Z. V. Togan: The Origins of the Kazaks and the Ozbeks 



  H. B. Paksoy


  [First published in

  Central Asian Survey  Vol. 11, No. 3. 1992]

  [Reprinted in

      H. B. Paksoy, Ed. CENTRAL ASIA READER: The Rediscovery of

          History (New York/London: M. E. Sharpe, 1994) 201 Pp. +

          Index.  ISBN 1-56324-201-X (Hardcover); ISBN 1-56324-

          202-8 (pbk.)  LC CIP DK857.C45 1993  958-dc20]


 Editor's Introduction


A professor of history for over half a century, Zeki Velidi

Togan (1890-1970), a Bashkurt Turk, studied and taught in

institutions of higher learning on three continents, including

the United States.1 His first book, Turk ve Tatar Tarihi (Turk

and Tatar History), was published in Kazan in 1911. The renowned

scholars N. Ashmarin and N. Katanov (1862-1922),2 both of Kazan

University, and V.V. Bartold (1869-1930) of St. Petersburg

University, invited Togan to study with them. 

 In 1913, Togan was asked by the Archeology and Ethnography

Society of Kazan University to undertake a research trip to

Turkistan. After successful completion of that endeavor, the

Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences,3 jointly with International

Central Asia Research Society, sponsored Togan for a more

extensive expedition. Portions of Togan's findings began to be

published in scholarly journals prior to the First World War. His

lifetime output approaches four hundred individual items in at

least five languages. He also had facility in several others.

 Like the Ukrainian scholar Mikhail Hrushevsky (1866-1934) and

the Czech Thomas Masaryk (1850-1937), Togan was not only a

scholar devoted to writing about the history of his nation, but

also worked to secure its intellectual, cultural, civil, and

political independence. He became a leader of the Turkistan

National Liberation Movement in Central Asia (1916-1930s), called

the Basmachi Movement by the Russians. A revealing anecdote is

offered by A. Inan, a close colleague of Togan both as a

historian and as a leading member of the Turkistan National

Liberation movement. The event takes place in June 1922 in the

vicinity of Samarkand:


 When a Bolshevik military unit, detailed to liquidate us, opened

fire, we took refuge in a nearby cemetery. As we began defending

ourselves, I noticed that Togan had taken out his ever-present

notebook and was busily scribbling. The circumstances were so

critical that some of those among our ranks even thought that he

was hurriedly recording his last will and testament. He kept

writing, seemingly oblivious to the flying bullets aimed at him,

and the accompanying sounds of war. I shouted at him from behind

the tombstone that was protecting me, and asked why he was not

fighting. Without looking up, continuing to write, he shouted

back: ``You continue firing. The inscriptions on these headstones

are very interesting.''4 


 Togan's investigation of the origin of the Kazaks and the Ozbeks

is adapted from his Turkili Turkistan, a project he worked on

during the 1920s, a period when he was establishing extensive

contacts with the Central Asian population from Ferghana to the

shores of the Caspian on behalf of the Turkistan national

liberation movement. After he left Central Asia, and earned his

doctorate in Europe, he continued his research using published

sources. Though completed in 1928, the work was not published

until 1947, in Istanbul. 

 Togan's analysis and documentation in the excerpt printed here

may contribute to the clarification of the issues involved in

efforts to rediscover the ``ethnogenesis'' of the ``Uzbeks,''

``Kazakhs,''5 and other Central Asians. It should be recalled

that these designations are primarily geographical, tribal, or

confederation names, not ethnonyms. Often they were taken from

geographic reference points by travelers and then were mistakenly

or deliberately turned into ethnic or political classifications.

Early in the eighth century, Central Asians themselves provided

an account of their identity, history, and political order.6

Later efforts to identify and disseminate information concerning

the genealogy of Central Asians can be traced to a wave of native

Central Asian leadership that was suppressed in the Stalinist

liquidations. Examples from the period survive in abundance, in

Central Asian dialects, published in three alphabets in various

Central Asian cities.




 1. In addition to Togan's Hatiralar (Memoirs) (Istanbul, 1969),

this account makes use of bibliographic material appearing in

Fen-Edebiyat Fakultesi Arastirma Dergisi, Ataturk Universitesi,

Erzurum (Sayi 13, 1985) and information provided by Togan's

colleagues, students, and family friends. 

 2. Despite their names, neither was Russian, but both had been

baptized. Togan calls Katanov a Sagay-Turk from the Altai region,

and Ashmarin a Chuvash-Turk. 

 3. For a description of the formation of the Academy, see R.N.

Frye, ``Oriental Studies in Russia,'' in Russia and Asia: Essays

on the Influence of Russia on the Asian Peoples, ed. Wayne

Vucinich (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972).

 4. Over the years I have been told of this incident

independently by several students and friends of both Inan and

Togan. Later in life it seems to have occasioned numerous droll

exchanges between Inan and Togan; every time Inan mentioned the

incident, Togan relished recounting the story of Inan's having

been ``wounded'' in the same battle. The two men endured arduous

times together, both in Asia and Europe, and later in their

careers became colleagues at Istanbul University, where,

reportedly, each sent his students to the seminars of the other.

On one occasion toward the end of their lives, when Inan became

seriously ill, Togan asked his doctoral students to visit Inan at

the hospital and read him passages from Togan's Hatiralar (which

was still in manuscript), especially the portion about ``Inan's

wounding.'' Indeed, Togan records the fighting in his memoirs,

including Inan's ``wounding,'' but not his own ``note-taking.''

He simply states that he ``read the headstones written in the

Kufi script'' (Hatiralar, p. 414). Togan identifies the location

of the cemetery as Qala-i Ziyaeddin.

 5. Note that Togan and other historians spell these words Ozbek

and Kazak, respectively. ``Ozbek'' is the only form encountered

in the material published in Tashkent during the 1928-39 period,

when a subset of the Latin alphabet was used. The term

``Cossack'' (Russian: Kazak), incidentally, is a corruption of

``Kazak'' (Russian: Kazakh), though there is little, if any,

ethnic relation between them. Similarly, the term ``Tatar,'' as

found in the Kultigin (of the Orkhon group) stelea of the eighth

century A.D., is a correct rendition. During the Mongol

irruption of the thirteenth century, Western authors inaccurately

used ``Tartarus'' (which actually refers to ``the infernal

regions of Roman and Greek mythology,'' hence, hell), yielding

the form ``Tartar.'' By that time ``Tartarus'' had already been

assimilated into Christian theology in Europe. Possibly St. Louis

of France was the first, in 1270, to apply this unrelated term

and spelling to the Chinggisid troops of Jochi. 

 6. These were recorded on scores of stelea, written in their

unique alphabet and language, and erected in the region of

Orkhon-Yenisey. See Talat Tekin, A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic.

Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, vol. 69

(Bloomington/The Hague: Mouton, 1968) (contents dating from the

eighth century).




 The Concepts of Tatar, Kipchak, Togmak, and Ozbek


 Tatar, Kipchak, Togmak, and Ozbeks: The nomadic populace of the

entire Desht-i Kipchak [Kipchak steppe], from the Tarbagatay

mountains to the Syr Darya River, and from Khorezm to the Idil

[Volga] basin and Crimea, were termed ``Togmak'' during the era

of the Mongols, prior to the spread of Islam. Among the Khiva

Ozbeks, the term (in Ebulgazi)a known as ``Togma''; Baskurts

``Tuvma;'' Nogay (according to the Cevdet Pasha history),b

``Tokma'' designated individuals without a known lineage, or

fugitives to be sold as slaves, being offenders of the law. The

negative connotation ascribed to this term, generally referencing

the Kipchaks and Altin Orda (Golden Horde) Tatars, must have

occurred after the spread of Islam. It is not known that the

Jochi Ulus utilized that appellation. It appears that this tribe,

known as ``Togmak,'' had been designated as ``Ozbek'' after

``Ozbek Khan'' (1312-1340). According to Bartold, the terms

``Ozbek'' and ``Ozbek Ulus'' have been utilized in Central Asia

to distinguish this tribe and its entire military population from

the ``Chaghatay''; until the dissolution of the Altin Orda during

the fifteenth century, and the dissemination of its uruk as

Ozbek, Kazak, and Nogay Ulus. Their identifying battle cry

was the word alach. 

 It is necessary to define some of the ethnic terms in use in the

Jochi Ulus: The Ozbeks of today, living in Transoxiana and

Khorezm, comprise the dominant group known under the general

rubric ``tatar'' in the Jochi Ulus. However, it is possible that

the term ``tatar'' was used in a wider context, applying not only

to the dominant group but perhaps also to the dominated. The term

Kipchak also has dual connotations, applying narrowly and

specifically to the Kipchak lineage as well as generally and

broadly to the entire populace of the Kipchak steppe, including

the Ozbeks. According to our findings, the term ``tatar'' earlier

applied within the Jochi Ulus only to the Turk and Mongol

elements issuing from the east, to the dominant component, and

``kipchak'' to the subject nomadic tribes of the steppe. The term

``Togmak'' became the general term of reference to all. After the

Ozbek Khan, the word ``Ozbek'' applied to all ``Tatar'' and

``Kipchak'' in their totality, replacing ``Togmak.'' However, the

Kipchak and the ``Tatar,'' arriving from the east during the age

of the Mongols, mixed with the elements of the older civilization

of the land, as opposed to the nomadic tribes, and started

forming, let us say, the ``Yataq Tatar'' or ``Yataq Kipchak.''*

Then, ``Tatar'' began to assume a wider meaning than ``Ozbek,''

and the term ``Ozbek'' became the appellation of the nomadic

aristocraciese of the Ozbek, Nogay, Kazak, and Baskurt

[confederations] that separated from the Tatar and the Kipchak

societies. Nevertheless, although the word ``Tatar'' had lost its

previous meaning, in the vernacular of the people it continued to

be utilized as ``Elin Tatari,'' meaning the ``Aristocracy of the

Land.'' Moreover, since the trade was in the hands of the Tatar

``Ortaq''f firms during the Mongol period (especially Mongol and

Uyghur), ``Tatar'' also meant ``merchant.'' During the fourteenth

and fifteenth centuries, when the dominant military-nomadic Tatar

and Kipchak amalgamation of the Jochi Ulus emerged as the Ozbeks,

those not belonging to the ruling tribes formed other strata as


 1. ``As,'' of the old civilization of the Kipchak steppe,

in the vicinity of Astrakhan and Saray; ``Bulgar-Kazan''

Turks of the Middle Idil; Burtas and Mokshi (in Islamic and

Mongolian sources, ``Moks''); in the Crimea region, ``Tat'' and

the remnants of the old Khazars; Istek and Ibir-Sibir tribes in

western Siberia;

 2. Kipchak and Bashkurt, who were settled. Those among them

in the region of the Urals are also known as ``Tepter'' (defter),

having been so recorded in registers;

 3. Some portions of today's Kazak and Baskurt, who stayed

away from political life, living from earlier times as neighbors

of the Siberian tribes of ``Istek.''

 Even today, it is possible to distinguish the dominant and

subject Turks within the Jochi Ulus: the dominant uruks remember

the dastans of historical personages and the traditions of the

steppe aristocracy, while the subject uruks remember only the

dastans of the shamanistic mythology and traditions of

``charva'' and are unaware of the political and historical




 The Language, Customs and Traditions of the Old Kipchak-Ozbek



 The fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Arab authors (Ibn Battuta,

Ibn Fadl allah al-Umari, and Ibn Arabshah) have described well

the life, mores, and character of the Ozbeks and the Kipchaks of

the Kipchak steppe. According to Ibn Arabshah, the Ozbek Turks of

the Kipchak steppe are regarded as possessing the most lucid

language, their men and women are the most handsome, generally

displaying aristocratic bearing, not deigning to trickery or

lies, being the gentlefolk of all the Turks.h The language of

these Ozbeks, living from Yedisu to Crimea, can be observed in

the poetry fragments and other monuments coming down to us, is

generally the same; and its Kipchak characteristics have been

partially preserved in the speech of today's Ozbek, Kazak, and

Mangit-Nogay. Their way of life and customs, parallel to

``Turk-chigil'' and ``Turkmen-Oguz'' group,i is the same. Their

written histories, folk literature, and especially heroic epics

of the Kipchak steppe such as Chinggis, Jochi and his Sons, 

Edige, Toktamis, Nureddin, chora Batir,j and Koblandi, their

verse stories, Cirenche chechen recitations, and others, are the

same everywhere. The melodies of the Baskurt and nomadic Ozbeks

are today recited among the Crimean and Constanza Nogays. The

Nogay dastans are recited word for word among the Karakalpak and

the Kazak of Khorezm. The old and the new Kipchak Turks did not

engage in ``black service'' occupations and considered

themselves as the master; they have not made the transition to

farming except under extreme necessity, regarding it an

occupation contrary to the spirit of the steppe aristocracy; and

even under severe economic crisis they did not allow their

daughters to marry sedentary grooms. In this regard, the Nogays

had shown the greatest exaggeration, and were cut down in their

tens of thousands and even hundreds of thousands during the

Kalmak [Mongol] and Russian occupations. Among them, the

historical personae and epic heroes such as Chinggis, Toktamis,

Edige, Er Tagin, Urak Mamay, and Adil Sultan personify the spirit

and the ideals of the steppe aristocracy. In the collective and

unified dastan literature of the Ozbek of the old Jochi Ulus,

comprising the current Ozbek, Kazak, Mangit-Nogay, and Baskurt,

the following elements of ethics, moral qualities, and

characteristics are discernible: exaltation of endeavor;

readiness to die in defense of honor; the principle of espousing

society and state above all; enduring difficulties with ease;

belief that efforts expended in overcoming obstacles facilitate

progress; willingness to undertake long and arduous journeys;

women's desire only for men in possession of these qualities; and

the elevated position of noble women and mothers in the society.

These are all proclaimed in the literature of the old Tatar and

Kipchak aristocratic strata, meaning Ozbek literature. Generally,

the good and the bad customs and habits of the old Turks are

evident even more overtly among the Ozbek-Kipchak:

imperturbability (levelheadedness); dislike of confusion;

moderation; courage; an affinity for being in charge; harshness

in battle but extreme calmness in peace; not killing but selling

of prisoners; purity of heart and honesty; their extreme

sincerity taken advantage of by the enemy; amplifying small

conflicts between individuals and uruks, causing them to drag out

over years and even generations; becoming materialistic under

severe economic conditions, which culminates in the selling of

family members or stealing and selling of others. All these are

the attributes of the Ozbek and the Kipchak, recorded by the Arab

travelers beginning with Ibn Battuta, since the time of the Ozbek



 Division of the ``Ozbek'' Society into Ozbek, Kazak, and



 The division of the Ozbeks into ``Ozbek,'' ``Kazak,'' and

``Mangit-Nogay'' took place not in the Idil basin but while they

were living in the Syr Darya basin. Sons of Jochi ``Batu'' and

``Berke'' Han had influence over the chagatay Ulus; most of

Transoxiana was subject to the Altin Orda. Khorezm and the lower

Syr Darya, beginning from the Otrar region, belonged to the Jochi

Ulus according to the division of the Mongols. In the military

organization of the Jochi Ulus, this area constituted the ``Sol

Kol'' tribes; in the administrative division, it formed the ``Gok

Orda.'' During 1358-61, when the affairs of the Altin Orda (also

known as Ak Orda) became muddled, the ``Kiyat'' beys, commanding

all the troops of the ``Sag Kol'' [Right Flank] tribes, brought

them to Crimea, and the ``Sol Kol'' [Left Flank] tribes to Syr

Darya. At the time, since the lineage of Batu had come to an end,

according to the yasa [Mongol customary law]k and the law of

inheritance, the ultimate rule was passed on to the descendants

of Shiban Han,* Jochi's fifth son. Many Ozbek uruks in today's

Turgay province, in the vicinity of ``Ak Gol'' [White Lake],

raised to the throne as Han Hizir, who was a descendant of the

Shiban. Nayman, Karluk, Uyghur, Kongrat, and Boyrek uruks were in

favor. However, the rule of this descendant of Shiban was

confined to a portion of the ``Sol Kol'' confederations and the

``Tura'' stronghold of the Tobol basin in western Siberia. The

uruks of the Syr Darya of the Sol Kol raised ``Kara Nogay Han,''

a son of Su Bas, descendant of ``Tokay Temur,'' who had not until

that day been involved in the affairs of government. It appears

that the ``Sol'' uruks of this region comprised Shirin, Barin

Kipchak, Argun, Alchin, Katay, Mangit, and Kurlevut, collectively

known as ``Yedi San.''l The bases of these Sol Han were in the

cities of Yenikend, Cend, Barchinlig Kent, Sabran, Otrar, and the

core, Siginak. Evidently, some of those uruks were even then

involved in the affairs of the Transoxiana. Among the soldiery of

Temur,m the Kipchak and the Nayman played important roles. During

the era of Temur's sons, Ozbeks became rather powerful (1427),

under the leadership of ``Barak Han,'' a descendant of Tokay

Temur. When Barak was killed in 1429, descendants of Shiban Han

occupied Syr Darya basin. Accordingly, the real center of the

Jochi Ulus (Ak Orda) moved next to Transoxiana. At the same time,

Mangit, who were backing the descendants of Tokay Temur, acquired

great influence under the rule of ``Edige Beg,'' which means

``Temur Bek of the Altin Orda.'' Other uruk joined them, and all

together became known as ``Mangit,'' because of the appellation

of the dominant uruk, and on the other hand as ``Nogay''

(probably because they raised Kara Nogay Han).  Hence I have

used the appellation Mangit-Nogay throughout this work. At the

beginning of the sixteenth century, ``Shiban-Ozbek'' Han and the

uruks subject to them arrive and settle in Transoxiana and

Khorezm. At that time, the western regions of today's Kazakistan,

as well as Baskurt and Tura lands, became subjected to Mangit-

Nogay in their entirety. In this manner, a strong Mangit-Nogay

society is constituted as opposed to the Ozbeks.

 The aforementioned rulers, Kirey and Canibek, sons of Barak Han,

were subject to the famous Ebulkhayir of Shiban descent. In 1466

they left this Han and became ``kazak,'' sought asylum from the

descendants of chagatay to their east (the Hans ruling in the

environs of Kashgar and Yedisu), acquired the obedience of some

uruks to themselves, and with that aid once again obtained the

allegiance of uruks that owed fealty to them but were living in

the domains of the descendants of Shiban. Accordingly, next to

the ``Shiban Ozbek,'' a ``Kazak Ozbek'' society was established.

Thus, the Ozbek society comprised three powerful groups during

the second half of the fifteenth century. What earlier belonged

to the Gok Orda Han and the descendants of Tokay Temur became the

domains of Shiban Han. The possessions of the Shiban are taken

over by the Nogay princes. Kazaks, on the other hand, demanded

shares in both as well as in the chagatay domains. During the

mid-sixteenth century, the ``Mangit-Nogay'' princes were situated

in ``Arka'' and ``Ulu Tav,'' which constitutes the center of

today's Kazakistan; began meddling in the affairs of lands west

of Idil, even the shores of Azak; and slowly shifted westward.

The lands in contention, the lower Syr Darya basin and Arka

regions, became depopulated. As a result, these regions came

under the rule of Kazak Hans, who previouly had lived in Talas

and chu. During the second half of the seventeenth century, first

the ``Nogay'' and later, during the first half of the eighteenth

century, ``Kalmak'' matters became upset, and Kazak Hans became

the sole ruler of all steppes east of the Yayik [Ural] river.

Nogay withdrew toward Crimea and the northern Caucasus.

 Kazak Hans, after separation from the Shiban Ozbeks, began

referring to their neighboring Kazaks as ``Kazak Ozbekleri.'' In

Haydar Mirza Douglat's history, they are also so termed.n




 The Word ``Kazak'' and the Concept of Being a ``Kazak''


 The name ``Kazak'' was at first reserved for the rulers; later,

it also applied to tribes owing fealty to them and to the states

they wished to establish. Prior to that time the name ``Kazak''

did not even apply to a tribal confederation, let alone to the

state. Generally, the term ``Kazak'' was employed to designate

those who were left without a family (boydak) due to a rebellion

of political nature; sometimes those who withdrew from society,

to the mountains and wildernesses, to await more favorable times

before taking over governmental matters, without the benefit and

protection of the tribe; to adolescent boys who had been

separated to help them become accustomed to life; and to those

who left their lands to become ordinary brigands. Under the

influence of the Turk, the tradition of sending the sons out with

a weapon also became accepted among the Russians and recorded in

Islamic sources, and is referenced as ``Kazak'' in Turkish even

today as well as in the past. A political person becoming Kazak

leaves that designation after settling down in a land following

conquest, or joining another political personage to legitimize

himself. He remembers his ``Kazak'' past as days of his youth

when he learned to endeavor and endure difficulties (like Temur,

and among his sons Ebu Sait Mirza, Huseyin Baykara, Babur Mirza,

and, from among the Ozbeks, Shiban Han and his followers). Of

course, a man can be a Kazak only for a few years in his

lifetime. In that context, the concept of ``Kazak'' is in

opposition to statehood. Kasim Han and his son Hak Nazar,

descendants of Canibek and Giray, who had become kazak toward the

end of the fifteenth century, tended to view their own states in

that way, as temporary. 

 At the end of the sixteenth century (1599), the Kazak rulers

left the ``chu'' region under pressure from the northeastern

Kalmaks, and took refuge in the strongholds of Tashkent and

environs. Until 1723 and another Kalmak rout, they settled in

those regions and attempted to have the steppe tribes convert to

sedentary agriculture. In pursuit of that policy, ``Tug

Baglayip,'' which means announcing the official flag of the

state, established some sort of administrative apparatus and

attempted to establish a state ``devlet tuzumek'' by grouping the

troops into ``Yuz'' [hundred] and ``Bin'' [thousand]. The Orda

(headquarters) of the Han was divided into three, namely

``Uluyuz,'' ``Ortayuz,'' and ``Kichiyuz.'' Among the Ozbek, the

terms ``Han'' and ``Kalgay'' were used to designate the ruler,

the first heir, and the second heir; among the Nogay, ``Bek,''

``Nuradin,'' ``Keykubad'' signified the same ranks. It is though

that the act of dividing the Han Orda into three (names

alternately used were ``Ulugorda,'' ``Ortaorda,'' and

``Kichikorda'') was inherited from a time when an experiment in

pursuit of establishing a governmental structure was conducted.

However, the pressure of the Kalmaks, and later, the Russians

(from Siberia), did not allow them to establish a permanent

government and live under that structure, encompassing the

elements of all the tribes. The tribes living in the territories

northeast of the steppes, having termed themselves ``Kazak,''

adopted the Ozbek and Nogay aristocracy's equivalent of an

``animal husbandry, tent-dwelling'' way of life. The weakness of

the Kazak statehood was of course affected by that.


 The Growth of Kazaks


 The portion of the steppe inhabited by the Ozbeks became the

domains of the Nogay, who became subject to the Kazak Hans.

During the sixteenth century (at the time of the Saydak and Yusuf

Mirza), the Mangit-Nogay on the eastern side of the Idil alone

numbered about two million. The formation of the Temur state in

the east and conquest of Istanbul and the annexation of Crimea in

the west forced the tribes of the Idil to choose between

``Bukhara'' (Transoxiana) and ``Rum'' [Asia Minor]; I shall

return to [this matter] in the history section below. This did

not allow the retention of the tribes in the lower Idil and Yayik

in order to structure a powerful state. When in 1558 the Russians

intruded into these domains, depriving the tribes of their herds

and forcing them to live under individuals such as Alchi Ismail,

who worked with the Russians, the tribes were dispersed.

Continued attacks of the Kalmak, and finally their settling

between Idil and Yayik during 1643, forced an important portion

of the Nogay, with the political and aristocratic strata at their

head, to move to Crimea, and from there to the Caucasus and

further west. But the overwhelming majority of the two million

Nogay living to the east of Idil remained there. A portion of

them migrated to Khorezm and the Syr Darya basin. In that regard,

new tribes arrived in Transoxiana from the Kipchak Steppe at the

time of the Abdulaziz (1645-1680) and Suphan Kulu (1680-1702),

the descendants of Astrakhan Hans now ruling in Bukhara,

strengthening the Kazak Hans. Likewise, the ``Kazak'' tribes

living in Turgay and Ural consist of those tribes earlier

included under Nogay. During the second half of the sixteenth and

the seventeenth century the evacuation by the Turk tribes of the

Idil basin was so serious, especially after the Kalmak migrations

to the west of Idil and to Jungaria, that the Idil-Yayik region

was virtually empty until the nineteenth century. The ``Kazak''

tribes arriving here in 1801 under the rule of Bukey Han of the

Kichiyuz consisted entirely of ``Nogay'' tribes who had lived

there earlier.

 During the third quarter of the eighteenth century, the

Kazak Hans were in control of the region from ``Idil'' and

``Yayik'' to Jungaria, receiving patents from the Russian (St.

Petersburg) and Chinese (Beijing) governments, regarding the

patents as those governments' special praises of the Kazak Hans.

The tribes, living over such a wide territory and apart from each

other on the steppes, did not distance themselves from each other

in language and customs. On the contrary, they have preserved the

unity of their dialect, customs, and traditions, despite their

illiteracy, because of their intermixing at the time of the

Kalmaks, and later during the competition of the Hans, migrating

from one region to the next, from east to west, and then again

from west to east. The emergence of their common heroic personae-

-through their struggles with the Kalmak on the steppes, through

large gatherings (for example, the wedding celebrations of the

Hans and the Beys, and ``as'' feasts, or ``Yog''

ceremonies), through the participation of representatives of

all ``Kazak'' tribes in the poetic contests held at such

occasions, and through the recited poems which propagated the

styles and common traits throughout the tribes--preserved the

traditions and customs. Today, from Jungaria to the Idil basin,

the dialect of the Kazaks is altogether the same. However, their

long life away from the influence of a central Han; their

nonparticipation in large political events, resulting in

isolation from international political life; and their

preoccupation with tribal politics in addition to living with the

spirit of ``Kazaklik,'' have not failed to influence these Turks.

Generally, in political and intellectual life the old

``Kazaklik'' is still regarded as a virtue. They are also wary of

other, neighboring Turks. This, of course, is the negative aspect

of Kazaklik. On the other hand, since the Kazaks are not under

the strong influence of an old culture, they are better and

speedily able to grasp the contemporary scientific methods and

ideas faster than the neighboring cultivated Turk tribes.

 Kazak tribes and their divisions: ``Uluyuz'' included eleven

uruks: Duvlat (its oymak are: Buptay, Cimir, Siyqim, Canis),

Adban, Suvan, chaprasti, Esti, Ochakti, Sari Uysun, Calayir,

Qangli, Chanchkili, and Sirgeli. According to old reckoning,

``Uluyuz'' population totals 460,000. They live in the Yedisu and

Syr Darya provinces.

  ``Ortayuz'' has five uruks: Girey, Nayman, Argin, Qipchaq, and

Qongrat. Girey has two oymaks: ``Uvak Girey'' (aris: Cantiqay,

Cadik, chiruchi, Iteli, Qaraqas, Mulgu, chobar-Aygir, Merket, It-

Imgen, Cas-Taban, Sarbas, chi-Moyun) and ``Qara-Girey'' (aris:

Morun [soy Bayis Morun, Siban, Qurdcay, Tuma and Baysiyiq

Semiz Nayman, Bulatchi, Toqpaq] and Bay-Ciket [soy Cumuq

and Tugas]). Girey live in the Kara Irtis, Irtis, Obagan, Kisma

Isim, and Oy river basins. ``Nayman'' tribe has twelve oymaks:

Aqbora, Bulatchi, Ters Tamgali, Tortovul, Kokcarli, Ergenekti,

Semiz Baganali, Sadir, Matay, Sari Cumart, Qazay, Baltali. Nayman

were living in the direction of Ulutav, Balkas, and Tarbagatay.

According to old reckoning, they number 500,000. Of their

lineage, Baganali has three aris: Toqbulat (soy Ciriq, Ibiske,

Qizil Taz, Qara Bala, Sari Sargaldaq); Sustan (soy: Boydali, Bes

Bala); Aq Taz (soy Teney, Baliqchi, Qarmaqchi, Seyid [tire: Bay

Emet, churtay ara Ataliq, Mamay, Babas, Bulatchi Nayman, Cumuq,

Calman, Badana]). ``Argin'' tribe is divided into three large

oymak: Mumin (aris: Bigendik, chigendik [soy: Atigay, Bagis,

Qancagali, Tobuqti, Qaravul, Sari, chaqchaq Tuman, Amancul,

Kuchey, Baqay, Cuzey, Aq Nazar, Tenet, Qarabas, Qalqaman, Bay

Emet, Qochkar, Cetim], Madyar, Tolek); Quvandiq (aris: Altay,

Qarpiq, Temes, Agis, Qalqaman, Aydabul); Soyunduk (aris: Qurucas,

Quzgan, Qusqal, Toki); in addition, there is an independent

``Qara Qisek'' aris (containing the soy Tortovul, Taraqti).

According to old reckoning, Argin number 89,000. Tey are living

in the Irtish, Isim, Tobol basin. ``Qongrat'' tribe is subdivided

into two large oymak: Koktin Ogli and Kutenci (aris: Cemtimler,

Mangitay, Qara Kose, Quyusqansiz, Teney, Toqbulat, Baylar-Cancar,

Busman). Qongrats are living in the Syr Darya basin. ``Qipchaq''

has four large oymak: Kok Murun, Kuldenen, Buchay, Qara Baliq.

Qipchaq possess numerous aris, soy, and tire. They principally

live in the ``Oy,'' ``Tobol,'' and ``Turgay'' basins.

 ``Kichi Yuz'' is composed of three tribes: Alimoglu (in the

Kazak pronunciation, ``Elimolu''), Bayoglu (Kazak pronunciation,

``Bayoli''), Yedi Urug (Kazak pronunciation ``Ceti-ru''). The

aris of ``Alimoglu'' are Qarasaqal (soy: chunqara [tire:

Qangildi, Kutkulech, Sekerbay, Batan, Car Boldi], Saribas [tire:

Baqti-Berdi, Bavbek, Nazim], Busurman [tire: Nogay, Gasikur,

Cekey], Tortqara [tire: Turum ara: chavdar, Aviqman, Qachan,

Toguz Seksen, Toqman ara: Saqal, Can-Keldi, Sekerbay, Kutkulech,

Khan Geldi, Qasim ara: Ayit, Seksek, Madi, Baqcan, Appaq ara:

Qara-Kese, Ak-Bes, Batan]), Qara-Kisek, Kite, Tort-Qara,

chumekey, chekli, Qara-Kisek, Qazan-Taban, Istek, Bayis, Esen

Geldi, Cakev. Aris of ``Bayoglu'' are Aday (soy: Baliqchi, Aqman,

Tubus [tire: Zarubay, chunqay, Bavbek, Tabunay, chikem, Bebkey],

Mugal [tire: chavlay, chekuy], chibeney [tire: Cumart, chelim],

Qonaq [tire: Urus, Toq-Sara], Qosay, Tukuchey); Cappas (soy:

Kineki, Kirman, Sumruq, Andarchay, Qoldiqay, Qara-Koz, Qalqaman),

Alacha, Baybaqti (soy: Qanq [tire: Kuli Sunduq, Bavbek, Aliz],

El-Teke, Bataq (tire: chabachi, Qolchiq, Sagay, Cavgati, Tuqabay,

Buganay, Kochmen, Itemke), Masqar (soy: Qutluch-Atam, Babanazar,

Masaq), Beris, (soy: Sibaq, Nogay, Qayli-Qach, Can-Mirza [tire:

Toqman, Bes-Qasqay] Isiq), Tazlar, Isen-Temir, chirkes (soy:

Kusun [tire: Samay, Umurzaq, Utegen, Ulcabay], Cavqachiq, Qis-

Kistek, Kuyus, Ilmen), Tana, Qizil-Kurt (soy: El-chula, Subi),

Seyikhlar, Altun, (soy: Calabaq, Aydurgay, Sagay). The aris of

``Yedi Uruk'' are: Tabin, Tama, Kirderi (soy: Yabagu),

Cagalbayli, Kireyit, Tilev, Ramazan.

 Of these tribes, ``Elimolu'' is living in the Ural province,

along the lower reaches of the Syr Darya, southeast of Aral Lake,

on the eastern side of Khorezm and in eastern Bukhara; ``Bayolu''

tribe is in Bokey Orda, in Ural province, Mangislak, and all of

Ust Yurt. ``Yedi Uruklar,'' on the other hand, are living in Ural

and Turgay provinces. According to old reckoning, the population

of ``Kichi Yuz'' is shown to be 800,000.




 The Ozbek Tribes Arriving in Transoxiana


 The Ozbek of the present day arrived with all the organizations

and institutions existing among the Shiban Ozbeks and Transoxiana

and Khorezm Jochi Ulus. In fact, the hierarchy (``orun'')

occupied in government by the tribes was the same. Ozbeks, while

succeeding the descendants of the Temur, replaced the existing

establishments with their own.

 Also arriving were the elements close to the palace circles of

the ``Ich Eli'' of the Altin Orda, meaning quite civilized

components. Moreover, according to the terminology of chronicler

Otemis Haci,* the descendants of Shiban arriving in Transoxiana

comprised the ruling elements of the old ``Ozbek Eli'' (meaning

Golden Horde), ``famed Tura named Mangit Villages,'' meaning

western Siberian ``Tura'' province where the settled Mangit ulus

lived.p Turgay Province, with its center in today's ``Ak-Gol,''

``chalkar-Gol,'' belonged to the descendants of Shiban.

Previously, Abulhayir Han, who took away the ``Tura and Baskurt''

regions from the other branch of the Shiban descendants from west

Siberian Han Mahmudek, was governing these territories. Abulhayir

later obtained the lower reaches of Syr Darya and, in 1431,

Khorezm. Abulhayir pursued the policy of basing the governance of

the state upon the southern and northern agricultural and settled

regions of the Jochi Ulus. Huseyin Khorezmi, the great scholar of

the time, wrote a Turkish poem praising this ruler, entitled

``Kaside-i Burde,'' appended to one of his works. Another

scholar, named Mesut Kohistani, wrote a Persian language history

book depicting the life of this ruler. During the sixteenth

century a large portion of the Ozbeks made the transition to

village and agricultural life in the Zarafshan basin and in

Khorezm. They perhaps belong to the elements arriving from the

Syr Darya and ``Tura'' regions where they were already making the

transformation. Shiban Han was a ruler accustomed to traversing

the area between Syr Darya and Astrakhan. Shibanli Mehdi and

Hamza Sultan, who had arrived in Transoxiana before Shiban, were

the sons of Bahtiyar Sultan, the ruler of the settled regions,

strongholds, and castles of the ``Tura'' province. It is thought

that the Ozbek arriving with them did so at the time of later



 Turning to the tribal organization: ``Ozbek'' are referred to

everywhere as ``doksan iki boy Ozbek'' [Ninety-two Tribe Ozbek].

Here boy means tribe. For the Baskurt, the term ``Twelve Tribe

Baskurt'' is used. Among the Ozbek, there is a ``genealogy''

naming their ninety two-tribes.

 There are slight discrepancies between the new and the

sixteenth-seventeenth-century manuscript copies of the genealogy

(for example, the ``Akhund Kurbanali,'' ``Khanikov,'' and

``Sheykh Suleyman'' published versions). Undoubtedly, this

genealogy lists those tribes at the time of the Altin Orda,

meaning prior to the separation of the Mangit-Nogay and the

Kazak. They are as follows: Min, Yuz, Qirq, Ungechit, Calayir,

Saray, On, Qonrat, Alchin, Nayman, Argin, Qipchaq, chichak,

Qalmaq, Uyrat, Qarliq, Turgavut, Burlas, Buslaq, chemerchin,

Qatagan, Kilechi, Kineges, Boyrek, Qiyat, Bozay, Qatay (Khitay),

Qanli, Ozce Buluci (?), Topchi (?), Upulachi, Culun, Cit, Cuyut,

Salcavut, Bayavut, Otarchi, Arlat, Kireyit, Unqut, Mangit,

Qangit, Oymavut, Qachat, Merkit, Borqut, Quralas, Qarlap, Ilaci,

Gulegen (?), Qisliq, Oglan, Kudey, Turkmen, Durmen, Tabin, Tama,

Mechet, Kirderi, Ramadan, Mumun, Aday, Tuqsaba, Qirgiz, Uyruci,

Coyrat, Bozaci, Oysun, Corga, Batas, Qoysun, Suldiz, Tumay,

Tatar, Tilev, Qayan, Sirin, Kurlevut, chilkes, Uygur,

Yabu(=Yabaqu), Agir(Agiran), Buzan, Buzaq, Muyten, Macar,

Qocaliq, choran, churchut, Barin(=Behrin), Mogul, Nokus


 Thirty-three of these tribal names belong to the Mongol,

others to the renowned Turk tribes of the Jochi Ulus, the

remainder to those unknown to us today. The tribes such as Barlas

and Kavchin, who were living in Transoxiana prior to the arrival

of the Ozbeks, but joined them, are not named here. Of the stated

ninety-two tribes, approximately forty-five are part of the Ozbek

today. The aforementioned Mongol tribes are of course those

constituting the Mongol units sent to the Jochi Ulus. The

majority of those tribes carrying Mongolian names are now found

in the Transoxiana and Khorezm. It appears that the genealogy,

which has been handed down traditionally, indicates the belief of

its owners, the Ozbeks of Transoxiana and Khorezm, that they are

descendants of these tribes, and therefore represent the entire

forces constituting the foundations of the Altin Orda, and its

transmission of the related organization to Transoxiana. Today,

the subdivison of the tribes are as follows:

 (1) Qongrat tribe: They have five oymak. The first is Qancagali,

consisting of following aris: Orus, Qara-Qursak, cholik, Quyan,

Quldavli, Miltek, Kur-Tugi, Gele, Top-Qara, Qara-Boz, Nogay,

Bilgelik, Dostelik. The second oymak, of nine aris: Aq-Tana,

Qara, churan, Turkmen, Qavuk, Bes-Bala, Qarakalpaq, Qacay, Khoca-

Bece. Third oymak, Qostamgali, again nine aris: Kul-Abi, Barmaq,

Kuce-Khur, Kol-chuburgan, Qarakalpaq, Qostamgali, Seferbiz,

Dilberi, Cachaqli. Fourth, Qostamgali oymak, seven aris:

Tartugli, Agamayli, Isigali, Qazancili, Uyukli, Bukechli,

Qaygali. Fifth, Qir oymak, five aris: Guzili, Kusevli, Ters,

Baliqli, Quba. All of these branches of the Kongrat uruk are

found in the Amu Derya delta, in the provinces of Khuzar (Ghuzar)

of Bukhara, Sirabad, Qurgan-Tepe. They have, to a large extent,

retained the nomadic ways in Bukhara. Those in Khorezm are


 (2) Nayman tribe. Three oymak: Qostamgali, Uvaqtamgali, Sadir.

They live in Khorezm and Samarkand;

 (3) Kineges, made up of five oymak: Qayrasali, Taraqli,

Achamayli, chikhut, Abaqli. They live in Shehrisebz and Khiva;

 (4) Mangit, made up of three oymak: Toq-Mangit, Aq-Mangit, Qara-

Mangit. They live in Khiva and Qarsi;

 (5) Tuyaqli, living in Samarkand and Kette-Qurgan;

 (6) Muyten, living in Samarkand and Kette-Qurgan;

 (7) Saray, living on the borders of Shehrisebz-Yekke-Bag;

 (8) Barin, living in Ferghana province and Kette-Kurgan tumen;

 (9) Khitay and (10) Qipchak: They constitute the most important

segments of Samarkand and Kette-Kurgan. They are very numerous in

Khiva and Ferghana;

 (11) Min, living in Samarkand, Penchkent, Jizzakh, and in


 (12) Uch Uruk: Misit, Tama, Yabu. They live in the vicinity of

Ziyaeddin of Bukhara;

 (13) Burqut, living along the borders of chilek and Kermine;

 (14) Arlat, living in Qara-Kol;

 (15) Qangli, living at the border of Jizzakh tumen;

 (16) Qirk, Yuz, Min: living in Jizzakh tumen;

 (17) Batas, living in the vicinity of Qarsi, Ghuzar;

 (18) Qaraqalpak, made up of five oymak: Qara-Qoylu, Qara-Singir,

Oymavut, Istek, Achamayli, and living in the Amu Darya delta and

north of Samarkand, at ``Ak-Tepe.''

 Those Ozbek who have best preserved the old dialects and

traditions are especially those living in the ``Jizzakh'' tumen

(Qirq, Qangli, Saliq, Turk, Turkmen, Nayman, Mangit, Qitay-Yuz,

Solaqli, Tuyaqli, Alacha, Burqut, Sirkeli, Baymaqli, Calayir,

Qirgiz, Yuz, Quyan-Tuyaqli, Parcha-Yuz, Qarapcha, Quschi, Oraqli,

Toqcari, Qostamgali, Saray, Qancagali). However, these tribes are

numerically small. In eastern Bukhara, those tribes maintaining

nomadic life, in the vicinity of Dushanbe, are ``Laqay,'' ``Marqa

Kichi Yuz,'' and, around Feyzabad, ``Qarliq.''

 Concerning the Ozbek tribes in Afghanistan Turkistan, we are

only in possession of a table prepared by the Indian Mir

Izzetullah at the beginning of the nineteenth century.*

Accordingly, the Ozbek tribes there are as follows: At ``Serpul''

near ``Sibirgan,'' ``Achamayli'' oymak of the ``Min'' tribe; next

to them, at ``Sayyad,'' ``Achamayli'' and ``Qazayagi'' of the

``Min''; at Sencayrek, the ``Qipchak'' uruk; at Kunduz, all

``Qatagan''; in the vicinity of ``Balkh,'' ``Saray'' and

``Moyten'' uruks. At ``Eskemis'' of Badakshan, ``Burge'' and

``Timis'' oymak of Qatagan. In ``Narin,'' chagatay'' uruk. Mir

Izetullah also provides information on the oymak of Moyten and

Qatagan uruk: Moyten is made up of seven oymak: Tilikhane,

Germsili, Qazayaqli, chagar, Sum, Aqsayiq, chuchen. Qatagan uruk

has three oymak: Bes-Qaban, Salcavut, Tort-Ata. ``Bes-Qaban'' has

five aris: Laqqa (=Laqay), Yangi-Qatagan, Kesmever, Qayan, Manas.

Kesmever has four tire: Aq-Taglik, Endicani, Qalasi, Bomin.

``Manas'' has three tire: Temis, Sar-Bagis, Burge. ``Tort-Ata''

has four aris: Sariq-Qatagan, churaq, Bassiz, Mardad. ``churaq''

has two tire: Qiz Atizi, Solen. Mardad has three tire: Uchata,

Bozan, Cutuduq.

     Among the Ozbek tribes, there are those adopting the

nickname of ``Bekzad.'' In the past, those had played an active

role in the governance of the land and the army, and performed

the enthroning ceremony of the hans. Among them, in Khiva

especially Qiyat-Qongrat, Uygur-Nayman, Qangli-Qipchak, Nukus-

Mangit tribes; in Bukhara, at the time of descendants of Shiban,

``Quschu,'' ``Nayman,'' ``Qarluq,'' and ``Boyrek'' tribes; at the

time of the Mangit (according to Radloff) Min, Arlat, Barin,

Batas uruks were well known. The ``Qatagan'' are also regarded

``Bekzad.'' Among the uruks: Tuyaqli, Moyten, Khitay (Qatay),

Mangit; and the majority of Qongrats in Bukhara are among the

last arriving from Desht-i Kipchak. These were earlier members of

the ``Mangit-Nogay'' confederation, as well as

the ``Kazak,'' arriving later in Transoxiana.


Editor's Notes


 a. Abulghazi Bahadir Khan (1603-1663), Secere-i Terakime (The

Lineage of the Turks), completed in 1659. The French translation

by Desmaisons is no longer satisfactory, for it lacks critical

apparatus; an English translation is long overdue.


b. Cevdet Pasha (1822-1895) was an Ottoman historian,

administrator, and educational and judicial reformer. See

Stanford J. and E.K. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and

Modern Turkey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), vol.


 c. In a footnote, below, Togan provides the nomenclature applied

to subdivisions from the tribal confederation down to the

smallest unit. An uruk is comprised of oymaks, which are made up

of aris, a composition of soy. 

 d. Uran: the word shouted in the heat of the battle, to allow

combatants to identify and gauge the whereabouts of their fellows

without taking their eyes off the common adversary. It is an

integral part of identity in Central Asia, forming a triad, along

with tamga and dastan. The term tamga, originally referring to

the ``seal'' of a given group, was later borrowed by Russians to

designate customs levies (Russian: tamozhnia). The tamga was

embroidered on tents, incorporated into rugs, filigreed into

jewelry, and used as a cattle brand. A list of early tamgas is

found in Kashgarli Mahmut's Diwan Lugat at Turk (twelfth century;

hereafter DLT). A dastan is an ``oral history'' of the origins,

customs, practices, and exploits of ancestors. See the discussion

of the Dede Korkut dastan in this collection.

 e. According to a popular etymology of the designation Ozbek, it

is derived from ``Ozum Bek,'' meaning ``My Essence is Princely.''

 f. Ortaq: ``partner.'' Among the Mongols, the khan provided

capital to his ``partners'' so that they could take caravans from

one end of the Mongol domains to other, to trade with neighbors.

Elizabeth Endicott-West and Thomas Allsen have been jointly

exploring this topic. 

 g. On the Bulgar Turks see O. Pritsak, ``Kultur und Sprache der

Hunnen,'' Festschrift fur Dmytro Cyzev'ky (Berlin, 19540; and

R.N. Frye, ``City Chronicles of Central Asia: Kitab-e

Mullazade,'' Avicenna Commemoration Volume (Calcutta, 1956).

 h. Here Togan provides the Arabic quotation in a footnote. 

 i. The lineages, inter alia, of the chigil and the Oguz Turks

are outlined in DLT. 

 j. See H.B. Paksoy, ``Chora Batir: A Tatar Admonition to Future

Generations,'' Studies in Comparative Communism, vol. 19, nos. 3

& 4 (Autumn/Winter 1986).

 k. The original compilation of Mongol customary law was

designated Altan Tobchi. See The Secret History of the Mongols,

translated, inter alia, by F. Cleaves. For a later survival of

the yasa, see V.A. Riasanovsky, Customary Law of the Nomadic

Tribes of Siberia. Indiana University Uralic Altaic Series, vol.

48 (Bloomington, 1965). 

 l. Yedi San: Seven Reputations. The term ``san'' may also

signify surname, or even the manner with which those tribes may

have presented themselves in a gathering or in battle. 

 m. Togan uses this spelling. The name of Temur (Timor) (d. 1405)

was corrupted in Western languages as Tamerlane, Tamburlane, and

so forth. 

 n. See N. Elias and E. Denison Ross, eds., The Tarikh-i Rashidi

of Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat (London 1898), pp. 119, 122,


 o. For the significance of the ``as'' and ``Yog'' ceremonies,

see A.T. Hatto, The Memorial Feast for Kokotoy Han (Oxford,


 p. Another relevant history on the region, compiled from several

manuscript sources and edited by Y. Bregel, was published as

Firdaws al-ikbal: History of Khorezm (Leiden, 1988).

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