NATIONALITY OR RELIGION? Views of Central Asian Islam H. B. Paksoy, D. Phil. [Published in AACAR Bulletin (of the Association for the Advancement of Central Asian Research) Vol. VIII, No. 2, Fall, 1995] Part 4 of 4 NOTES: 1. Gavin Hambly, Editor, Central Asia (London, 1969). First English Edition. 2. The designation "Tatar" is found in the Orkhon-Yenisey stelea, erected beginning early 7th c. See T. Tekin, A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic (Indiana, 1968), Uralic and Altaic Series, Vol. 69, which contains the texts and their English translations. The latin "Tartarus," meaning "the infernal regions of Roman and Greek mythology, hence, hell" had already came into use through chronicles written by the clergy of Europe. Perhaps St. Louis of France was the first, in 1270, to apply this unrelated term to the troops of Chinggis Khan. 3. Timur (or Temur) Bey, was wounded in a battle, which caused him to become lame. Therefore, in some Turkish sources he is sometimes referred to as Aksak Timur. Arab sources call him Amir Timur. In Persian sources, he became Timur-i leng. Hence, the corruption. See Ahmad Ibn Arabshah, Tamarlane or Timur the Great Amir, J. H. Sanders, Tr. (London, 1936); idem, The Timurnama or Ajayabul magfur fi akhbar-i Timur, H. S. Jarrett (Calcutta, 1882); Beatrice Forbes Manz, The Rise and Rule of Tamarlane (Cambridge University Press, 1989). 4. The poem "Kubla Khan" by Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) is another example of this "abundance of enthusiasm." 5. Kirghiz are also found in the Orkhon-Yenisey stelea. See Tekin, A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic. See also Remy Dor and Guy Imart, Etre Kirghiz au XXme sicle (Marseilles: Universite de Provence, 1982). 6. For the nature and compositions of confederation structures, see "Z. V. Togan: On the Origins of the Kazakhs and the Ozbeks" H. B. Paksoy, Editor, Central Asia Reader (New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1994). 7. See H. B. Paksoy, "A. A. Divay : Intellectual Heritage and Quiet Defiance." Presented to the 21st annual Middle East Studies Association meeting, Baltimore, 1987. An abstract may be found in Turkish Studies Association Bulletin, Vol. 12, No. 1. (1988), Pp.22-23. 8. See H. B. Paksoy, "Introduction." (as Special Editor of "Muslims in the Russian Empire: Response to Conquest") Studies in Comparative Communism Vol. XIX, Nos. 3 & 4, Autumn/Winter 1986; idem, "Chora Batir: A Tatar Admonition to Future Generations." Studies in Comparative Communism Vol. XIX, Nos. 3 & 4, Autumn/Winter 1986. 9. A German born and trained compiler of Turkish materials, 1837-1918. 10. (Bloomington and The Hague, 1967). 11. Since 1917, many studies have been made of the so-called language reforms in the USSR, making some outrageous claims. Those Soviet propagandist assertions include "giving new languages" to the various "nationalities." For details, among others, see especially Z. V. Togan, Turkili Turkistan (Istanbul, 1981) 3rd. Ed.; Stefan Wurm, Turkic Peoples of the USSR: Their Historical Background, their Language, and the Development of Soviet Linguistic Policy (Oxford, 1954); idem, The Turkic Languages of Central Asia: Problems of Planned Culture Contact (Oxford, 1954). 12. The person in question is Eduard Volodin. The implication of this statement, in the context of authors' arguments, is that Altai is now considered a part of Russia to be preserved in case of dissolution of the Soviet Union. An earlier version of the discussion in this section was disseminated: see H. B. Paksoy, "Perspectives on the Unrest in the Altai Region of the USSR" Report on the USSR (Electronic version, on Sovset), September 1990. See also R. L. Canfield, "Soviet Gambit in Central Asia" Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies Vol. 5, No. 1. 13. See Tekin, A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic. 14. Kasgarli Mahmud, Kitab Diwan Lugat at Turk. Completed ca. A. D. 1074?/ 1077. Editio Princeps by Kilisli Rifat (3 Vols.) (Istanbul, 1917-19). English Translation by R. Dankoff with J. Kelly as Compendium of Turkic Dialects (3 Vols.) (Cambridge, MA., 1982-84). 15. For "treaty" details, see J. R. V. Prescott, Map of Mainland Asia by Treaty (Melbourne, 1975). 16. For an early study on the subject, see Helene Carrre d'Encaussee, Decline of an Empire: The Soviet Socialist Republics in Revolt (NY, 1979); Paul B. Henze, "Marx on Russians and Muslims" Central Asian Survey Vol 6, No. 4 1987. 17. For a discussion of the subject, see Hisao Komatsu, "Bukhara in the Central Asian Perspective: Group Identity in 1911-1928" Research Report on Urbanism in Islam (University of Tokyo, 1988) No. 2; also Nazif Shahrani, "'From Tribe to Umma': Comments on the Dynamics of Identity in Muslim Central Asia" Central Asian Survey Vol. 3, No. 3 (1984). 18. Such insistence also found its way into the Soviet Census of 1939, whose compilers were shot when accused by Stalin for underestimating the population. One surmises, the real reason for the liquidation of the Census compilers that they affirmed by numbers what was known in the earlier Censuses: the ethnic Russians constituted less than half of the total Soviet population. 19. For the Moscow's attempts to write a history for Central Asians, see L. Tillett, The Great Friendship (Chapel Hill, 1969). 20. According to the late I. Kafesoglu, the original religion of the Turks was the worship of Tangri, a monotheistic belief, quite different from shamanism. See his Turk Milli Kuluturu (Istanbul, 1984) (3rd Ed) Pp. 295-7, and the sources cited therein. Grousset, in Empire of the Steppes (N. Walford Tr.) (New Brunswick-NJ, 1970) identifies the word Tangri as Turkic and Mongol, meaning "Heaven" (p. 20); he states (p. 23) that the Hsiung-nu (considered as Turks and often identified with the Huns) practiced a religion that "was a vague shamanism based on the cult of Tangri or Heaven and on the worship of certain sacred mountains." Based on Pelliot and Thomsen, he seems to confirm Kafesoglu's contention of monotheism, but still related to shamanism: "The moral concepts (in the Kul Tegin stela)... are borrowed from the old cosmogony which formed the basis of Turko-Mongol shamanism... Heaven and earth obeyed a supreme being who inhabited the highest level of the sky and who was known by the name of Divine Heaven or Tangri." (p. 86). "Tengri" (in this form) is referenced in Tekin, A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic; Mahmud, Kitab Diwan Lugat at Turk. Consult also M. Eliade, Shamanism; Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy (Princeton, 1974), 2nd Printing, who identifies Tangri only as one god of the Yakut (p. 471); elsewhere he describes the hierarchy of gods (Chapter 6). 21. R. N. Frye, "Zoroastrier in der islamischen Zeit" Der Islam (Berlin) 41, 1965; idem, The History of Ancient Iran (1958); idem, The Heritage of Persia (1963). 22. Mary Boyce, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (1984); idem, A History of Zoroastrianism (1975-1991) 3 Vols. (Vol. 3 with Franz Grenet). 23. R. N. Frye, "The Iranicization of Islam," delivered at the University of Chicago (May 1978) as the annual Marshall Hodgson Memorial Lecture. Printed in R. N. Frye, Islamic Iran and Central Asia: 7th-12th centuries (London: Variorum, 1979). 24. R. N. Frye, The History of Bukhara (Cambridge, Mass. 1954). See also Michael Zand, "Bukharan Jews" Encyclopedia Iranica, Ehsan Yarshater, Ed. Vol IV, fasc. 5. (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1989). 25. Colin Mackerras, Ed., Tr., The Uighur Empire According to the T'ang Dynastic Histories: A Study in Sino-Uighur Relations 744-840 (University of South Carolina Press, 1972); A. von Gabain, Das Leben im uigirischen Knigreich von Qoo 850-1250 (Otto Harrassowitz, 1973). 26. R. N. Frye and A. M. Sayili, "The Turks of Khurasan and Transoxiana at the Time of the Arab Conquest" The Moslem World XXXV. (Hartford) 1945, concerning the Turks of Transoxiana prior to the arrival of Islam. 27. See Tekin, A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic. 28. Grousset, Empire of the Steppes; further, W. Barthold, Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion (London, 1977) 4th edition; Christopher Beckwith, The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages (Princeton, 1987); R. W. Dunnell, Tanguts and the Tangut State of Ta Hsia (University Microfilms International, 1983). 29. See "M. Ali--Let us Learn our Inheritance: Get to Know Yourself" Central Asia Reader, H. B. Paksoy, Editor, (New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1994); "Sun is also Fire." Central Asian Monuments, H. B. Paksoy, Editor, (Istanbul: ISIS Press, 1992). 30. W. Bartold, in Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion (London, 1977) 4th Ed. (P. 195-196) states "...according to the narrative of the Arabic historian, probably exaggerated, as many as 50,000 Chinese were killed and about 20,000 taken prisoner, but in the Chinese records the whole army of Kao-hsien-chih is given as 30,000 men...but it is undoubtedly of great importance.... In 752 the ruler of Usrushana begged help against the Arabs from the Chinese, but met with a refusal." 31. See C. E. Bosworth, The Gaznavids: Their Empire in Afghanistan and Eastern Iran, 994-1040 (Beirut, 1973) (2nd Ed.); F. Sumer Oguzlar (Turkmenler) (Istanbul, 1980) (3rd. Ed.); Thomas Barfield, The Central Asian Arabs of Afghanistan: Pastoral Nomadism in Transition (Austin-TX, 1981). 32. Peter Golden, Khazar Studies (Budapest, 1980); D. M. Dunlop, The History of the Jewish Khazars, (Princeton, 1954); N. Golb, O. Pritsak, Khazarian Hebrew Documents (Ithaca, 1982); Turks, Hungarians and Kipchaks: A Festschrift in Honor of Tibor Halasi- Kun. P. Oberling, Editor, Special issue of Journal of Turkish Studies Vol. 8. 1984. 33. Beginning with the "Kok-Turk" alphabet of the Orkhon-Yenisei, that is regarded unique to them; later Uyghur (which is modified Sogdian); Hebrew; Arabic; Latin. 34. Peter Golden, "Codex Comanicus" Central Asian Monuments H. B. Paksoy, Editor, (Istanbul: ISIS Press, 1992). The only known copy of the Codex Comanicus is in the Venice library. It should be noted that, the Uyghur Turks wrote eulogies to Buddha; the Ottomans, to Muhammad. 35. Although Ottoman became a "constructed" language, taking elements of Turkish, Arabic and Persian via the development of the Ottoman court poetry. More books of statecraft were written, in Ottoman, in the 16th and the 17th centuries. 36. O. Pritsak, "Karachanidische Streitfragen 1-4" Oriens II. (Leiden, 1950). 37. Followed by the Khwarazm-Shahs 1156-1230, and preceded by the Gaznavids 994-1186. Akkoyunlu dynasty, another tribal confederation related to the Oghuz/Seljuk ruled in the 15th century. For the Oghuz, See F. Sumer, Oguzlar (Turkmenler) (Istanbul, 1980) 3rd. Ed. 38. A Century of Princes: Sources on Timurid History and Art, W. M. Thackston (Tr.) (Cambridge, MA., 1989). 39. S. J. Shaw & E. K. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey (Cambridge University Press, 1976-1978) Two Vols. Second Printing 1978. 40. Uli Schamiloglu, "The Formation of a Tatar Historical Consciousness: Shihabddin Mercani and the Image of Golden Horde" Central Asian Survey Vol. 9, No. 2 (1990); idem, "Tribal Politics and Social Organization" Unpublished PhD dissertation (Columbia, 1986). 41. Ibn Battuta, From Travels in Asia and Africa: 1325-1354 H. A.R. Gibb (Tr.) (New York, 1929); see also the bibliography in Ross E. Dunn, The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveler of the 14th Century (Berkeley, 1986). 42. Bosworth, The Gaznavids, P. 205. 43. Kasgarli Mahmud, Kitab Diwan Lugat at Turk. 44. Ettuhfet uz zakiyye fil lugat it Turkiyye. Besim Atalay, Ed., Tr. (Istanbul, 1945). Atalay provides an introduction to place the work in its context. 45. See Theodor Noldeke, (tr.) (Bombay, 1930). See also W. L. Hanaway, "Epic Poetry" Ehsan Yarshater, Editor, Persian Literature (Ithaca: Bibliotheca Persica, 1988); R. L. Canfield, Editor, Turco-Persia in Historical Perspective (Cambridge University Press, 1991). 46. Elizabeth Endicott-West, Mongolian Rule in China (Harvard, 1989); Morris Rossabi, Khubilai Khan, His Life and Times (Berkeley, 1988); Thomas Allsen, Mongol Imperialism (Berkeley, 1987). 47. See Lt. Col. Sir Wolseley Haig & Sir Richard Burn (Eds.) The Cambridge History of India (1922-1953), Vol III, Turks and Afghans (1928). M. G. S. Hodgson, in his The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization (Chicago, 1974), 3 Vols., suggests that the above cited 1928 volume is written from the now outdated British Empire point of view. See also V. Smith, Oxford History of India (Oxford, 1958). 48. Rashid al-Din, The Successors of Genghis Khan, trans. by John A. Boyle (New York, 1971). For example, the Akkoyunlu had no wish to come under Ottoman or Safavid dominion. See John Woods, The Aqqoyunlu Clan, Confederation, Empire: A Study in 15th/9th Century Turco-Iranian Politics (Minneapolis, 1976). 49. Alfarabi's Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, Muhsin Mahdi, Tr. (Free Press/Macmillan, 1962). 50. Known in the West as Avicenna. See Avicenna: Scientist and Philosopher. G. M. Wickens, Ed. (London, 1952). 51. For additional personae, see for example The Cambridge History of Islam, P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton and B. Lewis (Eds.). (Cambridge University Press, 1970) 4 Vols.; Carl Brockelmann, History of the Islamic Peoples, J. Charmichael & M. Perlmann (Tr.) (London, 1948). 7th Printing, 1982. 52. Aydin Sayili, Logical Necessities in Mixed Equations by 'Abd al Hamid ibn Turk and the Algebra of his Time (Ankara, 1962). 53. Timur's grandson, who ruled Samarkand and environs, author ofprincipal astronomical and mathematical works which were translated into Western languages beginning with the 17th century. See Ulugh Bey Calendar, John Greaves, Savilian Professorof Astronomy, Tr. (Oxford, 1652). Ulug Beg's works influenced European studies on the subject. Bartold utilized a French translation by Sedillot, Prolgomnes des tables astronomiques d'Oloug-beg (Paris, 1847-53). See Barthold, Four Studies on the History of Central Asia Vol. II, Ulug Beg. (Leiden, 1963). For a more detailed bibliography, see Kevin Krisciunas, "The Legacy of Ulugh Beg" H. B. Paksoy, Editor, Central Asian Monuments (Istanbul: Isis Press, 1992). 54. Muhammad ibn Musa al Khwarazmi, Kitab al Mukhtasar fi Hisab al Jabr wa'l Muqabala, F. Rosen, Editor, Translator, (London, 1830). 55. The Babur-Nama in English, (Memoirs of Babur) Anette S. Beveridge, Tr. (London, 1922). It has been reprinted in 1969. See also Muhammad Haidar, A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia Being the Tarikh-i Reshidi of Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlad, E. D. Ross, Translator; N. Elias, Editor, (London, 1898). Reprint (New York, 1970). 56. Huseyin Baykara (r. 1469-1506), a direct descendent of Timur, ruled Herat and Khorasan. His contemporary, friend and boon- companion Navai is exemplified as the ultimate literati of this period. Reportedly of Uyghur descent, Navai (1441-1501) wrote voluminously and with apparent ease in Chaghatay, a Turk dialect, and Persian, and concomitantly was the long-time serving 'prime minister' to Huseyin Baykara. Much of Navai's writings remain untranslated. For his collected works, see A. S. Levend, Ali Sir Nevai (Ankara: Turk Dil Kurumu, 1965-68) 4 Vols. 57. Fuzuli, Kulliyat-i Divan-i Fuzuli (Istanbul, 1308/1891); idem, Turkce Divan. K. Akyuz, S. Beken, S. Yuksel, M. Cumhur, Eds. (Ankara, 1958); idem, Eserler (Baku, 1958). See also Keith Hitchins, "Fuzuli [pseudonym of Muhammad ibn Suleiman]" The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet Literatures. Harry B. Weber, Ed. (Academic International Press, 1987) Vol. 8. 58. Roger M. Savory, Iran under the Safavids (Cambridge University Press, 1980). 59. For example, see Muhammed Salih, Shaibani-nama (Chaghatay text) (St. Peterburg, 1908). 60. Maria Eva Subtelny, "Art and Politics in Early 16th Century Central Asia" Central Asiatic Journal Vol. 27, No. 1-2 (1983); idem, "The Poetic Circle at the Court of the Timurid Sultan Husain Baiqara, and its Political Significance." Unpublished PhD Dissertation (Harvard University, 1979). 61. The identification was first made by Kasgarli Mahmud in Diwan Lugat at Turk, as a branch of the Turks. 62. A History of the Seljuks: Ibrahim Kafesoglu's Interpretation and the Resulting Controversy Gary Leiser (Tr., Ed) (Southern Illinois University Press, 1988). 63. According to Y. Bregel, in his Introduction to the facsimile of Munis and Agahi's Firdaws al-Ikbal: History of Khorezm (Leiden, 1988), the latter was completed c. 1665 by another person. Secere-i Turk is rather difficult to locate, causing a determination of the sources for the translated works tenuous. This is especially true with respect to the early French and English translations: [Bentinck] Historie Genealogique des Tatars (Leiden, 1726) Two Vols.; Abu Al Ghazi Bahadur, A History of the Turks, Moguls, and Tatars, Vulgarly called Tartars, Together witha Description of the Countries They Inhabit (London, 1730) Two Vols.; [Miles] Genealogical Tree of the Turks and Tatars (London,1838). Imperial Russian Academy at St. Petersburg published a facsimile of Terakime in 1871, edited by Desmaisons, who later prepared a French translation. A modern-day translation is long overdue. See H. F. Hofman Turkish Literature: A Bio- Bibliographical Survey (Utrecht, 1969) for additional comments. Dr. Riza Nur endeavored to popularize the genre with his edition of Turk Seceresi (Istanbul, 1343/1925). One of the earlier Russian translations prepared is Rodoslovnoe drevno tiurkov, (Kazan, 1906), with an afterword by N. Katanov (1862-1922). Apparently this 1906 version was not published until 1914, minus Katanov's name from the title page, and his afterword from the body of the book. See A. N. Kononov, Rodoslovnaia Turkmen (Moscow-Leningrad, 1958), page 181. In order to understand the reason, one must turn to Z. V. Togan's memoirs, Hatiralar, where Togan relates an incident taking place prior to 1917, when Katanov poured his heart to Togan. 64. See H. B. Paksoy, Alpamysh: Central Asian Identity under Russian Rule (Hartford, CT: Association for the Advancement of Central Asian Research, Monograph Series, 1989), p. 1. 65. Z. V. Togan compiled his version Oguz Destani: Residettin Oguznamesi, Tercume ve Tahlili (Istanbul, 1972) (published posthumously) from twelve manuscripts. Though originally composed and later put down on paper in a Turkish dialect prior to 13th century, it was widely rendered into Persian. Known translations include Oughouz-name, epopee turque, Riza Nur (Tr.) (Societe de publications Egyptiennes: Alexandrie, 1928); Die Legende von Oghuz Qaghan. W. Bang and R. Arat (Eds.) (Sitzb. d. Preuss. Akad. D. Wiss. 1932. Phil.-Histr. K1. XXV, Berlin). To my knowledge, there is no English rendition as yet. See also D. Sinor, "Oguz Kagan Destani Uzerine Bazi Mulahazalar" Turk Dili ve Edebiyati Dergisi, 1952 (Tr. from French by A. Ates); Faruk Sumer's book length article, "Oguzlar'a Ait Destani Mahiyetde Eserler" Ankara Universitesi DTC Fakultesi Dergisi, 1959; and the Introduction of G. L. Lewis to The Book of Dede Korkut (London, 1982), Second Printing. 66. Munis and Agahi, Firdaws al-Iqbal: History of Khorezm. 67. Ali Shir Navai, Muhakemat al-lughateyn, Robert Devereux, Tr. (Leiden, 1966). 68. Although there are some incuding guidence to sensual pleasures, such as the Persian Kabusnama. Nizam al-Mulk, The Book of Government, H. Darke (Tr.) (Yale University Press, 1960), is acombination of autobiography (written partly to exonerate himself), and political advice to two Seljuk rulers. 69. The language of Kutadgu Bilig (Completed A. D. 1069) echoes the above referenced Orkhon-Yenisey inscriptions. A Turkish edition is: Yusuf Has Hacib, Kutadgu Bilig. R. R. Arat, Editor, (Ankara, 1974) (2nd Ed.). KB is translated into English as Wisdomof Royal Glory by R. Dankoff (Chicago, 1983). 70. Concerning related issues, see Janet Martin, Treasure of the Land of Darkness: A Study of the Fur Trade in Medieval Russia (Cambridge University Press, 1986); Azade Ayse Rorlich, The Volga Tatars: A Profile in National Resilience (Hoover, 1986); Alan W. Fisher, Crimean Tatars (Hoover, 1978); A. Bennigsen & Chantal Lemercier-Quelquejay, Islam in the Soviet Union ((NY & London, 1967). A. Bennigsen & Marie Broxup, The Islamic Threat to the Soviet State (London, 1983); Uli Schamiloglu, "Umdet l-Ahbar and the Turkic Narrative Sources for the Golden Horde and the Later Golden Horde" Central Asian Monuments (Istanbul: Isis Press, 1992). 71. Also known as qumiss, etc. See, inter alia, Kasgarli Mahmud, Kitab Diwan Lugat at Turk (P. 184). It is still an immensely popular drink, contains --due to the fermentation process in its preparation-- natural alcohol. However, it is not in the same category as hard liquor, possessing much less intoxicating agents. Russians became aware of the nourishing and rejuvenating qualities of kimiz after their occupation of Kazakhstan. Currently, several sanatoriums are operating in the Kazakh steppe where ingestion of kimiz is the primary dietetic and therapeutic prescription, especially against diagnosed tuberculosis. Probably this discovery of the beneficial effects of kimiz on TB caused Moscow to reconsider and relax the sovhoz-kolhoz rules in the area, in order to insure the maintenance of large herds of mares necessary to supply the sanatoriums where the CPSU Officialdom is treated. 72. On the social position of women in Central Asia, even at the turn of the 20th c., see Z. V. Togan, Hatiralar (Istanbul, 1969). 73. Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (University of North Carolina Press, 1975); See also J. Spencer Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Islam (Oxford, 1971). 74. See also A. Bennigsen and S. E. Wimbush, Mystics and Commisars (London, 1985), which contains a sizeable bibliography from the Soviet perspective. For the response of al-Ghazali (1058-1111), to Farabi (ca. 870-950), see The Faith and Practice of a-Ghazali, W. Montgomery Watt, Tr. (London, 1953). See also Devin DeWeese, "The Eclipse of the Kubraviyah in Central Asia" Iranian Studies Vol. XXI, No. 1-2, 1988; idem, Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994). 75. He is believed to have died in 1166. Ahmet Yesevi's Hikmet appears to have been first published in Kazan, in 1878 or 1879. For a treatment of Yesevi, and an annotated bibliography, see Fuad Koprulu, Turk Edebiyatinda Ilk Mutasavviflar (Ankara, 1981). Fourth Ed. 76. For example, Bukhara of the 19th century. Fazlur Rahman, Islam (Chicago,1966); M. G. S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam. Vol. 2. 77. Audrey L. Altstadt, Azerbaijani Turks (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1992) Studies of Nationalities in the USSR; idem, "The Forgotten Factor: The Shi'i Mullahs in Pre- Revolutionary Baku," Passe Turco-Tatar, Present Sovietique, Chantal Lemercier-Quelquejay, Giles Veinstein, S. Enders Wimbush (Eds.) (Louvain/Paris, 1986). 78. S. Becker, Russian Protectorates in Central Asia: Bukhara and Khiva 1865-1924 (Harvard, 1968). 79. The Russian missionary in question is N. Ostroumov. Reporting the statement is Husamettin Tugac, Bir Neslin Drami (Istanbul, 1975). P. 159-160. Tugac learned of Ostroumov's story in 1918 while making his way through Central Asia, on the way to Istanbul, after escaping from a tsarist prison in the vicinity of the Mongolian border. For another example of Ostroumov's activity, see Z. V. Togan, Turkili Turkistan as personally observed by Togan. An English excerpt of Togan's observations is in H. B. Paksoy, Alpamysh, P. 19. 80. Tacitus, The Agricola and the Germania, H. Mattingly, Tr. (London, 1948). Pp. 62-63. Agricola was the Father-in-law of Tacitus, the Roman military governor of Britain at the time. 81. Tacitus, Pp. 72-73. 82. Apart from its use in textiles, etc, when processed with acids, termed "nitrating," cotton constitutes the basis of high grade explosives. 83. A. Park, Bolshevism in Turkestan 1917-1927 (Columbia, 1957); O. Caroe. Soviet Empire, the Turks of Central Asia and Stalinism (London, 1953); G. Wheeler, Racial Problems in Soviet Muslim Asia (Oxford, 1967); C. W. Warren, Turkism and the Soviets (London, 1957); E. Allworth, Uzbek Literary Politics (The Hague, 1964); M. Rywkin, Moscow's Muslim Challenge (M. E. Sharpe, 1990) (Revised ed.); E. Naby, "The Concept of Jihad in Opposition to Communist Rule: Turkestan and Afghanistan" Studies in Comparative Communism Vol. XIX, Nos. 3 & 4, Autumn/Winter 1986. 84. See Edward Ingram, The Beginnings of the Great Game in Asia 1828-1834 (Oxford, 1979); idem, Commitment to Empire: Prophecies of the Great Game in Asia 1797-1800 (Oxford, 1981); idem, In Defense of British India: Great Britain in the Middle East 1775-1842 (London, 1984). Although the major players were Britain and Russia, Germany also joined later in the century and the French were not disinterested. 85. J. R. V. Prescott, Map of Mainland Asia by Treaty. 86. Louis Dupree, Afghanistan (Princeton University Press, 1980). 87. R. N. Frye, "Oriental Studies in Russia;" Wayne S. Vucinich "Structure of Soviet Orientology" both in Russia in Asia: Essays on the Influence of Russia on the Asian Peoples Wayne Vucinich, Ed. (Stanford, 1972). The British Government periodically issues reports updating the history and structure of Oriental Studies in Great Britain, which is stated to go back to the 15th century. However, such efforts were thoroughly organized by the beginning of the 20th century. See Oriental Studies in Britain (London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1975). 88. For an early treatment of the subject, see Yusuf Akura, Uc Tarz-i Siyaset (Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu, 1976). Akura's analysis was first printed in the newspaper Turk published in Cairo during 1904. For the English version, see Three Policies, David S. Thomas, (Tr.), H. B. Paksoy, Editor, Central Asian Monuments (Istanbul: Isis Press, 1992); Francois Georgeon "Yusuf Akura: Deuxieme Partie--Le Mouvement National des Musulmans de Russie (1905-1908)" Central Asian Survey Vol. 5, No. 2, 1986. 89. A. H. Vambery, Travels in Central Asia (London, 1865). Vambery masqueraded as a mendicant dervish across Central Asia, around 1860-61. Upon his return to Europe, he wrote several bookson his adventures. See, for example, his Sketches of Central Asia (London, 1868). See also C. W. Hostler, Turkism and the Soviets (London, 1957). Vambery, it is now known, was in the pay of the British Government. For archival references, see M. Kemal Oke, "Prof. Arminius Vambery and Anglo-Ottoman Relations 1889-1907" Bulletin of the Turkish Studies Association, Vol. 9, No. 2. 1985. 90. For example, L. Cahun's Introduction a l'Histoire de l'Asie, Turcs, et Mongols, des Origines a 1405 (Paris, 1896) was written to suggest that a belief in racial superiority motivated the conquests of the Mongol Chinggiz Khan. This book was published onthe heels of the 1893-1894 Franco-Russian rapprochement, at a time when Russia justified its conquest of Central Asia as part of its own "civilizing mission." In the Secret History of the Mongols, written c. 1240 A. D., after the death of Chinggiz, there is, of course, no reference to racial superiority. Instead, it quotes Chinggiz: "Tangri (God) opened the gate and handed us the reins." See Mogollarin Gizli Tarihi (A. Temir, Trans.) (Ankara, 1948), (P. 227) indicating that Chinggiz regarded only himself ruling by divine order. See also Francis Cleaves, Tr., Ed. The Secret History of the Mongols (Harvard, 1982). The "Great Khan" himself was and remained the focus of power, as opposed to the clans under his rule. In any event, the Mongol armies were distinctly multi-racial. See T. Allsen, Mongol Imperialism (Berkeley, 1987); M. Rossabi, Khubilai Khan (Berkeley, 1988). Another representative sample of the use of the "Pan- Turkism" bogeyman is A Manual on the Turanians and Pan-Turanianism (Oxford: H. M. Government, Naval Staff Intelligence Department, November 1918), a work that was based on Vambery's Turkenvolk (Leipzig, 1885) and that it was compiled by Sir Denison Ross, as Sir Denison later personally informed Togan. On this work, see Togan's comments in Turkili (Pp. 560-563). Even Alexander Kerensky, in Paris exile after the Bolshevik Revolution, was utilizing the same "Turanian" rhetoric, calling it "a menace threatening the world. 91. "Pan-Islam" never did obtain a foothold in Central Asia. Even when Enver Pasha was forced to sign declarations to that effect during 1920-1921, his audience had no clear conception of the specific term or its implications. The best work on Enver, which utilizes Enver's diaries and journals, is S. S. Aydemir, Makedonya'dan Orta Asya'ya Enver Pasha (Istanbul, 1974). Three Volumes (There are several printings). Enver left an autobiography. It was utilized by Aydemir. There is a German translation of Enver's autobiography, in typescript, located in the Sterling Library of the Yale University. See also Glen Swanson "Enver Pasha: The Formative Years" Middle Eastern Studies, Vol.16, N.3., October 1980. Azade-Ayse Rorlich provides a further view of Enver in her "Fellow Travelers: Enver Pasha and the Bolshevik Government 1918-1920" in Journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs, Vol. XIII (Old Series Vol. 69), Part III, October 1982. See also Masayuki Yamauchi, "The Unromantic Exiles: Istanbul to Berlin --Enver Pasha 1919-1920" Research Report on Urbanism in Islam (University of Tokyo, 1989) No. 11; idem, The Green Crescent Under the Red Star: Enver Pasha in Soviet Russia (Tokyo, 1991). Close colleagues and classmates of Enver from the Ottoman Military academy left memoirs in which Enver is featured prominently. Among those, Marshal Fevzi akmak, General Kazim Karabekir, Ismet Inonu and Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) are notable. Approximately half of those were written at the height of Enver's success and powers. 92. Among many works on Jamal Ad-Din al-Afghani and Pan-Islamism, see, H. A. R. Gibb, Modern Trends in Islam (Chicago, 1947); Nikki Keddie, Sayyid Jamal ad-Din "al-Afghani:" a Political Biography, (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1972). About the Recidivist Movement of 31 March 1909, see Sina Aksin's 31 Mart Olayi (Ankara, 1970). For the political environment of the period, see: Ernest E. Ramsaur, The Young Turks: Prelude to the Revolution of 1908 (Beirut, 1965); Serif Mardin, Jon Turklerin Siyasi Fikirleri, 1895-1908 (Ankara, 1964); Feroz Ahmad, The Young Turks: The Committee of Union and Progress in Turkish Politics, 1908-1914 (Oxford, 1969); M. Sukru Hanioglu, Bir Siyasal Orgut Olarak 'Osmanli Ittihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti' ve 'Jon Turkluk' 1889-1902 Vol. I (Istanbul, 1985); Masami Arai, Turkish Nationalism in the Young Turk Era (Leiden, 1991). 93. Concerning this censorship, M. T. Choldin, A Fence Around the Empire: Censorship of Western Ideas under the Tsars (Duke University Press, 1985); B. Daniel, Censorship in Russia (University Press of America, 1979); Hugh Seton-Watson, The Russian Empire, 1801-1917 (Oxford, 1967). See also Thomas Kuttner "Russian Jadidism and the Islamic World: Ismail Gasprinskii in Cairo, 1908" Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique. 16. (1975). 94. B. Allahverdiyev, Kitablar Hakkinda Kitap (Baku, 1972). For further examples, see also Edward Lazzerini, "Gadidism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: A View From Within" Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique. 16 (1975). 95. See H. B. Paksoy, Alpamysh; M. Dewhirst and R. Farrell, The Soviet Censorship (Metuchen-NJ, 1973); L. Branson, "How Kremlin Keeps Editors in Line" The Times (London) 5 January 1986. P. 1. 96. Under the influence of Peter Stolypin (1862-1911), the author of "We Need A Great Russia" Gosudarstvennaia Duma Stenograficheskie Otchety (St. Petersburg, 1907). Cf. Thomas Riha, Editor, Readings in Russian Civilization Vol. II, Imperial Russia 1700-1917, (Chicago, 1964). 97. Hugh Seton-Watson, The Russian Empire 1801-1917 (Oxford, 1967). 98. Ismail Bey Gasprinskii, Russkoe Musul'manstvo: Mysli, Zametkii Nablyudeniya (Simferopol, 1881) Society for Central Asian Studies (Oxford, 1985) Reprint No. 6; Edward J. Lazzerini, "Ismail Bey Gasprinskii's Perevodchik/Tercuman: A Clarion of Modernism" H. B. Paksoy, Editor, Central Asian Monuments (Istanbul: Isis Press, 1992); idem, "From Bakhchisaray to Bukharain 1893: Ismail Bey Gasprinskii's Journey to Central Asia" Central Asian Survey Vol. 3, No. 4 (1984); idem, Ismail Bey Gasprinskii and Muslim Modernism in Russia, 1878-1914 (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, 1973); idem, "Gadidism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: A View From Within;" Cafer Seydahmet, Gaspirali Ismail Bey (Istanbul, 1934). 99. For example, Annales Bertiniani of the 9th c. For related discussion, see D. Sinor, "The Historical Role of the Turk Empire" Journal of World History I, (1953); Edouard Chavannes, Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) (St. Petersbourg, 1903); D. Obolensky, Cambridge Medieval History Vol. IV, Part 1; The Legacy of Islam, Joseph Schacht with C. E. Bosworth (Eds.) (Oxford, 1974) Second Edition. 100. An exclamatory term, akin to the exhortation "lets go," especially used when rounding-up or rustling livestock. 101. See H. B. Paksoy, Alpamysh. 102. The last references are to the respective anti-colonial movements. It should be remembered that Togan was writing the 1920s. For a treatment, see H. B. Paksoy, "'The Basmachi (Turkistan National Liberation Movement)" Modern Encyclopedia of Religions in Russia and Soviet Union, Vol. IV (Academic International Press, 1991), Pp. 5-20; idem, "Zeki Velidi Togan's Account: The Basmachi Movement from Within," H. B. Paksoy, Editor, Central Asia Reader (New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1994). 103. Tacitus, Pp. 65-66. 104. Conceivably, examples such as the Britons were foremost in the minds of the men leading the 1776 American Independence movement. American Founding Fathers may have also have been remembering the admonitions that a republic can only exist with an educated public; and that both the Greeks and the Romans did not heed Plato's advice and saw the replacement of their republics with dictatorships. (Plato's Republic has been widely available). Hence, the early American battle-cries "Give me liberty, or give me death," and "No taxation without representation" were not mere accidents. The American Founding Fathers at once began establishing secular universities in the new republic. University of Pennsylvania (Established as College of Philadelphia) was founded in 1753 with the help of Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790). George Washington (1732-1799) gave encouragement and aid to the establishment of more than one college, one of which still bears his name. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) led the way in establishing the University of Virginia in 1819. Later, Johns Hopkins (1876) and University of Chicago (1892) were also founded as secular institutions of higher learning. As it is known, the universities established in colonial America were first and foremost training clergy. Later, these existing colleges and universities followed the lead of the new institutions by revising their curricula, giving weight to liberal arts education. 105. Y. Bregel, in his Introduction to Munis and Agahi, Firdaws al-Ikbal: History of Khorezm notes: ".....The West first learned about the existence of these works through a Russian orientalist named A. L. Kuhn, who accompanied, together with several other Russian scholars, the Russian military expedition against Khiva in 1873 which resulted in the capturing of Khiva and establishing of the Russian protectorate over the Khanate. In the Khan's palace the Russians found a great number of archival documents and about 300 manuscripts; they were all confiscated....Some of the publications confiscated in Khiva by the Russians in 1873 were transferred in 1874 to the Imperial Public Library in Petersburg, but others were kept by Kuhn in his private possession; these included the manuscripts of the works by Munis and Agahi.... [From P. 54, Note 304 of the Introduction] The MS C is slightly damaged by water from which several marginal notes at the beginning of the MS especially suffered. Many pages of E are also damaged by water, but it does not appreciably affect the legibility of the text. The cause of this damage is probably to be explained by a story told by Palvan (Pahlavan) Mirza-bashi, the secretary of the khan of Khiva, to a Russian official and orientalist N. P. Ostroumov in 1891. According to this secretary, "Kun [Kuhn] took away from Khiva about fifteen hundred different manuscripts, but when he transported them across [the Amu-Darya] in a boat, most of the manuscripts got wet, and he requested about 150 mullas from a madrasa to dry the wet copies." (Cited from Ostroumov's diary in Lunin, Srednyaya Aziya, 345, n. 523). It may also be stated that, there was a second reason why Ostroumov and other Russians were seizing manuscripts: to study and understand the Central Asians better, to discover more effective means for control. Subsequent publication of some of those manuscripts have been largely confined to Soviet "nationalities specialists," in strictly controlled circulation. 106. For further details, see H. B. Paksoy, "'The Basmachi': Turkistan National Liberation Movement;" idem, "Zeki Velidi Togan's Account: The Basmachi Movement from Within." 107. Richard Pipes, The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism, 1917-1923 (Harvard, 1954). 108. Robert Conquest, Harvest of Sorrow. (New York, 1982). 109. J. M. Landau, Pan-Turkism in Turkey: A study of Irredentism (London, 1981). This volume is primarily concerned with the emigre aspects of "pan-Turkism." 110. H. B. Paksoy, Alpamysh. 111. For the career of Mir-Said Sultan Galiev, see Masayuki Yamauchi, "One Aspect of Democratization in Tataristan: The Dream of Sultangaliev Revisited" presented to the Conference on Islam and Democratization in Central Asia, held at the University of Massachusetts -Amherst, 26-27 September 1992; idem, The Dream of Sultangaliev (Tokyo, 1986); A. Bennigsen & S. Enders Wimbush, Muslim National Communism in the Soviet Union: A Revolutionary Strategy for the Colonial World (Chicago, 1979). 112. Cf. Bennigsen & Wimbush, Muslim National Communism in the Soviet Union. P. 46, from Z. I. Gimranov, at the Ninth Conference of the Tatar Obkom, 1923, and published in Stenograficheskii otchot 9oi oblastnoi Konferensii Tatarskoi organizatsii RKP (b) (Kazan, 1924), P. 130. It is recalled that during 1922-1923, the British Labor party was rapidly becoming a parlimentary force. In January 1924, Ramsey Macdonald headed the first Labor government, which was replaced by Conservatives led by Stanley Baldwin in November the same year. Also, the Irish rebellion of 1921 was still in the background, that gave an added urgency to the nature and prospects of political leadership in Britain. 113. Russian Communist Party (bolshevik). 114. Ahmet Zeki Velidi Togan. See above. Before his move to West, he was known as Zeki Validov. 115. Speech at the Fourth Conference of the Central Committee of the RCP(b) with the responsible Workers of the National Republics and Regions, 10 June 1923. Published in "The Sultan Galiev Case." J. V. Stalin, Works Vol. 5, 1921-1923. (Moscow, 1953). Cf. Bennigsen & Wimbush, Moslem National Communism, Pp. 158-165. 116. Cf. Bennigsen & Wimbush, Muslim National Communism, P. 91. 117. A more detailed version of the discussion in this section was presented by H. B. Paksoy, to YALE University-Hopkins Summer Seminars, 9 July 1990. 118. See AACAR Bulletin Vol. IV, No. 1 (Spring 1991). 119. Gregory Gleason, "Educating for Underdevelopment: The Soviet Vocational Education System and its Central Asian Critics" Central Asian Survey Vol. 4, No. 2 1985; Patricia M. Carley, "Ecology in Central Asia: The Price of the Plan. Perceptions of Cotton and Health in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan" Central Asian Survey Vol. 8, No. 4, 1989. 120. A more comprehensive version of the discussion in this section was presented by H. B. Paksoy, to the Japanese Institute of International Affairs, Tokyo, during June, 1991. 121. RL Daily Report, Munich, February 6, 1990. 122. The interview was printed in the Leningrad youth newspaper Smena, and reprinted in Komsomolets Uzbekistana, in a "slightly abridged form." See "Islamic Explosion Possible in Central Asia" Munich, February 5, 1990, (RLR/P. Goble). 123. The January 1990 issue of Nauka i religiia. See "Three Soviet Myths on Religion Exploded" Munich, February 2, 1990 (RLR/P. Goble). 124. James Critchlow, "Corruption, Nationalism and the Native Elites in Soviet Central Asia" The Journal of Communist Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1988. 125. For reports, see Conflict in the Soviet Union: The Untold Story of the Clashes in Kazakistan (New York: International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 1990) Cf. AACAR Bulletin Vol. IV, No. 1 (Spring, 1991); Turkestan, Supplement to AACAR Bulletin Vol. III, No. 2 (Fall, 1990), repinted in H. B. Paksoy, Editor, Central Asia Reader (New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1994). 126. In an interview published in the West Berlin daily Tageszeitung of June 25, 1990. RL Daily Report, Munich, June 26, 1990 (Victor Yasmann). Moskovskie novosti published the biography of KGB General Oleg Kalugin, whose recent revelations about the KGB have attracted so much attention: Born in 1934, Kalugin joined the KGB in 1958. The next year, he was sent --along with Aleksandr Yakovlev-- as one of the first Soviet exchange students to study for a year at Columbia University. He stayed in the US for several years, working for the KGB first as a journalist and then as first secretary of the USSR Embassy in Washington under Anatolii Dobrynin. In 1972, Kalugin became chief of the KGB's counterintelligence service in Vladimir Kryuchkov's First Chief Directorate. In 1980, KGB boss Yurii Andropov transferred him to the post of first deputy chief of the KGB Administration in Leningrad. See RL Daily Report, Munich, June 26, 1990 (Alexander Rahr). 127. Moreover, some of the Soviet "ethnic" and "nationality" appellations were created by decree, partly for that purpose. For example, Meskhetians are not ethnically Turks, but were so designated during the Second World War (on 15 November 1944) to suit the needs of the Soviet regime. See S. Enders Wimbush and Ronald Wixman, "The Meskhetian Turks: A New Voice in Soviet Central Asia" Canadian Slavonic Papers Vol. XVII, No. 1, 1975. 128. See the supplement to AACAR Bulletin Vol III, No. 2 (Fall, 1990). 129. "...When he [Lenin] wanted faithful guards, Lenin took Latvian riflemen with him. He knew that if you want to protect yourself against the Russians, you put minorities in charge. If you are afraid of minorities, you use Russians." See S. Enders Wimbush, The Ethnic Factor in the Soviet Armed Forces (Rand Report, 1982) R-2787/1. P. 19. Also, Susan L. Curran and Dmitry Ponomareff, Managing the Ethnic Factor in the Russian and Soviet Armed Forces: An Historical Overview (Rand Report, 1982) R- 2640/1. 130. RL Daily Report, Munich, February 6, 1990. 131. Franklin D. Roosevelt, The Public Papers and Addresses, S. I. Rosenman, Ed. (New York, 1938-1950) Vol. VI. 132. George J. Demko, The Russian Colonization of Kazakhstan 1896-1916 (Bloomington, 1969). Indiana University Uralic-Altaic Series Vol. 99. Soviets also made land demands on other nationalities, and took land by military force, including in the Baltic region. 133. See Z. V. Togan, Turkili Turkistan; idem, Hatiralar; Stephen Blank, "The Struggle for Soviet Bashkiria 1917-1923" Nationalities Papers. No. 1, 1983; idem, "The Contested Terrain: Muslim Political Participation in Soviet Turkestan, 1917-1919" Central Asian Survey Vol. 6, No. 4, 1987; R. Baumann, "Subject Nationalities in the Military Service of Imperial Russia: The Case of Bashkirs" Slavic Review (Fall/Winter 1987). 134. For the 1921 Kars Treaty, see Kazim Karabekir, Istiklal Harbimiz (Istanbul, 1960). 135. Alexander Rahr, "Zhirinovsky's Plea for Dictatorship," RFE/RL Daily Report No. 124, 2 July 1992. The leader of the Liberal-Democratic Party, Vladimir Zhirinovskii, told Rossiya (No. 27) that a majority of Russians favor dictatorship. He said that he wants to reinstall the Russian empire, first within the boundaries of the former USSR, but subsequently along the borders of the former Tsarist empire. He stated that right-wing forces will come to power in Russia and Germany under the slogan of the protection of the white race and divide eastern Europe among themselves. He added that after the forthcoming demise of the United States, Alaska will also be incorporated into the Russian empire. He noted that, if elected president, he would strenghten the army and state security forces." 136. Isaiah Berlin, Russian Thinkers. H. Hardy and A. Kelly, Eds. (London, 1978); Edward L. Keenan, "Muscovite Political Folkways" Russian Review, Vol. 45, 1986. 137. Chaadaev (1794-1856) wrote the "A Philosophical Letter," "....that caused the suppression of the newspaper which published it, dismissal of the censor who passed it, its editor to be exiled, and Chaadaev was declared madman... By order of Nicholas I [Chadaaev was] put under police supervision. For a year he had to endure daily visits by a physician and policeman." See Readings in Russian Civilization Vol. II. 138. Also known as the "Black Hundreds," was founded in 1905 as a modern party in support of autocracy. "[This party] ....showed special hostility to the intelligentsia. Above all it was anti- Semitic and nationalist. Its support came from those who organized the pogroms of Jewish property in the southern and south-western provinces. It was essentially the forerunner of the fascist movements of the 1930s." Cf. Seton-Watson, The Russian Empire. 139. Feliks Edmundovich Dzerzhinskiy, founder of Bolshevik police to enforce the decisions of the Russian Communist Party, later to become KGB. See John J. Dziak, Chekisty: A History of the KGB (New York, 1988). 140. Konstantin Pobedonostsev (1827-1907), professor of civil law, Moscow University; member of government committee drafting judicial reforms of 1864; member of the ruling State Council. "Pobedonostsev is said to have served as a model for Dostoevski's Grand Inquisitor." See Readings in Russian Civilization Vol. II, Imperial Russia 1700-1917. "The Falsehood of Democracy" appeared in K. Pobedonostsev, Reflections of a Russian Statesman (London, 1898). 141. Leonard Shapiro, "The Pre-Revolutionary Intelligentsia and the Legal Order" Russian Studies. Ellen Dahrendorf, Editor, (London/New York: Penguin, 1987). Reprinted from Daedalus (Summer, 1960); Richard Wortmann, The Development of a Russian Legal Consciousness (Princeton, 1978). 142. See H. B. Paksoy, "Nationality and Religion: Three Observations from Omer Seyfettin" Central Asian Survey Vol. 3, No. 3 (1984).
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