Recent work in theoretical physics to evaluate the potential of new energy
technologies may be furthered by more careful evaluation, replication, and
expansion of the experiments done in the 1970's by the late Bruce DePalma,
experiments which document anomalous influences of rotation on the
gravitational, inertial, and electromagnetic properties of rotating objects.
The following is an overview of some of these results presented on the
http://www.depalma.pair.com with some additional
information from personal experiences of this writer with DePalma in Santa
Barbara, California, beginning in May of 1979.
Bruce DePalma graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in
1958. He attended graduate school in Electrical Engineering and Physics at
M.I.T. and Harvard University. At M.I.T. he was a lecturer in Photographic
Science in the Laboratory of Dr. Harold Edgerton and directed 3-D color
photographic research for Dr. Edwin Land of Polaroid Corporation. He
commenced his work in Free Energy through his studies on the gyroscope
and the nature of motion. He invented the N-machine, a free energy
electrical generator for which he is most widely known. To the physicist
though, it may be his earlier experiments that led him to this discovery
which are of even more significant interest. Some of these will be
summarized here after a review of the circumstances by which DePalma
came to Santa Barbara in 1978 to verify his prediction of the n-Machine,
a prediction made as a result of his understanding of the "energy field in
space itself" which he felt interacted with rotating objects to produce his
previously observed anomalous rotation effects.
During the 1970's the third largest "new age" community in the U.S. was
located in Santa Barbara, the Sunburst Community founded by Norman Paulsen
who previously was a close disciple of Paramahansa Yogananda but whose
philosophical perspective was deeply influenced by his purported multiple
encounters with "UFO's" including direct interactions as he reported in his
autobiography published in 1980 "Sunburst: Return of the Ancients". Based
on his experiences Paulsen is convinced that his encounters were with beings
responsible for ancient and future civilizations on Earth whose "spacecraft"
also have the capability of time travel. Normally I would not bring such a
story to the attention of theoretical physicists but this might be
appropriate here because of its connection to the history of DePalma's
Paulsen was the one who brought Bruce DePalma to Santa Barbara in 1978 and
sponsored the first quantitative tests of DePalma's n-Machine overunity
homopolar generator. According to Paulsen's autobiography, during one of
his numerous encounters with either advanced or non-human intelligences of
superior technological capabilities, he was taken aboard a spacecraft on a
round trip to Jupiter during which time he communicated telepathically with
the piloting beings who communicated to him how the power-plant on their
ship worked. From his description of this information I believe that the
reason he sponsored DePalma was because of how the n-Machine idea
correlated with what he was "told" on that journey. In addition, if one
takes seriously the authenticity of DePalma's preceding carefully measured
anomalous influences of rotation on the physical properties of material
objects, it seems likely that in the deeper understanding of these results
may lie keys to the development of spacedrive and/or antigravity
technologies as well as devices to extract usable energy as electricity or
heat from the "energy field inherent in space itself" that he felt his
experiments measured. If one believes that DePalma was either incompetent
or dishonest in his work, it is very easy to dismiss the enormous
implications of these experiments, but having known him fairly well over a
period of 13 years in Santa Barbara and being acquainted with several of his
research colleagues with whom I am still in contact, I am convinced that he
was both capable and honest in all of his scientific research so I would
like to offer the following summary for consideration.
To finish with the Paulsen connection here I will relate what Norman wrote
in his book about the power plant of this "spacecraft". The information
conveyed to him was that the ship's propulsion was due to the effect of two
magnetic discs rotating in opposite directions. The relationship of their
axes of rotation was not mentioned. The interesting "coincidence" was that
he was "told" that "if you take one half of this propulsion system, with it
can be made a device to produce power for the people on Earth which would be
far better that technologies in current use". Apparently when DePalma's
schematic for the n-Machine prediction was brought to Paulsen's attention he
recognized it as fulfilling this message.
The rest of this document may be considered independent of the "twilight
zone" aspects of this story as I will attempt to briefly describe some of
the relevant keystone experimental results which led DePalma to the
prediction and verification of what he called the n-Principle behind this
"overunity" electric power generator which turns out to have been an
independent rediscovery and expansion on Faraday's homopolar (or unipolar)
motor/generator principle (apparently different from induction) first
entered in his diary at Christmastime 1831. Faraday's diary diagram and
DePalma's discussion of this effect are at
in his 1 February 1995 notes on "The secret of the Faraday disc".
Again, the big presumption here is that these experiments were carefully and
honestly done by a competent researcher, which I believe they were. The
pity is that the results seem to be so contradictory to the established body
of knowledge in theoretical physics I have yet to find anyone beside Dr.
Paramahamsa Tewari of India and Dr. Shiuji Inomata of Japan who have any
kind of theoretical interpretation of how the "overunity effect" of
n-Machine works (whose performance they have each verified), let alone
anyone at all who can offer explanation of the numerous preceding
experiments documenting previously unsuspected influences of rotation on
physical objects, some described below having potential applications to
spacedrive engineering. It is my hope that some qualified experimenters
will take the following seriously enough to allocate the time and funding to
replicate these results and that during the same time frame some integrated
theoretical understanding may be developed to enable their publication in
the peer reviewed literature without their apparent contradiction of certain
cherished "fundamental laws" of physics.
Two chapters of Dr. Tewari's book [PHYSICS OF FREE POWER
GENERATION (BEYOND MATTER), by Paramahamsa Tewari,
Published by Crest Publishing House, New Delhi, INDIA, 1996
ISBN No: 81-242-0113-7] describing his "Space Vortex Theory"
interpretations of related physics, including his view on the structure
of the electron, can be found at
GENESIS OF FREE POWER GENERATION,
LIMITATION OF THE LAW OF ENERGY CONSERVATION whose
abstract on space power generation mentions Tewari's n-Machine Space
Power Generator test results, explains that "The energy-balance shows
that the output exceeds input by 3690 watts, which is in violation of the
law of conservation of energy in this specific experiment involving
electro-magnetic induction effect", and discusses gravity field production,
gravity field variation due to oscillation, light from atomic vibration, and
electromagnetic interactions between atoms.
The turning point in DePalma's scientific career came while he was a
lecturer at MIT in the late 1960's and he began pondering the inadequacies
of explaining the physics of the gyroscope and he began wondering if there
was a deeper principle operating in the behavior of rotating objects.
One of the first experiments that DePalma did in this area was to test to
see if there is a difference in the gravitational behavior of a spinning vs
non-spinning ball bearing. After an extensive literature search prompted by
a question from one of his students at MIT, they could not find any evidence
that this experiment had ever been done and so it became an educational
exercise to see if in fact this variation on Galileo's "big rock vs. small
rock" experiment would show any variation in the rate of fall.
At that time Bruce was a senior scientist specializing in photographic
sciences with the Polaroid Corporation and lecturing part time at MIT on
photographic science, physics, and electrical engineering over a period of
several years in the late 1960's. He set up this experiment using two
one-inch diameter pinball machine ball bearings where one was not spinning
and one was made to spin at 18,000 rpm by a hand held router motor with
cups to hold the balls, one on the spinning shaft and one affixed to the
casing of the motor. He then he gave the assembly a thrust at an
appropriate angle and in the dark with a 60 cycle strobe light and open
camera lens he photographed the parallel trajectories of the two ball
bearings. Repeating this numerous times and analyzing the photographs, this
experiment showed that there is indeed a variation in the gravitational
behavior of the spinning vs non-spinning ball bearing. The spinning ball,
given the same thrust, went to a higher point in its trajectory, fell faster
and hit the bottom of the trajectory before the non-spinning ball. Later he
made a device with a magnetic release which could test this small but
significant, reproducible, and clearly visually perceptible effect with a
stationary vertical drop over a height of just six feet.
The essence of this experiment was duplicated with another setup using
spinning vs non-spinning enclosed gyroscopes to control for aerodynamic
factors and these results are posted in "GYRO DROP EXPERIMENT"
http://depalma.pair.com/gyrodrop.html Performed by Kenneth Gerber, M.D.,
Richard F. Merritt, Analysis by Edward Delvers.
An overview of some of these rotational anomalies is discussed in DePalma's
4 November 1974 "Fundamental Discoveries of the New Physics and Mathematics
and their Relationship to the UFO Flying Saucer Observations and Encounters"
"1) Rotating objects falling in a gravitational field are accelerated at a
rate greater than "G", the commonly accepted rate for non-rotating objects
falling in a vacuum.
2) Pendula utilizing bob weights which are rotating, swing nonsinusoidally
with periods increased over those of pendula with non-rotating bobs.
3) A precessing gyroscope has an anomalous inertial mass, greater than its
4) An anomalous field phenomenon has been discovered, the OD field, which
confers inertia on objects immersed within it. This field is generated by
the constrained forced precession of a rotating gyroscope."
One of the early devices that DePalma used to observe these effects
consisted of an apparatus that he called the "force machine" which consisted
of two counter-rotating gyroscopes described in "The Generation of a
Unidirectional Force, 22 April 1974"
"The archetypal gravitational engine or Free Energy machine is a combination
of two counter-rotating gyroscopes with axles parallel and rotors co-planar.
The original Force Machine was constructed in 1971, figure (1). The total
weight of the apparatus was 276 lbs. The "active" mass at the rim of the
flywheels was 10 lbs. The assembly was suspended from a spring scale and the
gyroscopes driven counter-rotating at 7600 r.p.m. Under these conditions the
support cylinder was driven at 4 r.p.s. to precess the gyros. A consistent
set of experiments repeatably showed 4 - 6 lbs. of weight loss."
A variation of this device also described in this paper is called the
"Linear Force Machine" and even a small model provided enough of a
propulsion "force against space itself" or "space-drive" effect that he was
able to propel himself across the floor on a wheeled cart or wagon. This
device is diagrammed in that article and described, "The machine of figure
(4) becomes a fundamental drive unit, capable of generating a thrust against
"space" itself, and thus may replace all earlier methods of generating
unidirectional motion, i.e. gears wheels transmission units for road travel,
and propellers and jets for airborne vehicles."
These "force machine" experiments are discussed further at
in the 29 April 1995 article "The Secret of the Force Machine" which
includes Anti-gravitational Effects and Electrical Force Machines like the
N-machine, explaining how "Space power is developed out of distortion of the
normally isotropic space, the amount of distortion being represented by the
reflected internally constrained forces explicitly developed in these
machines" and showing diagrams of the force machine, Anti-Gravitational
Force Machine, Sunburst N-Machine, fully compensated n-machine with
twin contra-rotating magnetised rotors, etc.
In one his experiments showing the properties of an "inertial field" created
in the proximity of a rotating object, the frequency of a tuning fork in an
accutron watch is changed by this field effect as demonstrated by a
variation in the time shown on the watch. This experiment is discussed in
Appendix 1 of the later writeup dated 18 June 1975 "Simple Experimental Test
for the Inertial Field of a Rotating Real Mechanical Object"
After these and other experiments including those showing increased inertia
and momentum in the collisions of rotating vs non-rotating objects in the
1970's, and then a number of different configurations of n-Machine devices
in the 1980's during which time some of the n-Machine experiments were
replicated by Tewari and Inomata, by early in the 1990's DePalma finally got
published a peer reviewed article on his work, "Magnetism as a Distortion of
a Pre-Existent Primordial Energy Field and the Possibility of Extraction of
Electrical Energy Directly from Space", Bruce de Palma; the proceedings of
the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC),
August 4-9, 1992, Boston, Massachusetts; sponsored by The Institute of
Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Among its references this paper
cites the results of a 1986 independent testing of the original Sunburst
n-Machine by then Stanford University EE Professor Emeritus W. Robert
Kincheloe, "Kincheloe, Homopolar 'Free Energy' Generator Test, presented at
1986 meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration, San Francisco, CA,
U.S.A., 21 June 1986, revised 1 February 1987. Contains references to
earlier DePalma papers re N-machine."
About this time others began writing about integrating these ideas into an
understanding of the "cold fusion" anomalies first reported in 1989 by Pons
and Fleishmann, such as  http://depalma.pair.com/ColdFusion.html
"Hypothesis of Homopolar Atomic Model for Cold Fusion Energy", by Emidio
Laureti, whose abstract explains "By the means of a macroscopic structure,
which reproduces homopolar induction, it is defined a form of interaction
which might offer an hypothesis of atomic models, for a possible explanation
of cold fusion energy", and  http://depalma.pair.com/discussions.html
"NEW APPROACH TO COLD FUSION (LOW-TEMPERATURE NUCLEAR
FUSION)" I. L. Cerlovin, R. Kh. Baranova, and P. S. Baranov (Translated from
Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 230-232, January, 1992.
Original article submitted December 15, 1991) 0022-1279/92/6201-0193,
1992 Plenum Publishing Corporation. "This is the first communication giving
the results of a fundamentally new approach to low-temperature nuclear
fusion, based on a new unified fundamental field theory, together with
experimental corroboration of predictions of the theory and illustrations of
possible practical uses of the results."
After DePalma moved from Santa Barbara to Australia and then to New Zealand
where he died in late 1997, some of the papers that he wrote reflect his
continued re-evaluation of the implications of this "new knowledge".
28 July 1993 "On the Nature of Electrical Induction" begins with the quote
"It is the conceptualizations which are important" (from A. S. Eddington in
Fundamental Theory, 1944) and proffers "The phenomena of electrical
induction which are fundamental to electrical science have long since passed
into everyday experience. Recently the nature of this fundamental principle
has been re-examined in the light of experiments with electrical machines,
which, in their operation violate the conservation laws of charge and
energy." Diagrams include (1) Toroidal Model of the universe (space
orthagonal to time flow) correlating geometrically the direction of time
flow with the movement in spacial dimensions (3 space), (2) Cross section
diagram shows direction of time flow from future to past, (3)
Interpretation of magnet showing direction of time energy flow through the
magnet, (4) n-Machine or One-Piece Faraday Homopolar Generator.
16 July 1993 "Where Electrical Science Went Wrong" discusses
Michael Faraday's performance of the initial experiments resulting in the
discovery of the one-piece homopolar generator of December 26, 1831, in
figure (1), diagram reproduced from Faraday's notebook. Also at that url is
the paper of 4 January 1994, "On the Nature of Electricity" which includes
diagram "Rotation of a magnetize gyroscope, the N-Machine" showing
relationships between directions of magnetic polarity, rotation, and current
DePalma's paper of 1993 "FREE ENERGY The Political, Social, and Economic
Implications of The N- Machine / Space Power Generator" opens with the
thought: It is said, "The whole Universe and created world is a thought in
the mind of God", from The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, and then Bruce's
counterpoise "If that be the case, wouldn't He want it to be the finest show
By 1994 DePalma wrote about some deeper evaluations of Alternating Current
20 September 1994 "Power Output of A.C. Induction Machines" which discusses
"Slip of a.c. motors: The parameter of importance in this discussion is the
a.c. motor slip frequency which is the difference between the unloaded motor
speed, governed by the frequency in c.p.s. of the mains supply, and the
speed at which the motor rotates under load. The torque of a polyphase motor
varies almost directly as the magnitude of the rotor slip r.p.m." and
explains "The Method of DePalma for characterisation of polyphase a.c.
electromechanical energy converters consists of the measurement of rotor
slip frequencies with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal motor excitation and at
constant motor loading."
In his paper of 14 March 1995, "The Problem of Free Energy", he says
"Some inventions are good inventions, others are bad inventions. We all know
what the good inventions are, the bad ones are guns, atomic bombs, poison
gases, germ warfare, etc. I am not advocating my machine or any other
machine in particular to be 'the solution'. What is needed is a change of
attitude. Our theories of Nature must take into account the transcendence of
all things that exist, and the possibility of an energetic principle latent
in Nature. With this we may survive."
In the 27 February 1997 ON THE NATURE OF THE PRIMORDIAL FIELD:
"For those of us who consider ourselves sophisticated we amuse ourselves
with a pastime called Science. This the application of logic (the
self-defining reasoning process in Nature), to Nature. This self-examination
in itself has the limitation of the manifest in attempting to describe the
From 6 August 1996 The Experiment of Existence:
"Is God an a priori condition for the existence of reality? What is prior
before prior? The cosmic primordial field exists because it exists. I am
because I am is the first statement of God. God is exploring the inner
anatomy of himself. Dive deep into the sea of mind and find the gem of
And in an article dated a few months before his passing,
27 July 1997 "Physics without DePalma" concludes,
"Science without philosophy is as empty as philosophy without science...
The best instrument for the exploration of this question is the human mind...
I didn't make it this way, I found myself here. Awakening on the sandy beach
of time, which pretty pebble shall I pick up."
For more information on Bruce DePalma's work and legacy one may contact
Andrew Mount firstname.lastname@example.org, who was DePalma's assistant for the last
decade of his life, is a trustee of DePalma Institute, and one who is
continuing to archive DePalma's numerous papers on the "Primordial Energy"
website http://www.depalma.pair.com whose introduction states "We designed
this page to disseminate knowledge and accurate data relating to the
Pre-Existent Primordial Field of the Universe - a sea of 'free energy' which
permeates all. The N-1 Homopolar Generator -- invented by
Bruce DePalma -- is an example of the type of device which is able to "plug
in" to this Free Energy and eliminate the "need" for the continued use of
fossil fuels and the consequent destruction of our only home - Earth.
This device - and many others like it - have been proven to
possess "over-unity" characteristics, ie: the power output is more than 100%
of the input. It is our hope that in the near future Free Energy will
enable mankind to progress from a state of dependence to one of abundance."
Among the yet-to-be-posted papers in this site's listed bibliography is a
letter from the US Deptartment of Energy, 9 May 1978, acknowledging their
receipt of the N-Machine diagram. On page 57 of the US DOE Comprehensive
National Energy Strategy of 1998 it mentions, in the section summarizing
public comments, that "One commenter recommended that the DOE look into
zero-point energy and mentioned a specific device for harnessing this energy
source called the "N" machine. He challenged the Secretary of Energy to
fully investigate this technology and let the American public know about