The province of mountainous, Central Sulawesi is one of the 27 provinces of the Republic of Indonesia and is situated in the heart of the Indonesian archipelago, offer ancient megaliths, indigenous tribes, the mossy mountains, sleepy blue lakes, the untouchable longest river in Sulawesi for boating, the fantastic snorkeling, diving with colorful coral reefs, unpopulated small islands surrounded by endless white sandy beaches and natural voice in national reserves.
Rich in flora and fauna the most expensive wood of ebony, orchids, the shy babi rusa, anoa, tangkasi (the smallest species of monkey), maleo and endemic Sulawesi birds are waiting for the visitors who like adventural tracking, rafting birds watching and even enjoying honeymoon.
Central Sulawesi is the home to diverse ethnic groups who have retained their tradition and costums, living in peaceful harmony with each other and welcome visitors hospitality and friendliness. Now Central Sulawesi can be reached by bus from Manado (North Sulawesi) and Toraja and Makassar (South Sulawesi).
Hoping this guide websides will make the visitors well informes and impressed about Central Sulawesi.
Although Central Sulawesi is little known by foreigners, but it has been the sea route of overseas traders for centuries trailing from the Maluku islands in the east to the Philippines in the north.
Sulawesi is famous for its unique orchid shaped island and according to the British naturalist, A. R. Wallace, the island lies between the Austroaustralian land mass and the Asia continent in pre-historic times. This enables the indigeneous flora and fauna have been the subject of scientific research. Sir Francis Drake was one of European travellers who made a voyage around the world with his ship "The Golden Hind" and halted in the eastern coast of Central Sulawesi. Though there was no historical record, but there is possibility that sailors from Spain or Portuguese also made a voyage along the route because of the vestiges of European influence on the local populations style of clothes remain until today.
Donggala, which once was the main seaport, was a transit point for ships sailing along the straits of Makassar carrying silks and other goods; whereas in the eastern coast, due to its proximity to the Maluku Islands. Must had been visited by Portuguese and other Europeans trading spices for centuries ago.
Central Sulawesi is the home to serveral ethnic groups that have their own languages, costums and traditions, and have been influenced by the more populated provinces of North and South Sulawesi and by transmigrants who moved to its fertile land in the beginning of this century.
The seafaring Buginese settled along the coast and so did a number of Balinese and Javanese migrants, adding a greater diversity to the population.
One particular interest is that the people of the central mountain range who live in isolated villages believe to be the heritants of lost tribe Toraja in South Sulawesi. They have remained their curtural tradition which are similar to Toraja tradition. With little infrastructure, traveling in the mountain areas are used to be tedious journeys on foot or on horseback, but now it has changed by the construction of the Trans Sulawesi highway which traverses the island from Makassar in the south, to Manado in the north. Air transportation serve some of the larger towns of the province. Central Sulawesi is a destination of many diverse attractions. The sea in the east has unexplored underwater gardens, unique fauna and flora are found in its forest and the high mountains hide over a hundred megalithic statues, the origin of which still remain a mystery.
Sulawesi is the fourth largest island in the Indonesian archipelago and measures a total 227,654 square kilometres in land area. Its unusual shape which is compared to that of the spider orchid, has a backbone which runs north to south and three long peninsulas project northeast, east and southeast. Some of the mountains are volcanic and between the mountain ranges are rift valleys containing several lakes.
The island is bordered by the Makassar strait in the west dividing it from Kalimantan and in the east by the Maluku sea, separating it from the Maluku group of island which were once known as spice island.
Administratively the island is devided into four provinces, North, Central, South and Southeast.
Central Sulawesi is largest, covering land area of 8,033 square kilometers which includes the eastern peninsula and part of the long northern peninsula, as well as the island group of Togian in the Tomini bay and Banggai island in Tolo bay. The sea area totals 189,480 square kilometres.
The province is mostly mountainous (about 42.80% is above 500 metres in height) and its highest peak Mt. Kambuna is 2,950 metres high and situated near the capital city of Palu. There are several rivers, of which the Lariang in the longest in Sulawesi. Of the highland lakes, the two that are well known and being developed for tourism are Poso and the Lindu lakes. Covered with primary tropical forest, the island have several nature reserves to protect its unique fauna and flora, which have long been the subjects of study by naturalist and scientists.
The capital of the province of Central Sulawesi is Palu which is situated in the Donggala district, but is administered separately. On the west coast of Palu bay, the city is divided in two by Palu river and lies in the Palu valley, an extensive lowland plain stretching four kilometres and surounded by mountains on three sides.
Centras Sulawesis coastline is interpersed with long sandy beaches and its surrounding virgin island and seas have natured beautiful underwater gardens which are still to be discovered.
The highlands, plateaux and valley contain the treasures of the past in prehistoric megalithic monuments, protected by forest and the rugged terrain, and preserved by the sparse population in isolated villages which dot the countryside.
Central Sulawesi is located in the west of the Spice island, Maluku, and south of the Phillipines, apperently made its ports a transit point for ships of the Portuguese and the Spanish more than 500 years ago.
It was on the route of Sir Francis Drakes voyage round the world in his galleon The Golden Hind when in January 1580, he spent a month on one of the small island of the eastern coast.
Prior to the Dutch conquest of Central Sulawesi in 1905, it was divided into small kingdoms, ruled by kings who had full authority.
The Dutch divided Central Sulawesi into three parts. The western part of what is now Donggala district and Buol Toli-Toli came under the rule of the governor of Sulawesi, then residing in Makassar. The central part comprising of eastern Donggala and the northern part of Poso came under the administration of the recidence of North Sulawesi in Manado. The eastern part, Poso and Banggai, fell under the juridistion of east Sulawesi, then administration from Bau-Bau.
In 1919, the kings who had continued to reign under Dutch tutulege signed and agreement Korte Verklaring renewing their allegiance and the whole area of Central Sulawesi came under the the administration of the residence of North Sulawesi. After World War II, the area of the present province of Central Sulawesi underwent several divisions and sub divisions until it was, declared a province in 1964, separating from north Sulawesi to which it had been bound since 1960.
Finally established in April 13, 1964, it had its own governor. Today this date is celebrated as the provinces anniversary.
Central Sulawesi population are made up of ethnic groupings and it has been hospitable to transmigrants from south and north Sulawesi, Java and Bali who settled there.
In the Donggala distric are found the Kaili, and Tomini, Kulavi tribes. The indigenous people of Poso are divided in to Lore, Pamona, Mori and Bungku groups. In the Banggai district are found the Baggai, Saluan and Balantak and in Toli-Toli are the Toli-Toli Dondo and Buol. Some of these groups are further divided into sub-groups who have their own languages and traditions.
The 12 ethnic groups are:
|The Kaili who inhabit the large part of Donggala and part of Poso, divided in 4 sub groups speaking their own languages.|
|The Kulavi in Donggala. They are divided into sub groups, one using the Kaili language and the other a Kulawi-Lindu dialect.|
|The Lore with three sub-groups living in Poso. The sub-group using the Kaili-Tawaili dialect live in the northern part of the district. The two other sub groups have their own languages, Napu and Bada.|
|The Pamona group in Poso district speaking one language, and are scattered along the north coast and lake Poso.|
|The Mori have their own languages and inhabit Mori Atas and the vicinity.|
|The Bungku group on the southeastern coast, in Poso district.|
|The Saluan group on the southeastern coast, in Poso district around Luwuk.|
|Balantak group who inhabit the extreme eastern coast of Banggai.|
|Banggai a separate group, which are found on the Banggai islands.|
|The Buol group found in Buol Toli-Toli, on the northern coast.|
|The Toli-Toli group found in several sub-districts of Buol Toli-Toli.|
|The primitive tribes.|
Besides these ethnic groups, there are other isolated tribes living in the mountain areas, such as the Tolare of Donggala, the Wana in the Poso district, The Sea-Sea in Luwuk Banggai and the Daya of Buol Toli-Toli.
Though each of them have their own language about 22 in total, one different from the other, they all speak Bahasa Indonesia which is the national language and the medium of instruction and administration.
Due to its position in the centre of the island, Central Sulawesi has been settled by migrants from the south and the north and since the early part of the century there have been a flow of transmigrants from Bali. This have been accelerated by thegoverments programme to move people from the more populated islands of Java and Bali to areas which are sparsely inhabited.
The population of the province number 1,446,226 of which the majority adhere to the Islamic faith. Others are Christians, Hindus and Buddhists.
Agriculture is the main source of income with rice cultivation taking priority over other crops, as the population is mostly rural. Other produce are cloves, copra, rattan and several kinds of wood, among them ebony, agathis and meranti which are exported.
The people are educated and simple. Middle schools established even in vilages, have raised the literacy rate in the sparsely inhabited areas well above some other parts of the country. So it easy to communicate in Indonesian with the young as well as the elderly.
There is a high degree of tolerance and the spirit of "gotong-royong or mutual cooperation is still very much a part of community life.
Central Sulawesi is proud of the diversity of cultures which were passed down with age-old traditions from generation to generation. These tradition are moving force in community life and govern all aspects of a persons life, from the cradle to the grave. With time the traditional customs have been interomoven with religion, and are an integral part of coluoful ceremonies and festivals which vary from area to area.
Ancient beliefs is the mainstay of cultural heritage and are practised in different forms mergin with modern influences and religious convictions.
The diversity of culture between the coastal people and those living in the mountain areas are apparently related to the pre-historic movement of people. Because of the many different groups which occupy Central Sulawesi so there is more diversity tha usual.
Those of the western coast, in Donggala have apparently been intermixed with the Bugis of the south and the Gorontalo of the north. There also have been influences from west Sumatra as can be seen from ceremonial decorations.
Donggala was an important port in the past and its weaving is derived from the Indonesian Hinduistic period or earlier times.
The only centres of weaving are located in Palu, Tawaeli and Banawa.
The double ikat system of weaving, a specialised technique links it to Bali, India and Japan where this is still found.
The mountain people have some of the most fascinating cultures. Trough of Toraja origins, they have their own traditions and customs, mode of dress and the architecture of their house are completely different.
Built on wooden pillars and with wooden walls, the traditional houses have thatched roofs and just one big hall. The "Lobo" or "Duhanga" are community halls used for festivities and ceremonial functions while the Tambi are large familydwellings. Besides each house is the traditional rice barn gampiri.
Unlike the Torajas, these off-shoot tribes have no weaving tradition and instead make a fine cloth by beating tree bark, which are used for skirts.
Thicker cloth from the beringen or banyan tree bark serves as a blanket, (sometimes 2 metres by tree) warm enough to ward off the cold of the highland areas. The ancient costumes still used by the people in the mountains area hint of some Spanish or Portuguese influence in the past.
The two or three tiered long skirts called lipa or sarung are very European in look and are worn with hip-length karaba blouses made of velvet, richly embroidered with sequins and gold trim. The glittering tali, or mahkota headband could have originated from the tiara of European royalty.
The men too wear velvet jackets trimmed with gold thread baju Banjara, with knee-length shorts (also gold trimmed). Silk sarong slung across the chest from one shoulder, the colourful destar headdress and a parang kknife tied to the waist completes the costume.
The people live in village confederacies with a ketua adat (traditional chairman of the village councils) who exercises authority over community matters and costomary law, metting out penalities for transgressions which are paid in buffaloes. The people are honest and friendly, and special ceremonies are held to welcome guests such as presentation of white hens, rice, eggs and tuak, toddy made from fermented coconut pressented in a hallow bamboo.
The music and dances of Central Sulawesi vary from area to area. Unlike the more developed music of Java and Bali, the traditional music has a limited number of instruments, mainly the suling or flute, gong and the gendang or drum.
More for entertainment than a part of religious rites, the art performance are participated by the community and are more of a folk art.
In the Kaili area, on the western coastal region, Vaino is an art of reciting an art of reciting quatrains which area also set in musical form and are performed during certain ceremonies such as during moerning periods. This has been developed in a popular form for the youth as a means of match-making, during community gatherings.
Many of the dances have their origin in religious beliefs and are performed during festivals.
The most popular of the communal dances is the Dero, a folk dances of the Pamona sub-district of Poso and Kulawi.
It is performed particulary during harvest time and other festivals such as to welcome guests, thanksgiving and special national days.
Probably one of the few dances in Indonesia where boys and girls hold hands, it was originally not so but was initiates during the Japanese occupation in World War II.
Keeping to the beating of a drum and a gong, the dancers move in a circle, with one person singing the refrain and all joining in the chorus.
As more people join, the circle widens or second circle is formed. Hanoured guests are expected to join when invited and can leave when they are tired.
An opportunity for the youth to meet eacch other, the Dero can continue through the night, with participants with drawing to rest and later returning to the ever moving circlr. Since the Dero is performed during special occasions, it brings out the young girls and womenfolk dressed in their traditional finery. Another well known dance is Balia, performed on burning coals and is populer in the Palu valley. To entertain distinguished guests is Sumpit, a blow pipe to knock down coconuts and palm fronds.
Dutch missionnaries brought Christianity which spread through the Poso district and the Southern part of the Donggala.
Islam was spread in Central Sulawesi by Dato Karama, a moeslem evangelist from west Sumatera and his work caried on by Said Idrus Salim Aldjufri, a teacher of the moeslem school of Alchairat.
Hinduism is found in the areas of Donggala and Poso where the Balinese transmigrant settled and build their temples.
Auspicious days are celebrated with festivals, particularly in the towns of Sausu, Tolai and Tambarana.
The equator cuts through the narrow northern peninsula of Central Sulawesi and like the rest of Indonesia, the climate is tropical. However the seasons are reversed from those of the islands of Java, and Bali and parts of Sumatera. The rainy seasons is between April and October and the dry seasons last from October to April. Average rainfall ranges from 800 to 3000 mm. In most of the province with the exception of the Palu valley which receives between 400 to 1000 mm. annually the lowest rainfall in all Indonesia.
Temperatures vary from 25° C to 31° C in the coastal plains with humidity about 71% to 76%. However thee evenings are cooled by the sea breezes.
In the mountaint highlands, temperatures are normally between 16° C to 22° C and can be much lower on the higher plateaux, particularly at night.
FAUNA AND FLORA
British natularist A. R. Wallace (1823 1923) postulated an imaginary line (called the Wallace line after him) which passed through Bali and Lombok and continued north between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, south of the Philipines and north of Hawaii to mark difference in the fauna and flora which belonged to separate land masses in the last ice age.
Sumatera, Kalimantan, Java and Bali known as the Greater Sunda were then part of Sunda Continental Shelf and as a result have a largely Asiatic fauna. The islands east of Bali known as the lesser Sunda were influrnced by the Australian land mass and the easthern island lay on the easthern island lay on edge of the Sahul Shelf, shared by the Aru islands, Irian and Australia. Sulawesi was believed to be isolated from either continental shelf and there fore has its own special fauna and flora.
Endemic to this elongated island are the anoa, similar to a dwarfed buffalo; babi rusa, a hairless wild boar with tusks growing through the roof of its mouth; The Sulawesi black macaques, pygmy squirrels, the spectral tarsier, a variety a phalanger (a marsupial) and the maleo birds which build huge mounds on salor or volcanically-heated sandly soil to lay their unusually large eggs.
The Sulawesi rain forest are also different in character, dominated by agathis rather than the dipterocarps of the Greater Sunda, with a high proportion of palms, as well as a special species of rhododendron.
The variety of flora and fauna have been the subjectsof scientific studies and research. To preserve them four areas have been declared national park, the Morowali reserve, Tanjung Api reserve and at Bangkiriang where the maleo birds have their nesting grounds.
The Lore Lindu national park which spreads over south Donggala and western Poso regency covers an area of 131,000 ha. Within its boundaries is Mt. Nokilalaki 2,355 metres high, overlooking Lindu lake. Also found in this park are megalithic statues the original of which still remain a mistery. The statues are concentrated in the Napu, Besoa and Bada districts. Filled with an interesting variety of flora and fauna, its protected species include the babi rusa, anoa and Sulawesi macaques. Believed to be exellent for treaking tours, the Lore Lindu Park can be reached in two and a half hours from Palu to Gimpu (99 km) by motorised vehicles.
Another wildlife reserve is at Tanjung Api or fire cape located in Ampana, 156 km from Poso. Here Anoa and Babi Rusa are found and along the beach are fissures of natural gas which catch fire when exposed to the air.
Morowali, a nature reserve in Petasia district is covered with a virgin tropical forest. A special feature of this park is tha agathis trees which grow in lowland and swamps. It can be reached by motorboat from Kolonodale in one and a half hours. The famous black orchid of Central Sulawesi is plentiful in Morowali, Bancea, Kulawi and other places.
PLACES OF INTEREST
Another beach front is Pantai Penghibur Talise on northern part of the city. Besides watersports facilities, there are food stalls which stay at night an are popular with the local people.
The museum of Central Sulawesi on Jalan Sapiri gives some information of the history and culture of the province and its people. The exhibits include remmants of pre-historic times, such as household utensils and weapons. There are also some fine examples of traditional arts and crafts. The building of the museum are of different types of architecture found in the province.
Seven km east the city is the Poboya nature reserve. Located on a hillside covered with sandalwood trees, it gives a magnificent view of the Palu valley and the bay. The reserve has camping grounds.
Another beautiful panorama is the coastline which extends for 35 km along the Palu bay, from to Donggala, palm trees shade the sandy beach and there are underwater coral garden not too far away.
A kings house is the Souraja which lietrally means big house (sou = house, raja = big) which also known as Sapo Bose or Manua Mbaso in the Kaili language implying the dwelling of magau (king) or nobility.
In the interior are carving of calligraphy on wood of the Farisi or Kufi Arab alphabets. The architecture of wooden stilts on stone and carvings clearly define the Bugis and Malay influences of the past.
About two km east Palu, Tanah Runtuh offers a colorful view of the sea at sunset dipping behind Gawalise mountain. There are also several recreational and sports facilities here such as a golf course, horse racing, motocross area, etc.
The people are Christian, and with Kulawi as the centre, the Salvation Army spread to other parts of eastern Indonesia. It has a church and hospital.
However, traditional culture is still strong and festival are held according to age-old traditions. The costume of the Kulawi women is special interst, when they are worn durring ceremonies and on Sundays for church, accomodation in a government guesthouse can be arranged.
Lindu Lake can be reached by road from Palu Kulawi by car in an hour and 15 minutes. From Sidaunta to the lake is 17 km which can be covered on horseback or tracking in about 5 hours.
The path is used by fishermen from the lake and farmers carrying rice outbound and returing with salt, kerosene and other daily necessities.
The lake offers good fishing while on the banks, wild fowl are plentiful. Boats are available from the village head of Tomado. To reach the island of Pulau Bola, a motor boat takes 10 minutes. Of interest is the grave of reverd folk hero named Maradindo, decorated with a carving of a bulls head.
Accomodation is not available unless it can be arranged with the local population or the labolatory of the World Healt Organisation (WHO), at Tomado. The people are honest and friendly and will serveas guides and porters. Visitors are warned that there are still some schistosomiasis snails in the lakes vicinity and they should not walk barefooted.
The yarn is imported as it was in ancient times from China. The spesiality of the weaving here is the double ikat or double tie, a technique found only in Bali, India and Japan besides the Palu valley.
The waterfall is near the sea and visitors can also enjot a swim in the Tomini bay or watch the sun rising like a golden globe in the east.
The terrain is mountainous and dominated by thick rain forest. Three of the nature reserves lie within this district and it is also known for its lake, Poso. The Lariang river flows through the district and there are several other rivers which cascade down mountain slopes to the sea or into the lake.
Poso, the district ventre, on the northern coast is divided into two by Poso river. The town has a beach which has been developed as a recreational site for the locals. Boats for finishing and sailing are available.
The reserve has the local species of the Sulawesi macaques (macaca tankeano), deer, pigs, pythons, tarsiers and Babi Rusa. The forest is quite clear of undergrowth and the trans cape path is easy for walking.
Boats make the trip usually at night, guided by kerosene lamps and passengers are protected from the cold in low cabins. The reason for night sailing is the strong winds which sweep the lakes centre creating riptides, after 10.00 a.m.
On the bank of the lake is also batu gong, a stone which when struck makes a hollow sound similar to that of a gong. It is believed that fossils of a dragon lies at the bottom of the lake and can be seem when the waters are calm. It is concisered sacred by the people in the surrounding area and a legend links it to the way of life of this community.
Tentena is a pretty town bordering the lake and spreading over the hillside where clove trees a planted. A special feature is the 210 metres long covere wooden bridge crossing the narrow end of the lake and the eel traps in its vicinity.
This was the centre of the expansion of the Protestant religion in Central Sulawesi, initiated by two missionaries, Dr. A.C. Kruyt and Dr. Adriani in 1895. The town still has the oldest Protestant Church in the province.
A Cessna Aircraft of the Missionary Aviation Fellowship (MAF) is based here and flies regular services to the remote areas of the region, operated by an American pilot. Accommodation is available at a hotel on the lakes edge and government resthouse up on the hills, faching the lake.
The Poso area has many specialities and uniques which not found in other places. It is located in the heart of Sulawesi or even in Indonesia, about 600 m height from the sea level, 57 kms from Poso City on trans Sulawesi road. The length of Poso Lakes about 32,320 kms and width 16. Its depth is about 360 m in the south and 510 m in the north. The water in clear most of the time, and it is good for swimming. Dry season is in July August and the wet season is in January June, October and December. There is a high tide in April June and low tide in Juli December. In tide ¾ part of the the lale is white sandy beaches and sloping a very special income from the lake is from a Hormone Sogili (big eel), Gold Fish. In the south of the lake is Pendolo Subdistrict. Pendolo is a transit small town for the tourist who come from Tana Toraja in the south of Sulawesi, and want to continue their travelling around the lake, to explore Morowali, Tanjung Api, Lore Kalamanta reserve, sea garden of Tomori bay, Togian Island, trecking to Bada Valley to see hundreds of megaliths stone or directly to Manado, North Sulawesi. Around the lake, there are tourist objects natural orchid park Bancea about 5000 ha and 55 kinds of scarce orchid species have just known, white sandy beach with the background of forest orchid. Pamona cave at the bank of the lake and do not forget in Tentena there is a festival every 24th 29th August, it is called "POSO LAKE FESTIVAL".
LORE LINDU NATIONAL PARK
The centre of interest in the province of Central Sulawesi is this national park which has ovver 100 megalithik statues and cisterns relics of an ancient culture scattered in the Besoa and Bada Valleys. The most impressive in the four metre male statue Batu Palindo standing on the Sepe plateu, near Gintu Village, Bada.
The area surounding the statue has been cleared and made into a park with traditional houses build for uses by the village confideracy and for guests.
The partner of the male statue is believed to be that of a woman with a baby, seven kms away in Bomba, there are also cisterns found close by.
Gintu can be reached by the MAF service and it is a 2 km walk to Sepe with a river crassing by bamboo raft to reach the plateau.
The people are friendly, honest and welcome visitors. For the more adventourous there are roads to the reserve from Palu and then treeking or by pony from Wusa to isolated villages. The national park spreads over 250,000 ha in both Donggala and Poso regencies. The altitude ranges from 300 to 2,160 metres.
The wild life in the forest include Anoa, Babi Rusa, Macaques, Tarsius and among the many species of birds is the rare lowi or green imperial pigeon. The PPA office in Palu shoud be contected for permits and direction or use a local tour operator.
TOMORI BAY PARK
From Tentena or Pendolo at the side of Poso Lake, cuntinued the tour trip to Tomori Bay ± 157 km reached in 4 hours by bus.
The water is calm sometimes, like a mirror reflecting the shadow of the mountains arround it and the beautiful chain of Payaudara Island which lay in the centre of the sea and several, other small island like Lampu Island, Tokabe Island, Bunda Island and Tomori Island. Mori is a small island that occupied the shape is oval lie along from north to south, the beach on the east part and west part is sloping with the white sand but the beach on the north part and south part is a high stone stepp ± 300 m high.
Arround the Tomori Island there is beautiful sea park that has score 27 got from International Score Data on the gate to Tomori Bay, there is a coral in the centre on the sea like a Banyan tree ± 25 m high and it is called Apali stone (Banyan stone) by the Mori tripe people who live around this Tomori Bay. The stone is holy, the ships/boats that go in/out Tomori Bay passing through this Apali stone have to blow the wistle or other sounds for permitting, unless there will be disaster on their way.
Mori tribe people have a good keeping of tradition art and culture like the marriage ceremony of Mori tribe the traditional ceremony of Burial and interesting dances and folk songs. On the way from Tentena or Pendolo can saw nature view of the vast meadow as a cow cattle raising area and can saw Agro tour in rubber garden Beteleme or take a rest in Tomori Indah places. Here can saw the nature view of the cool mountain forest and enjoy the buildingsof tradition unity of Morri Tribe and Toraja Tribe here.
Morowali means rumbling or growling in the Wana language and refer to the sound of the river rushing over a rock bed. Located in the remote eastern end of the province in the sub district of Bungku Utara, the reserve in an area of 160,000 ha with mountains, lakes, forest and flood plains.
A new nature reserve, it was visited by "Operation Drake", a British expedition in 1979 duplicating the round the world voyage of Sir Francis Drake whose galleon "The Golden Hind" dropped anchor on one of the small offshore island in 1580. Scientists connected with "Operation Drake" did a survey of the forest canopy, inventory of the planlife, animals and insects as well as marine biological research of the area. Five rivers flow through the serve. The hinterland is mountainous and inhabited by the Wana tribe who practise shifting agriculture. The area is accessible by flights to Bbone by the Hilltribes Mision or MAP flights to Tokala Atas and Beteleme. By road, it is a 6 7 hours drive by jeep from Tentena to Kolonodale, a small port at the head of Tomory Bay.
Kolonodale has a hotel but there is no accommodation available in the reserve except by courtesy of the coastal Bajo people or Wana in the interior.
On the tip of the eastern peninsula the Banggai Regency also includes the Archipelago of Banggai. The capital of the district is Luwuk. Of the islands, the most populous is Peleng. Banggai Island had a traditional history and sacred places based on ancient myths and a royal dinasty of Javanese origin. Once a dependency of Ternate, it became selfp governing under the Dutch.
The inhabitants are divided into two groups, the Mian Laut and the Mian Banggai, who speak different dialects.
Facing Tolo Bay, the waterfall is 75 metres high and is a popular recrational site for the local people. Located 3 km from Luwuk.
KILO LIMA BEACH
Kilo Lima or five kilometres from Luwuk, the beach has white sands which offer pleasant surroundings for swimming and bathing.
This group of island offer solitude from the bustle of daily life. The largest island is Peleng, while Banggai is a little smaller. Banggai has golden beaches fringed with palms. The under water corals and tropical fish make colourful gardens. The western coast of Banggai is developed for pearl fisheries. Also on the island is the well preserved kings house, proff of the islands importance in the past. The island is reachable by boat or ferry from Luwuk.
About 96 km east of Luwuk are the nesting grounds of the Maleo Birds in the dry southern coast of the Banggai peninsula. The Macrocephalon Maleo is a bird endemic to Sulawesi. A Medapode scrup hen, it lays large eggs in burrows of solar or volcanically-heated soils where they in cubate unattended. The nesting groups are protected and permits are needed and can be acquired from the guard post or the PPA Maleo hatchery at Batui.
BUOL TOLI-TOLI REGENCY
Buol Toli-Toli is located on the northern peninsula, with mountainous hinterland and coastal strips. There in an intermixing of sub-groups with migrants from Gorontalo, Mandar and Bugis. The influence of the latter is marked.
BATU BANGGA BEACH
A white sandy beach about 12 km north Toli-Toli. Good for swimming and beautiful panorama.
A km to the west of Toli-Toli, this island is surrounded by pristine water and sandy beach. There is an ancient tomb of the King of Toli-Toli which is helt sacred by the people who come on pilgrimage and to seek blessing and ask for favours. The normal practice to fine out if a favour is granted is by sticking a palm leaf rib into the ground and pullinf is out. It is believed that if the stick becomes shorter, the request is refused, and granted if the stick is longer. The island can be reached by chartered boat from Toli-Toli.
A remmant of the Duth colonial period is an old Dutch for with 7 m high walls. The location is Salumpaga Village, 67 km from Toli-Toli
GLOSSARY OF KAILINESE TERMS
|Baruga||Meeting house of the village|
|Berei||Husband or wife|
|Haumo kita||Lets go|
|Hauriumba ?||Where are you going|
|Hauri .||Go to .|
|Ina||Aunt or madam|
|Kamaimo||Come on or come here|
|Kamai monturo||Please sit down|
|Mangge||Uncle or sir|
|Nangali nuapa||What do u buy?|
|Nepa ruru||Wait a minute|
|Tule (saguer)||Palm wine|
|Uta kelo||Kailinese vegetables cuisine|