ahkamiga ve Islam ehl-i bid'at  
     hayliga zir-dest irken bolsa, bu eyyamda seri'at-i i  
     Nebevi ve ahkam i Mustafavi bazusi andak kavi turur kim  
     yakind r, kim ihtisab ehli    nci felekde Z hre  
     m gannie ni ura urgaylar ve berbat u  engini yirge urub  
     sindurgaylar. Yine isler hem k pd r, kim fasili s zge  
     mucib-i tatvil ve tahriri ba'is-i kal-u kil bolur. Bu  
     nev umurdin baska ve bu tavr halatdin ayru tagi Hak  
     subhanahu ve tea'la bu nahif bendesining saltanati  
     zamanida bir ni e kisige cilye-i z hur birib-turur ve  
     bu fakir mecliside alardin tesrif-i h zur erzani  
     tutubdur kim, alarning v cudidin bu zaman cemi ezminega  
     racih turur. Ve bu devran bar a devirlerdin m mtaz, ki  
     bular tagi mucib i k p eday-i s kr turur, ki andin  
     natika tili lal ve kalem tili sikeste-mekal durur. Ve  
     ol c mlening alem ve elzafi, fezatil deryasining d rr-i  
     paki ve velayet eflakining hursid-i tabnaki nazm  
     cevahirining sahib-i intizami, hazret-i sayh al-Islam  
     Mevlana Abdurrahman Cami sallahu'llahu ve ibka turur,  
     kim ta felek-i kadimi nihad savabit ve seyyardin y z  
     ming k z bile alem ehlige nazir turur. K zige andak  
     nadir hayal kilmemis ve ta mihr-i cihan-numa belki  
     hursid-i sipihr peyma cihan devriga sayir durur;  
     12    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     pertevi hergiz anirg tig adim al-misal  stige t smemis;  
     cevahir-i bazmidin cihan sadeli tola d rr-i semin ve  
     leali nesridin eflak atlasiga zib u tezyin, tesanifi  
     cemi-i ulumda bihad ve her tasnifde bezayin-i ma'ani  
     bi'aded. Siir:  
           u mizan-i tab'i bolub genc-senc  
          Anga bir terazu kilib Penc-Gen   
          Ki hayran kalib nazm kilgan  agi  
          Anga yok ki Husrev Nizami tagi  
     Lutf-amiz gazelleri sur-engiz ve sur-engiz beytleri  
     lutf-amiz, kim k p yillar Hak subhanahu ve ta'ala  
     alarning saye-i irsadin berdevam ve bu devlet eyyamiga  
     anin tik sahib-i devletni m stedam tutsun. Ve yine hem  
     nazm ehlidin hos-guyluk evcining s heyli bolur dik  
     kisiler bar. Ve letafet-i nazm-i dastan ve metanet-i  
     terkib i beyanida alem ili alarning tufeyli bolur dik  
     felek mevcud turur, kim burun alar dik felek cilve  
     birgen irmes. Ve hala tagi hi  yirde kimse alarning  
     nisan birmes. Ve Herat sanaha 'ilahu ani 'lafat ve  
     nevahi side evvelce hatirga kil r ve evvelce sadik al-  
     kavi ve sahib-vuk f il arzga tig r rlerse bir migge  
     yakin kisi, kim alarning isi ma'ani d rrlerin nazm  
     silkige tartmak bolgay ve dikkat g herlerige vezn  
     libasi zib u zinetin birmek bolgay, kim hic devirde  
     bular dik ilning melikdin edna ve hic de nuridin yiri  
     yok irken durur. Ve bu ismi mezkur bolganlar ve evsali  
     mest r bolganlar farisi nazm enc mni bezm t zgen ve  
     farisi-g yluk bahriga asinalik k rk zkenler durur. Ve  
     likin ma'ani ebkariga bu k nge digince hi  kisi t rkane  
     libas kiyd rmegen ve ol nazeninlernibu ziba hil'at bile  
     cilve-i Z hurge kit rmegen turur ve bu m sk-bu ra'nalar  
     tab nihan-haneside uryanlikdin mahcub kalgan durur. Ta  
     bu ferhunde-zaman ve bu huceste-devran, kim bu  
     natuvanning bari il k n mdin ve 'cavari kisi karamdin  
     kulluk silkidin k k ltaslik payesiga yitgen ve  
     13    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     m lazemet tarikidin musahabet sermayesin eyitgen harem  
     keb teri dik perde-saray halvetide mahrem ve surahi  
     bati dik sebistan suhbetide hemdem hak s z edasida  
     delir ya'ni Mir Ali Sir aslaha 'lahu sanahu, kim  
     tehallusi Nevay 'ga meshur durur ve es'arida bu  
     tehallus mestur T rk tilining  lgen cesediga Mesih  
     enfasi bile ruh ki rdi. Ve ol ruh tapkanlarga t rki  
     ayin elfaz tar u pudidin tokulgan h lle ve harir  
     kiyd rdi ve s z g listanida nev-bahar tab'idin revanasa  
     yaginlar bile rengarenk g ller a ti ve nazm deryasiga  
     sehab-i fikretidin ruh-perver katreler bile g nag n  
     d rrler sa ti. Her sinif si'r meydaniga, kim tekav r  
     s rdi, ol kisverni tig i zeban bile  z hayta-i  
     tasarrufiga kiy -virdi. Aning nazmi vasfida til kasir  
     ve beyan aciz turur. Hatirga  zining mesnevileridin  
     nice beyt kil r, kim bu aytila-durgan ma'nide nazmi  
     kilib turur ve ol budur. Mesnevi:  
          Min ol min, ki ta T rk-i bi-dadidur  
          bu til birle ta nazm b nyadidur  
          felek k rmedi min kimi nadiri  
          Nizami kimi nazm ara kadiri  
          ni nazmi dir irsem mini derd-nak  
          ki her lafzi bolgay anin d rr-i pak  
          Huda yitk r r anca s r'at manga  
          ki bolmas birige firsat manga  
          bu meydanda Firdevsi ol g rd ir r  
          ki ger kilse R stem cevabin bir r  
          rakam kildi ferhunde Sehname-i  
          ki sindi cevabida her hame-i  
          m sellem turur g yya bu isi  
          ki ma'razga kilmey turur her kisi  
          didi  z tili birle ol kan-i gen   
          ki si sal burdam be-Sehname renc  
          ani dirge bolsa ka an ragbetim  
          ir r an a Hak lutfidin kuvvetim  
          ki ger ni e tab bolsa kamil-suray  
     14    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
          bitilgeymin otuz yilin otuz ay  
          eger has-i ma'ni ger iham ir r  
          anin k nde y z beyti helvam ir r  
          ni Sehname kim hamsega ursam il  
          anin ni esi sari yitk rsem il  
           midim bu kim eyleben feth-i bab  
          kolum birgey ol ni ege tagi tab  
          otuz yil, ki ani Nizami dimis,  
          kasda ir r iki    yillik is  
          ka an ani dir bezmini t zgemin  
          dimekni halayikga k rk zgemin  
     Ol vakt ki bu ebyat aning tab'idin bas urub irdi, il  
     kasida sa'irane laf ve madihane g zal k r n r irdi. Ve  
     al-hak   n bu humayun firsatda ve bu ruz-efzun devletde  
     hamse-i pen esiga ilig urdu ve aning itmamiga cidd  
     kilt rdi. Eger i Seyh Nizami nazm ehlinin ustadi-dur,  
     Azer hamsesin meshur budur, kim otuz yilda tekmil birib  
     turur. Ve Mir Hosrev kim hamse ebyati 'adeddin otuz  
     mingdin on sekiz mingge ihtisar kilib turur ve s hreti  
     mundak durur kim, alti yitti yilda t ketib turur. Bu  
     fesahat meydanining safderi ve belagat pisesining  
     gazanferi ba-v cud ol, kim k p efsanelerde dil-pezir  
     tefsirler buyurdi ve tab-pesend islahlar kildi.  
     B nyadining ibtidasindin sivadining intihasiga a hemana  
     iki yildin  tmedi. Ve aytilgan evkat bisabga kirse,  
     dise bolgay, kim alti ayga yitmedi, kim aning  
     efsaneleri renginligin ve ebyati sihr-ayinligin ve  
     terakibi metanenin ve ma'anisi letafetin mutala'a  
     kilgan kisi bilgey ve m lahaza kilgan kisi fehm kilgay  
     yok, kim mesnevi  slubida bil, kim her sinif nazm, kim  
     Arab f sahasi ve Acem b lagasi tezyin birib dururlar ve  
     tedyin kilib tururlar. Bu hem bercaga hame s r b durur  
     ve ta'arruz yitk r b turur, kim serhi divanining  
     fihristide mezk r ve mestur turur. Ni divan Allah Allah  
     cengi, kim safi elfazdin tola g her bolgay ve sipihr  
     evraki, kim pak ma'anidin memlu hasr bolgay.  
     15    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
          Dime divan, gam u derd ehliga afet di ani  
          K ymek u su'le-i gam birle kiyamet di ani  
     Kaysi beyti, kim isk ehli camga ot urmas ve kaysi  
     mazmuni, kim hicran hayli cismin k nd rmes, belki k lin  
     k kge savirmas. Kaysi misra'i, kim firak ciger hunining  
     bagri kanin tamizmas. Ve kaysi lafzi, kim hicran  
     dermandesi eski seli bile sabr u sekib hamsin akimas.  
     Nazm iklimide kaysi birk kurganga k   kilt rdi, kim  
     isigi aning y zige a ilmadi ve kaysi azim kisverga tab  
      erigi bileterk-taz saldi, kim feth kilmadi. Bu k n  
     nazm erkanining rub-i meskunida kahramanol turur ve bu  
     memalik fethiga sahib kiran ani diseler bolur. Si'ir:  
          r r s z milkining kisversitani  
          kayu kisversitan hosrev nisani  
          dime hosrev nisan kim kahramani  
          ir r ger  in diseng sahib-kirani  
     Bu yanglig garayib asar ve bedayi si'arning huruci bu  
     evletde Zuhuri bu saltanatda bolgan, kim Hak subhanahu  
     ve ta'ala ani bu dergah-i felak-misal kullugining arifi  
     ve bu zat i melek-hisal medahlarining nazimi kaldi. Hem  
     mucib k p s kr turur. Ruba'iyye:  
          ya Rab, koyu s kringi eda kilgaymin!  
          ni til bile ani ibtida kilgaymin!  
          y z canim eger bolsa fida kilgaymin  
          disem ki eda boldi hata kilgaymin  
          Ya Rab, mini kullugungga kadir eyle!  
          ger yitse bela derd sabir eyle;  
          yadingga tagi i imni zakir eyle  
     In'amingga hem tilimni zakir eyle. Tamma bi'l-hayr tam  
     sud Risale-i Sultan H seyn Mirzay Baykara. Al-hakir  
     fakir Alivirdi ibn (___?) Kuli.  
     16    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
                       *        *         *  
     SAKSAUL (Saxoul/ Holoxylon/ Ammodendron) is a plant  
     often mentioned in literature connected with Central  
     Asia. It is primarily used as fuel in Central Asia.  
     However, SAKSAUL often occupies a prominent place in  
     Central Asian literature. With that in mind, what  
     follows is the botanical description of this Central  
     Asian native, as described in Alfred Rehder, MANUAL OF  
     CULTIVATED TREES AND SHRUBS (NY: Macmillan, 1940). For  
     locating and making available this entry, AACAR  
     BULLETIN would like to thank Dr. Oswald Tippo, Botany  
     Department of the UMASS-Amherst, and William C. Burger,  
     Curator, Department of Botany, FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL  
     HISTORY, Chicago.  
          Holoxylon -- Shrubs or small trees with articulate  
     branches, leaves reduced to small scales; flowers  
     perfect, axillary, with 2 broad bracts; sepals 5, free;  
     stamens 2-5, inserted on a lobed disk; stigmas 2-5:  
     flower globose or cylindrical, surrounded by the  
     accrescent sepals, all or some with a horizontal wing  
     or back; seed horizontal; embryo spirally coiled. (Hal-  
      salt; xylon- wood; referring to the saline habitat.  
     About 10 species from the Mediterranean to Central  
          Haloxylon Ammodendron - Saxoul. Shrub or tree to 6  
     meters, with thick gnarled trunk; light green, slender:  
     scales short-triangular, obtusish, connate, puberulous  
     inside: fruiting calyx with large suborbicular wings.  
     Ural to Persia and Turkestan. Closely related genus:  
     Anabasis L. Herbs or small shrubs: branches articulate,  
     with opposite, terete, often scale-like leaves: flowers  
     17    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     with small, sometimes subulate, bracts; stamens 5;  
     fruiting calyx with horizontal wings, rarely without;  
     seed vertical. About 18 species from the Mediterranean  
     to Central Asia. Anabasis Tatarica: Shrub to 0.5 m.,  
     with upright green branches, leaves scale-like,  
     connate, pubescent inside: flowers axilliary, forming  
     terminal spikes; fruiting calyx with three wings. To  
     the Altai and Songaria. Genus Salicornia L. is found in  
     New Hampshire to Mississippi, West Europe, Algeria;  
     Louisiana, Bahamas. Perhaps introduced in the 1800s.  
                        *       *       *  
                      NEWS OF THE PROFESSION  
     AACAR BULLETIN would like to thank those individuals  
     and institutions who kindly furnished the information  
     presented in this section.  
     During its Spring meeting, the Middle Eastern Studies  
     Association Board of Directors voted unanimously to  
     elect AACAR an Affiliate of the MESA, and so informed  
     AACAR. AACAR would like to thank the MESA Board of  
     Directors, and the AACAR member Dr. Jefferey Roberts  
     who saw the process through. AACAR Members are  
     cordially invited to contact Dr. Roberts at the  
     Department of History, Tennessee Technological  
     University, Cookeville, TN 38501 to participate in the  
     AACAR panels at the 1992 MESA Convention.  
     In early 1991, AACAR was extended Affiliate Privileges  
     by the American Association for the Advancement of  
     Slavic Studies, courtesy of Dr. Dorothy Atkinson, AAASS  
     Executive Director. AACAR has organized a panel for the  
     AAASS '91 Miami Convention. Details may be found in the  
     May 1991 issue of the AAASS NEWSLETTER, and the AAASS  
     1991 Convention Program.  
     18    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     At its January 1991 teleconference, AACAR Executive  
     Council voted to hold the AACAR Membership Meeting in  
     conjunction with the American Association for the  
     Advancement of Slavic Studies annual convention, 22-25  
     November 1991 in Miami. (AACAR BULLETIN, Vol. IV, No.  
     1. Spring 1991) The AACAR Meeting will be restricted to  
     members in good standing. AACAR Members are requested  
     to make reservations directly with the providers of  
     convention facilities: Intercontinental & Hyatt Hotels,  
     Miami, Florida; and register for the AAASS Convention.  
     For AAASS advance registration information, please  
     contact AAASS: 128 Encina Commons, Stanford University,  
     Stanford, CA 94305-6029. Tel. 415/723-9668; or kindly  
     consult the AAASS NEWSLETTER.  
     AACAR BULLETIN is now being indexed by PERIODICA  
     ISLAMICA, Edited by Dr. Munawar A. Anees, issued by  
     Berita Publishing, 22 Jalan Liku, 59100 Kuala Lumpur,  
     Dr. Stephen Blank is appointed Book Review Editor of  
     the CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY (London).  Relevant books may  
     be sent to Dr. Blank at: U. S. Army War College,  
     Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013-5050.    *     Edited by  
     Marie Bennigsen Broxup, CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY general  
     offices have been moved to: 6 Elmbank Gardens, London  
     SW13 0NT    *    A circular was received containing the  
     following: "According to the decision of the 5th All-  
     Union Turcology Conference, and the Soviet Committee of  
     Turcologs, the First International Turcological  
     Conference will be held in Kazan, in early June, 1992.  
     Conference will discuss linguistics, literature,  
     folklore, history, archeology, ethnology, culture,  
     religious faith, and the study of sources and texts. At  
     19    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     the conference, an international symposium on the Tatar  
     Encyclopedia will also be held. In connection with the  
     conference, exhibits, concerts and excursions will take  
     place. An honorarium of US$ 80 will be paid to the  
     foreign participants." In the circular there is no  
     indication as to how travel costs will be met. Contact:  
     420111 Kazan, Lobachevski Street 2/31, IIALI.   *     
     UYGUR HALK MUSIKISI "Turkestan Chinois/Xinjiang:  
     Musiques Oigoures" is a two compact-disc set (stereo,  
     Digital Mastering) issued by the OCORA RADIO FRANCE.  
     The collection is accompanied by a booklet in French,  
     English, German and Spanish; providing details of its  
     contents and brief information on the genre. Contact:  
     Pierre Toureille, Director de la Collection, Maison de  
     Radio-France, 116 ave. du Pr sident Kennedy, Pi ce 6345  
     - 75016 Paris. Tel: 16/1 42 30 26 16. Fax: 16/1 42 30  
     14 37.     *     East Asian Studies program of the  
     UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO has established the Central and  
     Inner Asian Seminar. A program of speakers include:  
     Paul Forage; Michael Gervers; Oscar Jacobs; Omeljan  
     Pritsak; Morris Rossabi. For further information,  
     contact: Prof. Wayne Schlepp, East Asian Studies,  
     University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A5, Canada.    *     
      Professor Warren Walker, Director of the Archive of  
     Turkish Oral Narrative, TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY,  
     announces the availability of texts and tape recordings  
     of several thousand samples of the genre. Contact:  
     Archive of Turkish Oral Narrative, Library, Texas Tech  
     University, Lubbock, Texas 79409. Phone: 806/742-1922.   
        *      A new Institute of Oriental Studies has been  
     established in Tashkent. The first number of its  
     journal, SARK SINAS has been issued. The editors of  
     SARK SINAS are desirous of publishing papers relevant  
     to the study of Central Asia in English,  zbek and  
     Russian. For submissions, contact: Prof. Orunbaev,  
     Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences,  
     700170 Tashkent, 170 Akademgorodok, Prospect M. Gorkovo  
     20    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     81.   *    According to a letter received from M. S.  
     Osimi, Chairman of the Presidium of PAIVAND, the Tajik  
     Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign  
     Compatriots, PAIVAND has been established as an  
     initiative of the public of Tajikistan in 1989. Mr.  
     Osimi writes: "The main aim of the Society is to help  
     our compatriots living abroad and the representatives  
     of other nationalities who have a common language,  
     culture and history with us, realize their aspirations  
     to establish relations with Tajikistan. Through us you  
     will be able to satisfy your interest in the culture  
     and history of Tajikistan. We will also render  
     assistance in studying the Tajik language and in  
     obtaining higher education in Tajikistan. Furthermore,  
     we wish to promote trade and economic co-operation on a  
     mutually profitable basis." Contact: 7 Dzerjinsky  
     Street, Dushanbe 734025.    *     An Institute of  
     Turcology has been established in Chimkent-Kazakh SSR.  
     Contact, Prof. Erden Zada-Uli Hajibekov, Kazakh SSR  
     Academy of Sciences,  Qurmangazi 29, 480021 Alma-Ata  
     21.    *    The Directorate of the Encyclopedia of  
     Islam is currently publishing a new Encyclopedia of  
     Islam. Mehmet Ali Sari, Secretary General, writes: "The  
     venture is supported by the Turkish Religious  
     Foundation (T rkiye Diyanet Isleri Vakfi), and is  
     intended to update the studies in the fields of Islamic  
     sciences, culture and civilization. In its final form,  
     the Encyclopedia is expected to be thirty volumes and  
     will contain at least twenty-five thousand articles.  
     The first three volumes are already available. The  
     editors are interested in contacting scholars from  
     around the world, and they welcome any contributions in  
     Turkish and all major languages. All entries will be  
     translated into Turkish at the editorial offices, and a  
     modest honorarium will be paid. The editors are also  
     prepared to enter into exchange agreements with  
     scholarly journals." For further information, contact:  
     21    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     Encyclopedia of Islam, Baglarbasi, Kisikli Cad. No. 7  
      sk dar 81180 Istanbul. Tel 1 341 0792-95. Fax: 1 334  
     9588.     *     Call for Proposals: The 24th National  
     Convention of the AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE  
     ADVANCEMENT OF SLAVIC STUDIES, hosted by the Western  
     Slavic Association, will be held November 19-22, 1992  
     at the Sheraton and Hyatt Regency hotels in Phoenix,  
     Arizona.  Proposals must be for complete panels;  
     individual papers cannot be considered. A copy of the  
     program guidelines and a panel proposal form may be  
     obtained from: AAASS, 128 Encina Commons, Stanford U.,  
     Stanford, CA 94305-6029.; 415/723-9668. Deadline for  
     all proposals: January 1, 1992.    *     Second Annual  
     NAVA'I LECTURE in Central Asian Studies will be held at  
     the International Cultural Center Auditorium,  
     GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY, Tuesday, November 26, 5:30 PM,  
     in conjunction with the 25th Annual Meeting of the  
     MIDDLE EAST STUDIES ASSOCIATION. This year's meeting  
     will be a dialogue. The participants are Yuri Bregel,  
     Maria Subtelny, Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh.  
                       *        *        *  
     A work's being listed in this section does not preclude  
     subsequent review in the AACAR BULLETIN.  
     BULLETIN OF THE ASIA INSTITUTE, formerly published in  
     Shiraz-Iran, resumed publication in the US in 1987 with  
     the New Series of annual volumes by the Iowa State  
     University Press. Volumes are clothbound, fully  
     illustrated. USA $50 + postage per volume. Contact:  
     Julie Harris Levine, Editor, 3287 Bradway Blvd.,  
     Birmingham, MI 48010-1790.  Volume 4 [(1990) 400 pp.  
     130 ills.] is a Festschrift for Professor Richard  
     22    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     Nelson Frye. Contents: R. N. Frye (Shahbazi). Mithra &  
     Ahura (Boyce). Coinage from Merv (Carter). Dragon &  
     lunar nodes (Duchesne-Guillemin). Excavations at  
     Chilburj (Gaibov/ Koshelenko/ Novikov). A Manichean  
     kephalaion (Gnoli). Assyrian hand gestures (Goldman).  
     Sasanian art & the tomb of Feng Hetu (Harper).  
     Excavations at Kafyr Kala (Litvinsky/Solov'ev). A  
     Penjikent mural (Marshak/Raspopova). From the chahar-  
     taq to the mihrab (Melikian-Chirvani). Coinage of a  
     Central Asian rebel (Mochiri). Unpublished Muslim  
     miniatures (Pugachenkova). Gandharan inscribed vessel  
     (Salomon/Goldman). Togolok 21 in the Karakum  
     (Sarianidi). Central Asian Buddhist monuments  
     (Stavitsky). Gardens in Persia & Assyria (Stronach).  
     Judeo-Persian Pirqe Abhoth (Asmussen). Caucaso-Iranica  
     (Bailey). Glyptica Iranica (Bivar). Iranian gestures  
     (Choksy). Haft Khwan & Ferdowsy (Davidson). Kuhpaye,  
     the old Vir (Eilers). Khotanese aksaras (Emmerick).  
     Miscellaena Sasanidica (Gignoux). Parsi and Dari  
     (Lazard) . Middle & modern Persian 'be' (Nawabi).  
     Hyspasines (Schmitt). Viiamburas & Kafirs (Schwartz).  
     Early Persians' historiography (Shahbazi). Spurious  
     epigraphy (Shaked). Fillet of nobility (Shaki). Mani in  
     Sogdian fragments (Sims-Williams). A Haijiabad  
     inscription (Skjaervo). Shapur's coronation  
     (Sundermann). A Sasanian title (Tafazzoli). The Lantern  
     of Spirit (Utas). Iranian Tati (Windfuhr). Volume 5 is  
     under preparation.    
          S. Salihov and H. Ismatullaev, RUSSIAN- ZBEK-TAJIK  
     CONVERSATION BOOK (Tashkent: Fan, 1990)    *     
     Hayrulla Ismatullaev, "Gaspirali Ismailbey ve  
     Turkistan"  ZBEK TILI VE EDEBIYATI (Tashkent) July-  
     August 1990.     *    The second printing of THE BOOK  
     OF DEDE KORKUT, Warren S. Walker, Ahmet Edip Uysal and  
     Faruk S mer (Translators) will be released by the  
     University of Texas Press during 1991. The First  
     23    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     edition was made by the University of Texas Press in  
     1972.    *    TALES ALIVE IN TURKEY, Warren S. Walker  
     and Ahmet Edip Uysal (Translators), originally  
     published by Harvard University Press in 1966, has been  
     reprinted by the Texas Tech University Press in 1990.    
      *     A companion volume, MORE TALES ALIVE IN TURKEY  
     is scheduled for release during 1991 by the Texas Tech  
     University Press.    *     Kaori Komatsu, "100c   
     Yild n m  M nasebeti ile 'Ertugrul Firkateyni' Faciasi"  
     AJAMES (Tokyo) No. 5, 1990.    *    Tuncer Baykara,  
     TARIHI  ZERINE ARASTIRMALAR (Bornova, Izmir: Ege  
      niversitesi Edebiyat Fak ltesi, 1991)    *    R.  
     Judson Mitchell, GETTING TO THE TOP IN THE USSR (Hoover  
     Institution Press, 1990).     *     John S. Major,  
     MONGOLIA (J. P. Lippincott/Harper & Row, 1990) The Land  
     and The People Series     *     *     Mary Louise  
     Clifford, AFGHANISTAN (J. P. Lippincott/Harper & Row,  
     1990) The Land and The People Series      *       
     Michael Zand, "Notes on the Culture of the Non-  
     Ashkenazi Jewish Communities Under Soviet Rule" JEWISH  
     and Avi Beker, Eds.) (New York University Press, 1991).   
       *    idem, "Bukharan Jews" ENCYCLOPEDIA IRANICA  
     (Ehsan Yarshater, Ed.) Vol IV, fasc. 5. (Routledge and  
     Kegan Paul, 1989).    *     R. D. McChesney, WAQF IN  
     CENTRAL ASIA: Four Hundred Years in the History of a  
     Muslim Shrine, 1480-1889. (Princeton University Press,  
     1991). Princeton Studies on the Near East.    *      
     Gerhard Simon (K. Forster and O. Forster, Translators),  
     SOVIET UNION: From Totalitarian Dictatorship to Post-  
     Stalinist Society. Westview, 1991). Westview Special  
     Studies on the Soviet Union and the Eastern Europe.     
     Foreign Policy & the Disintegration of the USSR,  
     Michael Mandelbaum, Ed. (NY: Council on Foreign  
     24    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     Relations Press, 1991).     *     Beatrice S. Bartlett,  
     MONARCHS AND MINISTERS: The Grand Council in Mid-Ch'ing  
     China, 1723-1820. (University of California Press,  
     1991).     *     Hong Yung Lee, FROM REVOLUTIONARY  
     (University of California Press, 1991).  
                        *       *        *  
     Since the publication of the first issue of the AACAR  
     BULLETIN, we have been receiving inquiries from a  
     variety of sources. Quite a few of them pertain to the  
     location and nature of academic degree programs and  
     courses related to Central Asia. Until now, we have  
     been responding with individual letters of suggestion.  
          At the request of the Editor, Reuel Hanks  
     (Kennesaw State) and Steven Sabol (Georgia) have kindly  
     conducted and compiled the survey of the Central Asian  
     related academic programs in North America. We are  
     listing the first responses, in the alphabetical order  
     of institutions.   
          Those who have received the survey questionnaire  
     over the summer, but not yet responded, may still do so  
     by returning the completed forms to the address  
     contained therein. Other updates may be sent directly  
     to the Editor, in the format given below. The AACAR  
     BULLETIN plans to issue regular supplements to this  
     1. INSTITUTION: Ball State University   
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Daniel Goffman, Associate Professor  
     of History   
     25    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     ADDRESS/PHONE: Dept. of History   
                    Ball State University   
                    Muncie, Indiana 47306   
     2. INSTITUTION: Colorado State University   
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: William J. Griswold, Professor of  
     ADDRESS/PHONE: Dept. of History   
                    Colorado State University   
                    Fort Collins, Colorado  80523   
     William Griswold--Ottoman Empire   
     3. INSTITUTION: Emory University   
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Kermit E. McKenzie, Professor of  
     ADDRESS/PHONE: Dept. of History   
                    Emory University   
                    Atlanta, Georgia  30322   
     CONTACT FOR ADMISSIONS: Graduate School of Arts and  
     Kermit E. McKenzie--Russian/Soviet History, History of   
                            Kazakhstan.  (Professor McKenzie  
                            participated in Kazakh/American   
                            Research Project in Alma-Ata in  
                            of 1991).   
     Kermit E. McKenzie--Study of Life and Career of Chokan   
     26    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
                            Valikhanov (1835-65), first  
     Graduate degrees may be earned in History and Political  
     Science with thesis or dissertation focusing on a  
     Asian topic.   
     4. INSTITUTION: University of Illinois,  
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Keith Hitchins, Professor of History  
     ADDRESS/PHONE: Dept. of History   
                    University of Illinois   
                    309 Gregory Hall   
                    810 South Wright Street   
                    Urbana, Illinois  61801   
     CONTACT FOR ADMISSIONS: Same as above    
     Keith Hitchins--Tajikistan, 19th and 20th centuries,   
                        social and cultural history; Central  
                        Asia, nationalism, literature of the  
                        19th and 20th centuries.   
     Keith Hitchins--A History of the Tajiks (under contract  
                     Hoover Press for Soviet Nationalities   
                     Series); A biography of Sadriddin Aini.  
     History 497, Readings in the History of Central Asia.   
     27    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     5. INSTITUTION: Indiana University   
                                          Altaic Studies.   
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Gustav Bayerle, Associate Professor   
     ADDRESS/PHONE: Goodbody Hall   
                    Bloomington, Indiana  47405   
     CONTACT FOR ADMISSIONS: April Younger   
     Ilhan Basg z--Turkistan, Turkic folklore, Turkish   
     Gustav Bayerle--Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish   
     Chris Beckwith--Tibetan Empire, Tibetan   
     Yuri Bregel--Central Asia, History, Chagatai   
     Larry Clark--Turkic Studies, Linguistics   
     Devin DeWeese--Central Asia, Islam, Uzbek   
     Gyorgy Kara--Mongol Studies, Philology, Mongolian   
     Larry Moses--Mongol Studies, History, Mongolian   
     Nazif Shahrani--Central Asia, Middle East, Islam,  
     TS. Ishdorj--Mongol Studies, Mongolian   
     M.A and Ph. D. degrees with major fields in Turkish   
     Studies, Uzbek Studies and Tibetan Studies.   
     OTHER INFORMATION: The department's educational  
     are supplemented with the research opportunities of the  
     Research Institute for Inner Asia Studies.  Grants and   
     Scholarships are available for departmental majors from  
     Inner Asian and Uralic National Resource Center and the  
     Graduate Assistants in Areas of National Needs Program.  
     28    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     6. INSTITUTION: Kenyon College   
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Ruth W. Dunnell, Storer Assistant   
                        Professor of Asian History   
     ADDRESS/PHONE: Dept. of History   
                    Kenyon College   
                    Gambier, Ohio  43022   
     Ruth W. Dunnell--Asian History.   
     Other positions exist in East, South Asian History and   
     Islam (religious studies).   
     Ruth W. Dunnell--Tangut/Xi Xia History and Buddhism   
     DEGREES RELATED TO CENTRAL ASIA: Concentration in Asian  
     Studies (not a degree, per se).   
     The Mongol Empire in World History   
     Islam in China (History)   
     Great Islamic Empires (History)   
     Classical Islam (Religion)   
     Asia in Comparative Perspective: Cross-cultural  
     (senior seminar for the Asian Studies concentration)    
     INSTITUTIONS: Students of Russian language have   
     opportunities to study in USSR, including Alma Ata.   
     7. INSTITUTION: University of Massachusetts-Amherst  
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Audrey L. Altstadt, Assistant  
                        of History   
     ADDRESS/PHONE: 612 Herter Hall  
                    Amherst MA 01003  
     29    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     Audrey L. Altstadt--History and Culture of Azerbaijan  
     Other positions exist in East Asian History and   
     Middle East; and Political Science.  
     Topics in Soviet History (graduate and undergraduate)  
     Soviet Nationalities (planned)  
     Audrey L. Altstadt--Stalin period purges.  
     AACAR BULLETIN of the Association for the Advancement   
     of Central Asian Studies  
     Headquarters of AACAR, the Association for the  
     of Central Asian Research, Inc.  
     8. INSTITUTION: University of Minnesota   
                                          East European  
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Iraj Bashiri, Associate Professor   
     ADDRESS/PHONE: 245 Elliott Hall   
                    University of Minnesota   
                    Minneapolis, Minnesota  55455   
     CONTACT FOR ADMISSIONS: U. of Minnesota Admissions   
                             270 Williamson Hall   
     Iraj Bashiri--Tajikistan: language, literature and   
                      Kirghizia: literature.   
                      Uzbekistan: language, culture.   
     Iraj Bashiri--Tajiki: Grammar and Texts.   
     30    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
                   "Muslims and Communists: Conflict of  
                   and Ideology in the works of the Kirghiz   
                   Writer, Chingiz Aitmatov.   
     Islam in the Soviet Union   
     Soviet Central Asian Culture Sphere   
     Fiction: Iran and Soviet Central Asia   
     Medieval Sages   
     Introduction to the Culture of Afghanistan   
     Directed Research   
     INSTITUTIONS: In progress: Exchange with the University  
     9. INSTITUTION: University of New Mexico   
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Gregory Gleason, Assistant Professor  
      ADDRESS/PHONE: Dept. of Political Science   
                    University of New Mexico   
                    Albuquerque, New Mexico  87131   
     Gregory Gleason--Contemporary Central Asian Politics   
     Gregory Gleason--Agriculture and Water in Central Asia:  
                      Public Policy    
     Informal arrangement for exchange with Turkmen State   
     31    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     10. INSTITUTION: The City College of New York   
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Henry R. Huttenbach, Professor   
     ADDRESS/PHONE: Convent Ave. at 138th Street   
                    New York, New York  10031   
     Henry R. Huttenbach--Soviet Nationalities, Soviet  
     Michael Rywkin--Soviet Nationalities, Central Asia.  
     Journal: Nationalities Papers   
     Head Office of "Association for the Study of the   
     Nationalities of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe."   
     11. INSTITUTION: University of Oregon   
                                          Pacific Studies   
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Ester Jacobson, Professor   
     ADDRESS/PHONE: University of Oregon   
                    Eugene, Oregon  97403   
     Scott DeLancey--Tibetan   
     Ester Jacobson--Early Nomads of South Siberia and   
                        Mongolia, Scytho-Siberian  
     Ester Jacobson--Art and Archaeology, Bronze-Early Iron  
                     South Siberia and Mongolia.   
     Art 381-Nomadic Art of Eurasia   
     32    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     Graduate Seminars in Scytho-Siberian Art and  
     12. INSTITUTION: Institut quebecois de recherche sur la  
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Denise Helly, Research Director   
     ADDRESS/PHONE: 290, Place d'Youville   
                    Montreal (Quebec), Canada   
                    873-7987 (514)   
     Xinjiang--Kazakhs and Uygurs   
     13. INSTITUTION: Rutgers University--Newark   
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Peter B. Golden, Professor   
     ADDRESS/PHONE: Dept. of History, Rutgers University   
                    Conklin Hall   
                    175 University Avenue   
                    Newark, New Jersey  07102   
     Peter B. Golden--History and Languages of Medieval   
     An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples   
     Peoples and Cultures of Central Asia   
     14. INSTITUTION: Washington University, St. Louis   
     Center for the Study of Islamic Societies and  
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Cornell H. Fleischer, Professor of   
     33    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
                        History and Director of Center.   
     ADDRESS/PHONE: Washington University   
                    St. Louis, Missouri  63130   
     CONTACT FOR ADMISSIONS: Dept. of History; Dept. of   
     Cornell Fleischer--Ottoman, Safavid, Moghul History;   
                           Islamic History.   
     Isenbike Togan--Inner Asia, Pre and Post-Mongol  
     Robert Canfield--Anthropology, Greater Central Asia.   
     Lois Beck--Anthropology, Tribalism, Iran   
     Ahmet Karamustafa--Asian and Near Eastern Languages,   
                           Islamic Thought.   
     Togan--Comparative State Formation in Turkestan and   
            Anatolia, 13th-17th centuries.   
     Karamustafa--Antinomian Dervish Groups in the Islamic  
                  15th-16th centuries.   
     Fleischer--Apocalypticism in the Islamic World and  
                15th -16th centuries.   
     Caufield--Greater Central Asia in Crisis, Afghanistan.   
     AB, AM, and Ph. D. degrees may be earned in history and  
     Greater Central Asia   
     Islamic History; 622-1200, 1200-1800   
     The Silk Route   
     Tibet Between China and Russia   
     The Mongol World Empire   
     Women and the State in Asia   
     15. INSTITUTION: University of Washington-Seattle  
     34    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Shannon O'Hara, Office of the  
     ADDRESS/PHONE: Henry M. Jackson School of International  
                    Thomson Hall DR-05   
                    University of Washington   
                    Seattle, Washington  98195   
     CONTACT FOR ADMISSIONS: Same as Above   
     For a detailed listing of faculty and their research   
     interests, contact the office listed above.   
     The Jackson School offers bachelors and graduate  
     degrees in   
     Middle East Studies, Chinese Studies, and Russian and   
     Eastern European Studies.  Languages taught include   
     Persian(Farsi), Arabic. Turkish, and Uzbek, among  
     Contact the Jackson School for a detailed listing of  
     in each of the above concentrations which are pertinent  
     Central Asia.   
     Numerous opportunities for language study abroad exist,  
     including in the Soviet Union, P.R.C., Pakistan and  
     Contact the Foreign Study Office, 572 Schmitz Hall, at  
     35    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     address listed above.   
     16. INSTITUTION: University of Wisconsin   
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Uli Schamiloglu   
     ADDRESS/PHONE: Dept. of Slavic Studies   
                    720 Van Hise   
                    University of Wisconsin   
                    Madison, Wisconsin  53706   
     CONTACT FOR ADMISSIONS: Kemal H. Karpat   
                             Dept. of History   
                             4121 Humanities Building   
                             University of Wisconsin   
                             Madison, Wisconsin  53706   
     Uli Schamiloglu--The Golden Horde, 13th-14th centuries   
     Other faculty may be contacted directly.   
     Ph. D. may be earned in independent area when pursued   
     through an academic department.   
     A number of courses are offered, including several  
     Asian languages.  Some of these are available through   
     intensive summer courses.   
     17. INSTITUTION: University of Wyoming   
     SURVEY RESPONDENT: Audrey C. Shalinsky, Professor of   
     ADDRESS/PHONE: PO Box 3431   
                    University Station   
                    Laramie, Wyoming  82071   
     36    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     CONTACT FOR ADMISSIONS: Dept. of Anthropology   
     Audrey Shalinsky-- Northern Afghanistan, Uzbeks, Gender  
                           and Ethnic Relations.   
     Shalinsky--Historical Ethnography of dispersed Uzbek   
                population in Central Asia and Middle East.   
     MA in Anthropology   
     At graduate level, independent study courses on Central  
     Asia on demand.   
                         *      *      *  
                           BOOK REVIEWS  
          Michael Rywkin, MOSCOW'S MUSLIM CHALLENGE: SOVIET  
     CENTRAL ASIA  (revised edition) (Armonk, NY: M. E.  
     Sharpe, Inc., 1990). 180 pp.   
          If the history of past colonialism is any guide to  
     the future, the Central Asia of tomorrow, whether  
     united in a greater Turkestan or fragmented in an  
     assemblage of "Soviet" republics, is apt to bear the  
     lasting imprint of these last seven decades of Moscow's  
     political control.  In this newly revised edition of  
     MOSCOW'S MUSLIM CHALLENGE, Michael Rywkin offers a  
     comprehensive and systematic interpretation of those  
     seventy odd years in the life of Central Asia.   
          Beginning with a brief account of the earliest  
     Russian influences in the sixteenth century, Rywkin  
     37    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     provides a clear and accessible account of the dynamic  
     interaction between the colonizing Slavs and the  
     subjugated Central Asian populations that brings us  
     abreast of the present day.     
          The first chapters are chronologically arranged to  
     provide a well rounded yet highly detailed historical  
     perspective on the key issues in contemporary relations  
     between the Slavic dominated center and Central Asia.   
     Stressing the Russians' geopolitical objectives in the  
     "Great Game"  --the rivalry among the Great Powers over  
     influence in Central Asia--  Rywkin assesses both the  
     style and objectives of Tsarist administration in the  
     area.     The second chapter recounts the period  
     immediately following the revolution.  Rywkin concludes  
     that the revolution in Central Asia was "initially a  
     settlers' affair" (p. 31) but eventually garnered  
     support from some of the indigenous population.  Many  
     Central Asians who accepted the Leninist idea of  
     national autonomy, however, soon were disabused of any  
     expectations about meaningful political independence.   
     This disappointment combined with social tensions to  
     produce the Basmachi revolt, a political movement  
     Rywkin recounts in detail in chapter three.  Chapter  
     four is a historical treatment of the economic  
     development of Central Asia stressing agriculture and  
     socio-occupational segmentation along ethnic lines.     
          The strongest chapter of the book, chapter five,  
     is devoted to an analysis of the implications of  
     demographic changes for the labor force.  This analysis  
     is followed by a treatment of the role of Islam in  
     Central Asia which concludes that the combination of  
     Islamic-based nationalism and demographic tensions will  
     constitute "the most important threat to Moscow." (p.  
     90)  Chapter six provides an overview of key cultural  
     questions, emphasizing language, education, and the  
     representation of the "historical past" by native  
     38    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
          Chapters eight, nine and ten are thematically  
     arranged, addressing a variety of important issues of  
     Central Asian politics.  The issues include: political  
     cooptation of the native elite; ethnic employment  
     quotas; the strength of "national" (as opposed to  
     "clan" or "supranational") allegiance; the political  
     implications of the vocabulary of Marxist ideology; and  
     the functional organization of institutions of  
     political and economic management in Central Asia.     
          There are no criticisms that might be levelled  
     against this book that could not be levelled against  
     virtually the entire body of Western of scholarship on  
     Central Asia.  Two are particularly important.  First,  
     this book, like the other major works in the field,  
     stresses works either produced by Russians or produced  
     by Central Asians whose main facility is with Russian.   
     The danger of adopting Russian conceptual categories in  
     comprehending Central Asia is that we run the risk of  
     becoming captives of the Russian perspective.   
     Ironically, this perspective encourages us to look at  
     the Central Asians as subjects rather than actors.  In  
     the process, we are lead away from asking important  
     questions about, for instance, the complicity of native  
     Central Asians in the current economic and political  
          Second, this book provides a comprehensive and  
     critical assessment of what went wrong in Central Asia.   
     Boris Rumer's recently published CENTRAL ASIA: A TRAGIC  
     EXPERIMENT goes farther in this particular direction by  
     providing more detail about the economic problems  
     (although Rumer's book does not have the historical and  
     thematic sweep of Rywkin's).   But the two works arrive  
     at essentially the same judgment regarding the  
     diagnosis.  What is less clear is what options are  
     available for the future.     Rywkin uses what is  
     essentially a colonial model for interpreting Central  
     Asian affairs.  Unfortunately, the history of  
     39    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     post-colonial political success in Africa and Asia is  
     not one that can inspire any great confidence in future  
     prospects.  For every successful post-colonial  
     transition, there are many examples of failures.  One  
     must of course admire the courage and enthusiasm of  
     those who say "give us political independence and we  
     will succeed."  But Central Asia does not have the  
     advanced technical skills of the Baltic countries.  It  
     does not have the ready transportation and  
     communication avenues of the Mediterranean and Pacific  
     Rim countries.  And, very likely, it will not have the  
     support of its former colonial era metropole. Under  
     these circumstances, one cannot help but see the  
     outlines of the Great Game again in the not too distant  
     future of Central Asia.  If for that reason alone, this  
     work deserves to be read by anyone who would seek to  
     understand the momentous transitions that await this  
     part of the world.    
          The book will serve admirably as an introductory  
     college text at all levels.     
     Gregory Gleason   
     University of New Mexico   
          Piri Reis, KITAB-I BAHRIYE (Ankara: The Historical  
     Research Foundation Istanbul Research Center, 1988).  
     Volume 1. 463 Pp. [Orders from U. S.: KITAB-I BAHRIYE,  
     POB 727, Annandale VA 22003.]   
          Piri Reis (c.1465/70 - 1554) wrote the first draft  
     of his "Book of Seafaring" in 1521. Later, he revised  
     and expanded it. Through Damad Ibrahim Pasha, he  
     presented to Sultan S leyman I in 1526, as a compendium  
     of practical sailing directions for the known world.  
     40    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     Through this connection, the book was preserved for  
     modern scholarship.  
          Today, there are 29 known manuscript copies of the  
     original. Most of them are in Istanbul, although 9  
     copies are in European libraries outside Turkey. The  
     best and most complete of these manuscripts is the copy  
     which Sultan Mahmud I bequeathed to the Ayasofya  
     Library in 1730. The editors of this edition have used  
     this manuscript to provide color facsimiles of each  
     manuscript page. Facing each facsimile page, there are  
     three versions of the text for that page printed side  
     by side in columns: The first column contains a  
     transliteration of the original Ottoman text; the  
     second is a translation into modern Turkish and the  
     third is an English translation. Under the general  
     editorship of Ertugrul Zekai  kte, Captain Mert Bayat,  
     a member of the faculty at the Turkish NAval War  
     College, prepared the English Translation and served as  
     the general advisor on naval history and science.  
          The English translation is based equally upon the  
     Ottoman and Turkish texts, and the translator has  
     rendered them into English with a style that he  
     remembered with relish from boyhood reading of Marco  
     Polo's TRAVELS and Xenophon's ANABASIS. In dealing with  
     proper names in the text, he chose to transcribe them  
     as Piri Reis used them, thus, for example, Alexander  
     the Great becomes Iskender and Genoa is Ceneviz. The  
     translator has employed a different type-face for  
     these, and usually provides a footnote to give a  
     modern, alternative spelling.  
          Piri Reis is particularly well known for the maps  
     which he drew in 1513 and 1528, showing discoveries in  
     the Americas, the first of which is used as the  
     illustration on the end-papers to this volume. Because  
     of his cartographical skills and knowledge, one must  
     make a special note of the reproduction here of his  
     coastal and harbor charts within this manuscript. Some  
     41    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     25 such charts are included here, to which the editors  
     have added, on each facing page, a modern area map and  
     enlargements of manuscript details as well as  
     explanatory notes in both modern Turkish and English.  
     For the most part, these explanations are very clear  
     and helpful, but sometimes, as in the case of the  
     material on Pp. 82a and 86a, the reader is baffled in  
     trying to make a connection between the modern and the  
     manuscript map. At the end of the volume, seven  
     additional modern maps have been added to illustrate  
     the general areas mentioned in the text.  
          The editors have planned three subsequent volumes  
     to complete the transcription and translation of the  
     KITAB-I BAHRIYE. One warmly welcomes this major  
     transcription and translation of the most important  
     Turkish classic of maritime and naval history. The  
     publication in this form must not only make the work  
     better known, but lead to a broader scholarly  
     understanding of its place and its importance. The  
     editors have made a central contribution to the  
     scholarly debate over Piri Reis and his  
     accomplishments. They have given the scholarly world  
     the material upon which judgements and further research  
     can take place. Today, the name of Piri Reis is known  
     to only a handful of historical specialists and his  
     name is often forgotten in the general reference  
     literature. This edition makes his work readily  
     accessible and available for scholarly discussion. It  
     is particularly important that it is coming available  
     now that renewed interest in the age of discoveries is  
     following along with the celebration of the 500th  
     anniversary of Columbus's first voyage. All maritime  
     historians must certainly look forward to the  
     appearance of the remaining volumes of this edition,  
     including the general index and bibliography. It must  
     certainly be an acquisition for every library  
     collecting in the area of maritime history and the  
     42    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     expansion of Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries as  
     well as for collections on Turkish history and culture.  
     John B. Hattendorf, D. Phil.  
     Ernest J. King Professor of Maritime History  
     Naval War College  
     Newport, Rhode Island  
          Thomas Heberer, CHINA AND ITS NATIONAL MINORITIES:   
     AUTONOMY OR ASSIMILATION  (Armonk, NY:  M. E. Sharpe,  
     Inc., 1989).  
          The past decade has seen an increase in scholarly  
     interest in China's national minority peoples, whose  
     collective population today stands at some 90 million,  
     still largely inhabiting the border regions of the  
     Chinese state.  As suggested by the title of Thomas  
     Heberer's book, the presence of an ethnically diverse  
     population presents the Chinese central government with  
     a dilemma not easily resolved through government  
     intervention; indeed, historically there have been but  
     few choices of action open to any government intent on  
     the integration of ethnic minorities;  alternatives  
     range from genocide or forced assimilation on one end  
     of the scale, to autonomy and self-determination on the  
     other.  In China the last of these is not a policy  
     option.  Instead, the Communist party has chosen to  
     offer its minority peoples a Chinese-designed system of  
     regional autonomy which, on paper at least, offers them  
     certain political and cultural freedoms, in keeping  
     with historical differences between them and the  
     Chinese majority.  The system of autonomy does not,  
     however, extend to any possibility of eventual self-  
     determination, regardless of historical, linguistic,  
     racial and/or religious differences or of individual  
     minority group's political aspirations.  
     43    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
          Chinese central government sensitivity to minority  
     related issues has remained heightened over the past  
     decade as a result of persistent attempts by some of  
     the larger nationalities to gain ever greater  
     recognition of their distinctive cultures, their rights  
     to greater local control and, in several instances, to  
     their right to discuss separate political futures.  
     Issues surrounding China's national minorities are thus  
     extremely important as well as increasingly sensitive  
     today as the world faces a future which may see the  
     further erosion of ethnic Russian political power over  
     non-Russian peoples nd the possible emergence of truly  
     autonomous republics on China's northwestern periphery.   
     Books that can help to elucidate the issues involved  
     and which can help the general public to understand  
     present Chinese policies, in particular, are most  
     welcome -- even, one could suggest, urgent -- given the  
     potential for upheaval in Eurasia and the current  
     international focus on minority rights, be they Kurd or  
     Azerbaijani. While Heberer's book is a contribution to  
     such literature, overall the book has a number of  
     shortcomings that detract from its usefulness as an  
     introduction to national minority issues in China.  
          Derived from a longer study (available only in  
     German and which includes a portion on China's Yi  
     minority, not included in the present work) this brief  
     survey (131 pp.) is very much a general work, offering  
     sweeping conclusions about minority affairs and  
     government policy.  The conclusions reached suffer from  
     oversimplification and over-generalization, partly the  
     result of trying to do too much in too small a volume.   
     The very first chapter sets the tone of what is to  
     follow.  Chapter One guides the reader quickly through  
     some of the basic concepts of both western and Chinese  
     views on minorities and minority rights, offers brief  
     treatment of the problems of definition, cultural,  
     political and historical differences east and west, and  
     44    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     then presents a discussion of nations and  
     nationalities, all in the space of 18 pages.  While  
     some interesting questions regarding minority legal  
     status in the world at large and in China in particular  
     are raised, the brevity of the discussion and the over-  
     simplification needed to fit all this material into the  
     discussion result in a superficial  and cursory  
     treatment of extremely complex issues that are not  
     easily presented  -- let alone discussed -- in such an  
     abbreviated format.  The same breathless treatment is  
     evident in each of the nine chapters, and constitutes  
     one of the chief weaknesses of the book.  
          The problem can be illustrated by two examples,  
     Chapter 7 and 8.  Chapter 7 concerns religious policy  
     and consists of 13 pages of general background on  
     religion in China, the main point of which is that  
     China has always been areligious, leading to the  
     author's belief that government control over religion  
     in China is thus logical (page 117).  As this book is  
     dealing with minorities, may of whom remain adherents  
     of some of the world's great religions, one would  
     expect some discussion of these religions and their  
     role in the borderlands, in particular, but in the  
     three pages actually concerned with minorities and  
     religion, this of course cannot be done. While one may  
     well agree with the author's conclusion that there is  
     little real religious freedom in China for either the  
     Han Chinese or for minorities, the discussion that  
     leads one to that point is inadequate, and in some  
     respects even misleading.  Chapter 8 concerns the  
     "Tibet Question."  Information again is summary in  
     nature, beginning with an encapsulated history of the  
     region in little over two pages.  The author sues his  
     historical survey to arrive at the statement that Tibet  
     basically has been Chinese territory since the Yuan  
     dynasty (page 118).  While this conclusion may be  
     considered correct by some authorities and certainly by  
     45    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     the Chinese government, his statement does little to  
     help us understand the issues of religion, ethnicity,  
     and continued loyalty to the Dalai Lama within Tibet  
     itself or to comprehend where China's current Tibetan  
     policy is headed.   
          Besides the problems of over-generalization, the  
     book's sources also raise questions about the author's  
     basis for analysis and discussion.  In some instances,  
     the author has relied solely on PRC sources as  
     authority for his statements (e.g. the majority of  
     migrants to Xinjiang and Heilongjiang were there by  
     their own initiative, page 94); other facts are  
     asserted but no source is offered at all (e.g. page 90,  
     that infectious diseases and alcoholism are decimating  
     such small minorities as the Oroqen).  On the other  
     hand, some revealing PRC documents on the subject of  
     assimilation now available in a number of PRC  
     publications dealing with minority affairs are not  
     included in the bibliography, an oversight which must  
     lead one to question the amount of background brought  
     to bear on this pivotal point, at least as suggested in  
     the book's title.  The author clearly is knowledgeable  
     about the Yi, but he also relies too heavily on them as  
     an example of minority policy in action, attempting, to  
     extrapolate from their experience an overview of  
     minority policy throughout China.  This, too, is  
          Despite the criticism offered above, there are  
     several good sections of the book, including a  
     reasonable introduction to the birth control question  
     in China as it pertains to minorities and the movement  
     of Han Chinese into what were once predominantly  
     minority lands.  This issue of domestic migration is  
     certainly an important one, and, as the author states,  
     this movement is clearly a violation of the policy of  
     regional autonomy (page 97).  Indeed, this policy has  
     already so undermined the whole basis of the regional  
     46    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     autonomy system in some regions that it is no longer a  
     question of curtailing such migration but of reversing  
     it if autonomy is to have any meaning at all in China.   
          A short introductory work such as this always  
     requires hard decisions on what information to include  
     and what to leave out.  Here, it is not only the choice  
     of material that is questionable, but also the  
     misleading conclusions that result from  
     oversimplification.  If one seeks a discussion of  
     assimilation or autonomy issues in China, or  
     information on which to base an informed opinion on  
     China's minority affairs, this book should be used with  
     some caution.  One would still do well to read June  
     Dreyer's 1976 book, China's Forty Millions, and to wait  
     for an authoritative update of that invaluable earlier  
     Linda Benson  
     History Department  
     Oakland University  
          Natalie Kononenko Moyle, THE TURKISH MINSTREL TALE  
     TRADITION (New York and London: Garland Publishing,  
     Harvard Dissertations in Folklore and Oral Tradition, A  
     Garland Series, Edited by Albert B. Lord, 1990). Pp.  
     267. (152 pages of text plus appendices and  
          One must welcome the publication of this study of  
     the Turkish minstrel tale in a visible series which can  
     not help but call attention to a little known yet quite  
     accessible oral tradition of great intrinsic interest.  
     One must regret, however, that the work is exactly what  
     the series title states it to be:  a doctoral  
     dissertation which has undergone no revision.  But for  
     the addition of a brief introduction update, the  
     47    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     omission of some diagrammatic details from Appendix B,  
     the exclusion of one frank footnote at page 141 and the  
     conspicuous excision of fifteen pages of analysis at  
     page 137, the work remains virtually identical to the  
     manuscript submitted to The Ad Hoc Committee for a  
     Doctoral Degree in Slavic and Turkic Languages,  
     Literatures and Folklore at Harvard University in 1975.   
     This is unfortunate for Moyle's study deserved and  
     certainly could have benefited from the insights and  
     corrections of scholars more thoroughly conversant with  
     the minstrel tale tradition than a young graduate  
     student could possibly hope to be.    
          It is also unfortunate that this young researcher  
     was not directed towards the intensive research  
     activities then taking place at the Faculty of  
     Literature at Atat rk University in Erzurum which began  
     publishing in the early 1970s an important series of  
     completed collections and analyses of minstrel tales  
     which should not have been disregarded.  These include  
     the following:  [I]  Muhan Bali's 1973 study of  
     variants of the minstrel tale, Emrah of Ercis and Selvi  
      NEMI.  Atat rk  niversitesi Yayinlari No: 213,  
     Edebiyat Fak ltesi Yayin No: 47, Arastirma No: 38,  
     Ankara, 1973];   [II]  Fikret T rkmen's 1974  
     comparative study of one of the best known and most  
     widely distributed of minstrel tales, Ashik Garip,  
     Atat rk  niversitesi Yayin No. 357, Edebiyat Fak ltesi  
     Yayin No. 70, Arastirma Yayin No. 59, Ankara, 1974];    
     [III]  The 587 page transcription of the K roglu cycle  
     of tales recorded from Beh et Mahir by Mehmet Kaplan,  
     Mehmet Alkalin and Muhan Bali, [K ROGLU DESTANI.  
     Anlatan:  Beh et Mahir.  Derleyenler:  Mehmet Kaplan,  
     Mehmet Akalin, Muhan Bali. Atat rk  niversitesi  
     Yayinlari No. 314, Edebiyat Fak ltesi Yayin No. 63,  
     48    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     Arastirma Serisi No. 52, Ankara, 1973]; and   [IV]   
     Ensar Aslan's  study of the life, poems and tales of  
     one of the most outstanding minstrel poets of the turn  
     of the century, Ashik Senlik of Kars (1850-1914) which  
     although not published until 1975 had been completed by  
     September of 1973.  [ ILDIRLI ASIK SENLIK:  HAYATI,  
      niversitesi Yayinlari No. 359, Edebiyat Fak ltesi  
     Yayinlari No. 72, Arastirma Serisi No. 61].  There was  
     no call for the dismal picture Moyle paints in her  
     original Introduction of the state of research on oral  
     narratives in Turkey and her statement, "One cannot  
     name a single scholarly edition of minstrel tales." is  
     factually incorrect.   
           One would have preferred that the Introduction  
     provide a specific description of Moyle's own fieldwork  
     and a discussion of methodological issues.  For it is  
     not at all clear from the subsequent five chapters that  
     any substantive fieldwork was undertaken in the  
     provinces of Erzurum or Kars where minstrel tale  
     performances actually take place, and it would appear  
     that Moyle was deprived of observing minstrel poets of  
     any real stature in performance in their own contexts.   
     Thus, much of Moyle's discussion seems unnecessarily  
     speculative even if well-grounded in a meticulous  
     reading of secondary sources.  The carefully  
     constructed descriptions and arguments presented in the  
     first four chapters, which treat the structure and  
     content of the minstrel tale, the story-telling  
     situation, the life of a minstrel, and the manner of  
     learning the art, draw most heavily upon the  
     scholarship and fieldwork of Pertev Naili Boratav,  
     Zarifov and Zhirmunskii, and Ilhan Basg z, most  
     particularly upon work of the latter whose recordings  
     made in the 1950s from three minstrel poets, Sabit  
     M dam , Dursun Cevlan , and Latif Yilmaz, provide the  
     only original source material used by Moyle in the  
     49    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     analytic portions of her work.  One of the appendices,  
     D, does present three items recorded by Moyle in 1972  
     in Ankara and Aksaray from someone named Molla Mustafa  
     Ak a.  However, it is Ak a's mediocrity as a singer-  
     poet which Moyle discusses in the footnote deleted from  
     page 141, and the only other singer with whom Moyle  
     seems to have interacted, one Ali Yildirim of Aksaray,  
     is mentioned only in passing as an example of the  
     ability of ordinary people to compose folk verse  
          Moyle's dependence upon the field work of Basg z  
     becomes especially problematic in the case of her  
     extensive and non-critical use of an interactive  
     interview between folklorist and poet as the  
     spontaneous "autobiography" or objective "biography" of  
     Ashik M dam  who is then cast as a kind of prototypical  
     minstrel poet throughout the work but especially in  
     Chapters III and IV.   Furthermore, despite the use of  
     footnotes and the clear labelling of one of the  
     appendices, the manner in which Basgoz's work has been  
     appropriated into Moyle's discourse makes it hard to  
     believe upon occasion that it was not Moyle who was the  
     investigative presence.  An example of this tendency  
     can be found early on in Chapter I, pages 29 and 30,  
     including footnote number 17.    
          A further problem which arises with this use of  
     Basg z's material does not manifest itself so  
     pervasively, since most of the examples of sung poetry  
     and rhythmic prose used to illustrate points regarding  
     narrative structure and poetic form remain  
     untranslated.  A full translation of the transcription  
     of Basgoz's 1956 interview with M dam  is, however,  
     provided as the first half of Appendix A.  It is a  
     translation heavily peppered with errors and  
     misunderstandings, some of less consequence than  
     others, but all serving to erode the reader's  
     confidence in the self-assured authorial voice of the  
     50    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     body of the dissertation.  For example, M dam 's  
     reference to the adoption of the Latin alphabet in  
     1928, "Yirmi sekizde, tabii, harf inkilabinda,"  
     (p.195), is rendered as "In 1928 because of the War of  
     Independence," (p.168) and his statement regarding the  
     historical obscurity of many minstrel tales, "Bir  ok  
     hik yeler tarihen namal m." (p. 195)  is translated in  
     reverse, as it were,   "Most minstrel tales are  
     historical." (p. 167).  As most of these errors do not  
     surface in the dissertation itself, they will not be  
     pointed out here.    
          There are, however, three instances of this kind  
     of divergence from what M dam  actually says in Turkish  
     which do carry over directly into the argument of the  
     dissertation in a manner that requires a few words of  
     comment.   In the first of these, a confusion on the  
     part of the translator is deflected onto the poet.   
     Moyle asserts that M dam 's chronological account of  
     the early stage of his career is "rather disconnected,  
     with the change from the old Islamic lunar calendar to  
     the modern Gregorian one which occurred around this  
     time contributing considerably to the confusion.  If  
     M dam 's dates are correct, he first acquired a real  
     saz in 1934, when he was twenty..." (pp. 90-91)  But  
     M dam 's dates are consistent and the confusion was not  
     on M dam 's part.  He states at the opening of the  
     interview that he was born in 1334:  "Dogum tarihimiz  
     bin   y z otuz d rt." (p. 186)  The first sentence of  
     the English translation, however, is:  "I was born in  
     1330 (1914 A.D.)." (p.155)  The error would, in fact,  
     appear to be twofold for, if the conversion tables I  
     have on hand are correct, 1330 H. corresponds to 1911-  
     1912 A.D.  Further on, M dam  states that it was in  
     1934 that he began playing the saz.  He then repeats  
     both the year of his birth, 1334, and the year he began  
     playing the saz, 1934, in order to avoid any possible  
     confusion arising from the use of two calendars:  "  
     51    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     Yanlis olmasin.  Bin    y z otuz d rt dogumum.  Dokuz  
     y z otuz d rtte sazi elime aldim." (p.186)   But here  
     again the translator gets the date wrong and even goes  
     so far as to provide an indication in Latin that the  
     translation correctly reproduces an error on the part  
     of  M dami! :  "That is (let there be no mistake) I was  
     born in 1934 (sic).  In 1934 I first picked up the  
     saz." (p.156) It is difficult to chalk this kind of  
     error up to simple carelessness when in the subsequent  
     two sentences the name of a place to which the poet  
     went is placed in the English sentence as if it were a  
     name for his saz and the word "village" is taken for  
          The explanation for what would appear to be a  
     casual disregard for accuracy becomes more clear when  
     one considers the second instance of a direct transfer  
     of translation errors into the body of the  
     dissertation.  Like the first, it reflects both a basic  
     unfamiliarity with Turkish idiom and the existence of  
     implicit assumptions regarding the level of  
     sophistication and mental acumen of the poet.  An  
     additional factor enters in, however, in the form of an  
     inclination to interpret what is said, and even to  
     supply what is not said, according to the needs of the  
     argument being made.  In Chapter IV, "Learning the  
     Art," Moyle's vantage point is that provided by her  
     readings of Zarifov and Zhirmunskii on the system of  
     apprenticeship among the Uzbeks.  Anxious to press  
     parallels on the basis of what can be gleaned from  
     Basg z's  interview, she has M dam  say, "Yes, I served  
     my apprenticeship with him because he seemed like the  
     most learned man in the world to me.  If what the  
     people want is not in your shop, you might as well  
     close up that shop." (p.157) when fact, M dam  has said  
     nothing at all about serving as an apprentice, but  
     rather, "Yes, we observed from this that, if you like,  
     be the wisest person in the world, if you can't find  
     52    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     the goods the customer wants in your shop, you might as  
     well close up your shop." (p.188)  (Evet, biz de bundan  
     m l h za ettik ki, istersen, all me-i cihan ol  
     m sterinin istedigi mali d kk ninda bulamazsan, sen de  
     d kk nini kapat." ) (p.188)    At no point does M dam   
     utter the words, "I served my apprenticeship," nor does  
     he, in fact, ever use the actual term for apprentice,  
      irak, in speaking of his three-year association with  
     an experienced poet-storyteller, Yakupoglu Tevfik Usta,  
     from whom he learned thirteen stories.  And, of course,  
     the phrase, "be the wisest person in the world" refers  
     back in its potentiality to M dam  himself.   
          This divergence from the Turkish is heightened  
     when transferred into the dissertation itself as  
     further words are put into M dam 's mouth which serve  
     both to inflate the importance he attributes to his  
     meeting with Yakupoglu and to imply that a master-  
     apprentice relationship has been explicitly stated.   
     Moyle says:  "The master minstrel recognized M dami's  
     raw talent and offered to take him as an apprentice."  
     (p. 94)  The basis for this statement is the following  
     invitation extended by Yakupoglu:  "I've been begging  
     God for a companion like you. Let's set out on the road  
     together."  ("Ben, senin gibi bir arkadas Allahtan  
     diliyordum.  Seninle bir geziye dogru  ikalim.) (p.  
     188)  Moyle continues in her enhancement of the  
          For M dam  this was a dazzling opportunity.   
          His ambition to be a minstrel, held in the  
          face of all the slights to which he had been  
          subjected, made this offer seem like "the  
          answer to all my prayers."  At that time, he  
          says, Yakupoglu Tevfik Usta seemed to him,  
          "like the most learned man in the world."   
     53    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
          Nowhere, however, does M dam  use anything  
     remotely resembling the phrase, "the answer to all my  
     prayers."  Moyle's inspiration for this may have been  
     Yakupoglu's statement, "I've been begging God for a  
     friend like you."  As noted above, the statement that  
     M dam  looked up to Yakupoglu as "the wisest man in the  
     world" rests upon a translation error abetted by a  
     preconceived notion of M dam 's fundamental na vete.  
     Parallels with the Uzbek system of apprenticeship may,  
     indeed, exist, but they have not been demonstrated  
     here.  What has been demonstrated is a lack of regard  
     for accuracy and the freedom to exercise it with  
     impunity when a relatively powerless dissertator is  
     writing in an academic context in which investigator  
     and investigated are conceived as being worlds apart.   
     This impunity becomes particularly glaring in the third  
     and final example of a translation error which surfaces  
     in the dissertation itself.  In this case, an attitude  
     of condescension towards the poet, perhaps fostered by  
     the dissertator's mentors, is matched by exceedingly  
     low expectations regarding the poetry itself.  For how  
     else could one explain acceptance of the following  
     translation of two lines in which a poet expresses his  
     conflicting emotions as he admonishes his own obstinate  
     heart to give up on the beloved while yet urging that  
     his heart be left free to suffer the consequences of  
     this love:  
          "The inconstant one did not take off her  
          When she tried to take it off, my heart was a  
          saz." (p. 142)  
          (Dedim, hercaiden el  ek  ekmedi   
          Degme,  eksin cezasidir g nl m m) (p. 191)   
          One might assume that the translation given  
     actually belongs to another poem except for the fact  
     54    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     that the reference to the removal of gloves could have  
     been inspired by the words "el"  meaning "hand" and  
     " ekmek" meaning "to pull," the idiom, "bir seyden el  
      ekmek," meaning to relinquish, withdraw or give up on  
     something.  There are no easily discernible grounds for  
     the use of the phrase, "my heart was a saz."  Clearly,  
     it would not have taken much of an interest in poetry  
     or knowledge of Turkish to realize that something was  
     seriously amiss here.  Even if the translated lines had  
     made good sense, the removal of gloves should have rung  
     untrue, even for the non-expert, as being as foreign to  
     the world of Turkish love poetry, courtly or folk, as  
     they are to traditional Turkish indoor attire.  
          These are all flaws that should not have escaped  
     the attention of Moyle's dissertation advisors in 1975.   
     A doctoral dissertation a decade and a half old should  
     be either corrected and revised by the scholar at his  
     or her current level of maturity and expertise or  
     simply made available through University Microfilms so  
     that both the price and the expectations of the reader  
     might be of a different order of magnitude.    
          This is not to say that Moyle's voice from the  
     past is not without some merit and relevance for today.   
     Indeed, having entered the time warp her dissertation  
     presents, one can see a young scholar who has had the  
     courage to challenge what was at the time axiomatic for  
     adherents of the powerful and attractive oral-formulaic  
     theory, namely, that oral composition and the idea of a  
     fixed text are incompatible and mutually exclusive.  In  
     this Moyle has succeeded.  Chapter V, "The Songs of the  
     Minstrel Tale," demonstrates through a comparison of  
     sung poems from two tales from two different minstrels  
     and of sung poems from two performances by the same  
     minstrel that the poetry inset in the prose narrative  
     of the tales is, as minstrel poets say it is,  
     memorized.  In other words, Moyle has shown that in the  
     Turkish tradition, memorization and the idea of a fixed  
     55    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     text can and do exist side by side with the ability to  
     compose orally.  While this may seem to be belaboring  
     the obvious for those familiar with the Turkish  
     tradition, in the  context of the still simmering  
     debate about the composition of the Homeric poems it is  
     an important contribution and one which has  
     ramifications for the broader discussions manifest in  
     such recent works as Jack Goody's THE INTERFACE BETWEEN  
     Sarah Moment Atis  
     University of Wisconsin-Madison  
          Otis Hays, Jr., HOME FROM SIBERIA: THE SECRET  
     (Texas A & M University Press, 1990). xiv + 232 Pp.  
     Appendices, bibliography, index.  
          An event as historically important and wide-spread  
     as the Second World War is bound to give rise to a vast  
     number of interesting incidents and human interest  
     stories. This diary-like book is one of these --the  
     internment of almost 300 American airmen in the Soviet  
     Union. It is not the only publication about these men  
     of the US Army Air Corps and the US Navy who crash-  
     landed in the Soviet Far East after conducting bombing  
     raids on Northern Japan. The bibliography lists 25  
     items pertinent to the topic, including three books and  
     several articles that deal with it alone, including the  
     two newspaper articles of late 1944 that leaked the  
     essence of the story and caused certain American Air-  
     crews on the way home to be returned to internment in  
     Soviet Central Asia. Stalin's government did not desire  
     its neutrality pact with Japan to be compromised and  
     accordingly wanted it to appear that Americans who had  
     56    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     attacked Japan were not being allowed to return to  
     active service in the war.  
          The Soviets even fired at all incoming American  
     aircraft, much to the surprise and alarm of their  
     crews, who had been briefed about possible emergency  
     landings on the Kamchatka Peninsula but not about the  
     actual nature of their reception over Soviet territory,  
     in order to play the Soviet game of neutrality to the  
     fullest. Whether the pursuing Japanese pilots were  
     fooled is unlikely since almost no hits were scored.  
     Yet it must have been a terrifying experience for a  
     crew of a damaged plane, perhaps with wounded on board,  
     pursued by Zeros, to run into flak from their only hope  
     of landing and refuge. But refuge turned into  
     captivity, physically trying, long-drawn-out and  
     boring, without benefit of regular contact or  
     communication with the American embassy, much less with  
     relatives and friends at home. In the few letters  
     crewmen managed to send home they could say only they  
     had been interned in a "neutral country."  
          Internment seems to have been one long culture  
     shock and conflict. Ordinary young American males,  
     desirous of returning to their country and getting back  
     into the war quickly ran up against that extremely  
     slow-moving and incommunicative object, Soviet  
     bureaucracy, made even more difficult to budge by  
     Stalinism and the exigencies of war. Promises of  
     deportation in three days would turn into waits of  
     three weeks and then become three months and more. Yet  
     it seems clear the internees' "keepers," the Soviet  
     military, treated them as best they could. More than  
     one internee said they received the same rations as did  
     the Soviet military. Sometimes they were given Lend-  
     Lease food and clothing. Hardest to bear, perhaps, was  
     surgery without anaesthetic. Several died from wounds  
     or disease. After being held in Kamchatka, where most  
     landed, sometimes by plane but usually by train,  
     57    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     through either Magadan or Khabarovsk to Novosibirsk and  
     then southward through Alma-Ata to the camp near  
     Vrevskaya, near Tashkent, in Uzbekistan. Some tried to  
     escape but were rounded up and returned to the camp.  
          There may have been reasons for the Americans'  
     internment-captivity other than the general Soviet  
     proclivity toward secrecy for its own sake. A few  
     remarks made by some of the American internees suggest  
     the possibility, but only that, of the Soviet Union  
     preparing for war with Japan prior to the agreement  
     reached at Yalta to enter the war in the Pacific three  
     months after the defeat of Germany.  
          An important fact that emerges clearly from the  
     book is that the future strategic capability of the  
     USSR was greatly enhanced by the arrival on Soviet  
     territory of these 37 aircrews comprising 291 men (223  
     army and 58 navy). The USSR acquired several examples  
     of at least four types of American bombers (B17, B24,  
     B29 plus one or more navy types). Some planes were  
     hardly damaged. Was a Norden bombsight also acquired?  
          Release came not individually or by aircrew, but  
     by groups of aircrews on five occasions, between May  
     11, 1943 and August 24, 1945, usually by truck convoy  
     at night across mountains and desert into Iran with  
     NKVD in charge of the operation. Once out of the USSR,  
     the men came under the control of American bureaucracy  
     at its most secretive. All released before the war  
     ended had to sign secrecy pledges, sometimes more than  
     once, promising they would never divulge that they had  
     been interned in the Soviet Union. Not until 1988 did  
     Congress pass special legislation that entitled those  
     still alive to benefits due prisoners of war, a status  
     that many of the airmen felt applied to them. Only  
     three of the airmen ever visited the Soviet Union  
     again. A suggestion by one of the navy fliers for a  
     reunion in Tashkent never got off the ground.  
     58    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
          HOME FROM SIBERIA is an inherently interesting and  
     at times moving account of people, American and Soviet,  
     attempting to survive under difficult wartime  
     conditions made even more trying by the desire of two  
     governments to make certain these men's existence did  
     not affect policy.  
     Karl W. Ryavec  
     University of Massachusetts-Amherst  
     TAJIKISTAN. (Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research  
     Institute, 1989)  viii + 66 pp.,  
     footnotes/bibliography, paper.   
          This slim volume is the first book length account,  
     in English, of "the status of Islam" (p.3) in  
     Tajikistan.  Based on Soviet and Western researchers  
     work on Islam, both as a system of religious beliefs  
     and practices and as a political force under Soviet  
     rule, this publication of the Foreign Policy Research  
     Institute in Philadelphia appears to be part of an  
     ongoing debate related to the United States policy  
     concerns in the region.  The central aim of this study  
     seems to be to debunk the widely held view of most  
     Western experts on the Soviet Union during the 1970s  
     and 1980s, that Islam and Muslims pose a threat to the  
     stability of the Soviet state.  Such an assertion, if  
     true, could have significant policy implications.   
     Muriel Atkin, however, argues against the notion that  
     Islam presents a powerful dissident force against  
     Soviet rule in Muslim Central Asia.  In view of the  
     rapid changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union  
     since the publication of the book in 1989, her position  
     on this point appears to have been borne out, at least  
     for the moment.  
     59    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
          Atkin's argument in support of her position is  
     three fold:  First, methodologically, she says, the  
     assumptions regarding rising Muslim militancy in the  
     USSR since the 1970s are based, for the most part, on  
     partial and highly abstracted and generalized  
     information.  Most of the data utilized in support of  
     the prevailing assumptions, she asserts, come from the  
     north and northeastern Caucasus and Turkmenistan in  
     Central Asia, a relatively small area, and "may not be  
     representative" of the Soviet Muslim population as a  
     whole (p. 3).  Furthermore, available information from  
     these regions is primarily on sufism, a presumed "vital  
     form" of Islam as well as "the most politically  
     militant" expression of the religion (p. 2).  Second,  
     Atkin contends that there is no substantiated evidence  
     indicating either any real upsurge of Islamic militancy  
     in the Soviet Union, or unusual Soviet concerns over  
     potential danger to the Communist system from Muslims  
     or Islamic movements.  Western writers had predicted  
     these events because of the presumed impact of Islamist  
     movements world-wide since the 1970s, and the more  
     immediate influences of the successful Islamic  
     revolution in Iran and Islamist armed resistance  
     against the Soviets in Afghanistan, just across the  
     southern frontiers of the USSR.  Such assumptions on  
     the part of Western researchers, she argues, may have  
     been primarily a function of the heightened awareness  
     in the West about Islamist movements, and a projection  
     of their own fears, rather than an indication of any  
     meaningful change in the nature of relations between  
     Soviet Muslims and the Soviet state.  Finally, by  
     turning her attention to a single republic, Tajikistan,  
     the only titular republic in Muslim Soviet Central Asia  
     sharing a common language (Tajik/ Persian/Dari) with  
     neighboring Iran and borders with Afghanistan, Atkin  
     characterizes relationships extant between Muslims and  
     the atheistic Soviet State in Tajikistan as "THE  
     60    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     SUBTLEST BATTLE," the title of her book.  In this  
     ongoing battle, Soviet policies towards religion in  
     general and Islam in particular have remained  
     consistently hostile, aimed at the eventual total  
     destruction of Islamic beliefs, institutional forms and  
     practices.  In this endeavor, Soviets have pursued a  
     varied but pragmatic course in fighting their battles  
     against Islam and Muslims, most notably by creating an  
     "official Islam" in the form of Muslim Religious  
     Boards, in order to co-opt, politically emasculate, and  
     use Islamic symbols, ideals and human resources towards  
     the furtherance of Soviet domestic and international  
     policies, as deemed necessary.  Cognizant of Soviet  
     intent and the presence of a variety of institutional  
     structures to undermine Islamic beliefs and practices,  
     Muslims in Tajikistan have fought, and to a large  
     extent won, their own defensive battles in preserving  
     important components of the Islamic traditions as part  
     and parcel of their Tajik "national tradition" (p.31).   
     Thus, presumably, long standing battles of Communist  
     atheism and Islam in Tajikistan, subtle or not,  
     continue without clear winners or losers as yet.  Atkin  
     also asserts that the developments in Iran and  
     Afghanistan have had little or no detectable political  
     impact upon the Tajik Muslims' relations with the  
     Soviet State.  This reviewer finds her general argument  
     persuasive given the kinds of data she is working with.  
          The true value of this booklet, described by Adam  
     M. Garfinkle, the series editor at FPRI, as "a careful,  
     scholarly, and important case-study of Islam in the  
     Soviet Union" (p.vii), lies less in what it reveals  
     about the "status of Islam" in Tajikistan than in what  
     it tells us about the sadly underdeveloped (conceptual,  
     methodological and analytical) state of Western and  
     Soviet approaches to the study of Islam and Muslims in  
     the Soviet Union.  Principally, the approach taken in  
     this book, a study of Islam in the Soviet Union from a  
     61    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     distance, is the same as the approach of other Western  
     scholars it criticizes--i.e., it relies primarily on  
     Soviet publications in Russian, and in this case a  
     number of Tajik authors who are working primarily to  
     promote the cause of atheism, the clearly articulated  
     anti-Islamic policies of the Soviet state.  It seems  
     that our understanding of Islam and Muslims is limited  
     to the views of those whose very job and livelihood  
     within the Soviet System have been contingent upon the  
     representation of Islam and Muslims as a danger to the  
     Soviet state.  In other words, we in the West, and  
     elsewhere, have been exposed to continuous, well  
     orchestrated monologues and diatribes that portray  
     Islam and Muslims as either dangerous or threatening.   
     We have yet to hear the voice of a single Soviet  
     Muslim, of any age or sex--whether defined by the  
     Soviets as a "true believer"/ "fanatic", "religiously  
     Muslim", "culturally Muslim", "sufi" or "an un-official  
     mullah"--other than those working as propagandists for  
     atheism, speak for him/her self.  Much to her credit,  
     Muriel Atkin is aware of the limitations of the data  
     she is using, but the fact remains that she continues  
     to pose the same old questions, employ the same old  
     worn out concepts and categories, even if she reaches a  
     slightly different conclusion about "the political  
     significance and strength of Islam in Tajikistan"  
     (p.27) than those propounded by other Soviet experts.   
     The problems of restricted access to field research  
     among Muslims in the Soviet Union is to blame for some  
     of the shortcomings of the current state of Central  
     Asian studies, but not for all of them.  
          Undoubtedly, much to the chagrin of some  
     researchers on Soviet Islam, the Soviet system appears  
     to be unravelling without any help from the alleged  
     Islamic threat to it.  These rapidly changing political  
     and ideological conditions, however, promise  
     unprecedented opportunities for first hand study of the  
     62    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     status of Islam and Muslims in Central Asia, and the  
     rigorous application of the available conceptual and  
     analytical tools of Western social sciences for a  
     better and more comprehensive understanding of the  
     dynamics of Muslim societies under Soviet rule.  This  
     effort may have to begin with a critical and  
     comparative examination of relationships between power  
     and production of knowledge of, and about, Islam in the  
     Soviet Union.  It must also address not only the  
     questions of how, why and in what forms  
     (institutionalized and private, secret and public, folk  
     and modern, rural and urban, "official" and "un-  
     official", etc.) Islamic beliefs and practices have  
     other forces, as it is often depicted by outside  
     observers, but also present Muslim adherents' own  
     REASONS FOR COMMITMENT to Islamic beliefs and practices  
     under very trying circumstances.  In other words, it is  
     not sufficient to explain the persistence of Islamic  
     beliefs, and the absence of a more strident Muslim  
     opposition to the Soviet system simply as a function of  
     "manifest deficiencies in Soviet efforts" to promote  
     atheism, especially in the countryside "where most  
     Central Asian Muslims live" (p.52-53).  The only real  
     link between ideals and ideologies (religious or  
     otherwise) and actions (political or otherwise) are  
     human individuals, in this instance Muslims (believers,  
     un-official mullahs, shamans, etc.) who live and make  
     decisions in particular social, historical, economic  
     and political contexts--i.e. in a rapidly changing  
     Soviet state and society--and we must begin to focus  
     our scholarly attentions on the thoughts and activities  
     of Muslims themselves, especially in view of the  
     heightened Western policy concerns in the region.  We  
     need to discern not only what it means to be a Muslim  
     in Soviet contexts but also what difference, if any,  
     being a  Muslim makes in the behavior of individuals in  
     63    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     particular social situations in their daily lives.   
     sheds some light onto the tortuous and challenging  
     research path ahead.   Are the rest of us ready to join  
     the battle?  
     M. Nazif Shahrani  
     Indiana University, Bloomington  
          Frank J. Miller,  FOLKLORE FOR STALIN: RUSSIAN  
     of the Harriman Institute. (Armonk, New York: M. E.  
     Sharpe, 1990).  192 pp.   
          This volume presents a history of the way politics  
     affected the collection, study, publication, and even  
     creation of folklore during the time of Stalin.  The  
     origins of "Soviet folklore" and the main contributors  
     to its development (Maxim Gorky and the folklorist  
     Iurii Sokolov, pp. 7-8) are covered in the first  
     chapter.  The second deals with the new type of epic  
     termed "novina," the third concerns the adaptation of  
     folk tales to new Soviet content, and the fourth covers  
     the fate of "pseudofolklore" after the death of Stalin  
     in 1953.  Three appendices contain English synopses of  
     "novina" and Soviet tales, and complete translations of  
     selected pieces of "Soviet folklore."  The volume opens  
     with a foreword by William E. Harkins and concludes  
     with standard notes, bibliography, and index.   
          Since many traditional folklore genres were still  
     viable in the 1920s and 1930s among the Russian  
     population in the Soviet Union it is not surprising  
     that folklore was eventually subjected to political  
     control and was exploited for propaganda purposes.  A  
     new type of "Soviet folklore" was developed, and was  
     supposed to reflect the ideals and achievements of a  
     64    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     new Soviet society.  Suitable performers were sought  
     out, advisers were sent to help them reshape  
     traditional folklore genres, and the resulting texts  
     were adjusted to the standard language and to "correct"  
     political ideas.  In opposition to the folk name  
     "starina" for oral epics, a new genre called "novina"  
     was created and was devoted to people in the "Soviet  
     pantheon," the chief ones being Lenin, Stalin, Chkalov,  
     Chapaev, Kirov, and Voroshilov (p. 14).  A classic  
     clash between "form and content" ensued since the  
     poetic language and motifs of the epic were mixed with  
     literary expressions and political jargon.  Thus  
     Krupskaia is referred to as a "pretty maid" ("krasnaia  
     devitsa," p. 50) and Lenin is called the "red sun"  
     ("krasnoe solnyshko," p. 46), a phrase customarily  
     reserved for Prince Vladimir of Kiev.  A. V. Morozova's  
     poem "Of the Miracle Stairway," which she composed  
     about the subway after her visit to Moscow and which  
     was published in "Pravda" in 1935, is a representative  
     example of the "novina" (pp. 152-54).   
          In the preface, the author states that his book  
     "is a study of the artificial folklore based on the  
     traditional genres: the epic song (the 'bylina'), the  
     lament for the dead, the lyric song, and the folktale"  
     (p. xiii).  He makes a distinction between "western  
     definitions of folklore as the oral cultural tradition  
     of a specific group of people" and folklore defined in  
     the Soviet Union since the l930s as the "oral poetic  
     creations of the broad folk masses" (p. 4).  "Soviet  
     folklore" is different because most contributors were  
     literate, many wrote out their new creations, and some  
     even read these works before audiences.  In the fourth  
     chapter the author offers an overall definition, saying  
     that "the term Soviet folklore had come to signify  
     works by folk performers and folklorists in praise of  
     the Soviet people, their life, their government, and  
     their leaders, particularly Stalin" (p. 95).   
     65    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     Folklorists as early as the late 1940s but especially  
     after 1953 criticized the very idea of "Soviet  
     folklore" and most came to believe that no such thing  
     ever existed.  Since this episode in Russian folklore  
     scholars have largely ignored "Soviet folklore."   
          A few points of clarification need to be  
     mentioned.  First, one has to distinguish between  
     "Russian folklore" and "Soviet folklore" because good  
     collections and studies of Russian folklore were  
     published in this period.  Second, it is not easy to  
     form a universal definition of folklore because as life  
     changes so folklore also changes.  One may admire the  
     oral literature collected over the last two centuries  
     in Russian folklore, but should one take this kind of  
     "classic folklore" as an immutable standard?  Third,  
     folklore has often been exploited for other purposes,  
     the most obvious one today being tourism in many  
     countries.  "Soviet folklore" may represent one of the  
     most blatant instances of such exploitation.  Fourth,  
     in Russian an interaction has taken place between  
     written literature and oral literature since Kievan  
     times, in particular around the end of the eighteenth  
     century and beginning of he nineteenth century when  
     poets such as Pushkin, Lermontov, and Koltsov wrote  
     folklore stylizations.  In some cases, such literary  
     works were later collected from folk performers, thus  
     showing that no clear boundary exists between the two  
     kinds of literature.  Fifth, one may question the  
     statement that Marfa Kriukova, who coined the word  
     "novina" and was one of its main creators, "was a folk  
     performer par excellence" (p. 51).  Her ability to turn  
     almost anything she read into an epic places her in  
     Astaxova's category of "improvisers" (p. 50), but such  
     performers might more aptly be described as revealing  
     how the decline of the Russian oral epic was well  
     advanced before "Soviet folklore" came into existence  
     and as showing how individual originality was replacing  
     66    AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)  
     communal tradition.  Her unprecedented repertory of 129  
     songs consequently should be regarded with some  
     skepticism.  Most of these points show how difficult it  
     is to make a precise distinction between "authentic  
     folklore" and "pseudofolklore."   
          Frank Miller has provided a well documented study  
     about how politics influenced the collection and  
     investigation of folklore under Stalin.  This book  
     fills a gap in the history of the study of Russian  
     folklore, and should be useful both to folklorists and  
     to those who study the history of this period from  
     various viewpoints.   
     James Bailey  
     University of Wisconsin-Madison.   
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