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Modern Southern Cheyenne Pronunciation Key

Vowels: A- â is sounded like talk, call, gaunt. a schwa sounds like in b Žnan E- e is generally used after an "m" and is silent, otherwise the sound is long. I - i is long like the pronoun "I". i The short "i" is predominantly the main vowel sound in the Cheyenne language. i is the final vowel blended with the last consonant and whispered. (doubled or alone) O- o is long like in holy, donor, vocation. o is short like in not. ô is sounded like ôught and bâll. o is the final vowel blended with the last consonant, (doubled or alone), and whispered. U-u is short like in dumb, bum, multiply. Consonants: B-b is used interchangeably with the "p", most generally used with the vowels "o", and "i", like in bit, boss, boy, (oi). D-d is used interchangeably with the "T". Is sounded like dÔll, donate, dome, and the suffix "ed". G-g is sounded softer than the English "g", gig, give, geiger, gold. H-h as in hot, holy, history. K-k a hard sound like in keep, kite. khâ as in a blend with call and ha. khi as in a blend of k with call and hi. kho as in a blend of k with call and ho. L No "L" in Cheyenne-included only for stressing the all sound as in sol, talent, and sill. M-m as in mine, time, minute. mha to give the ma blended with the ha-sound. mhi to give the ma blended with the hi-sound. N-n as in neat, no, many, nigh. nha to give the "n" blended with ha-sound. nhi to give the "n" blended with the hi-sound. oi-oy P-p as in pivot-softer than English "P". S-s as in so for sharp sound. ss for soft sound as in nice. ssh soft as in she, shop, machine. sh sharper sound-nearly a "ch" sound but the stress is on the "s". sk as in ask. T-t is used interchangeably with "d". Tall, talk, talent, tile. V-v as in vivid, victory, vacation. vh The blend of "v" and "h" to sound like why, whoa-only the "v" sound is distinct. vhone as in phone Y-y as in yodel when it is followed by "a", or "o". Z-z as in buzz, zipper, zone. In pronunciation the accent will be marked after the syllable that is stressed for emphasis. Unlike the English language-we are using only one accent mark (primary) for the main stress in a word. The short vowel sounds are shorter than the English sounds. The long vowel sounds are about the same as the English sounds, however, where there is a double vowel the sound is slightly longer. The Cheyenne language written here has been prepared for easy pronunciation, selected and presented in syllables. The meaning in English will be given after the English word and enclosed in parentheses. Numerals: Cardinal One: noŽ-ga Two: niŽ-khi Three: naŽ-ha Four: niŽ-va Five: noŽ-hone-ni Six: naŽ-so-to Seven: niŽ-so-to Eight: naŽ-no-to Nine: soôŽ-to Ten: maŽ-to-to Twenty: ni-ssoo-i Thirty: na-no-i Forty: ni-vo-i Fifty: no-ho-no-i Sixty: na-ssoo-to-no-i Seventy: ni-ssoo-to-no-i Eighty: na-noo-to-no-i Ninety: ssoo-to-no-i One hundred: no-ka-mha-to-to-no-i Days of the week: Tuesday: (1st day) i-no-gii-no-i Wednesday: (2nd day) i-ni-sshiiŽ-no-i Thursday: (3rd day) i-na-hiiŽ-no-i Friday: (4th day) i-ni-viiŽ-no-i Saturday: (Little Lord's day) zi-giŽ-ma-hi-yo-nii-sshi-vi Sunday: (Big Lord's day) ma-khiŽ-ma-hi-yo-nii-sshi-vi Monday: (End of Lord's day) i-ni-ma-hi-yo-nii-sshi-vi Seasons of the year: Spring: ma-ziŽ-o-mi-vi Summer: miaŽ-ni-vi Autumn: doŽ-noi-vi Winter: i iŽ-ni-vi Day: iŽ-sshii-vi Night: da-i-vi Evening: hi-doi-vi Names of food: Food: maŽ-dôm-mi Meat: hoŽ-i-vo-go-zi Bread: goŽ-go-nho-yo-o Fry bread: vi-ssh-gi-vi-hon-no-o Gravy: iŽ-nhi-no Potatoes: i-ssŽ-dom-i-mis-si-ss-do-do Rice: hiiŽ-hi-sson-no Beans: monŽ-sski-ho Tomatoes: hiŽ-nin-no Corn (kernal): mhiŽ-mi Corn (plural): mhiŽ-min-no-zi Milk: maŽ-da-na Water: maŽ-pi Soup: hoŽ-pi Tea: vi-boŽ-zi-ho-pi (leaf soup) Coffee: moŽ-dav-ho-pi (black soup) Salt: voŽ-bo-ma-o-zi (white earth) Pepper: miŽ-ni-min-no-zi Sugar: viŽ-gii-ma-pi (sweet water) Dessert: ziŽ-vi-gii-no-i Cereal: hiŽ-go-vho-ssi-yo-no-zi Flour: binŽ-ho-yo-o Baking powder: boŽ-hi-ni-yo-o Corn meal: mhiŽ-min-ni-bin-ho-yo-o Oatmeal: hoŽ-sa-zi-ni-nhi-no Crackers: goŽ-gon-nho-yo-sson-no-zi Onion: khouŽ-nhi-ss-tâ-vo (like skunk) Cabbage: voŽ-bo-ss-zi (whiteplants) Tallow: viŽ-ssh-gi Butter: hi-yo-vi-ah-mi (yellow lard) Lard, grease, oil, shortening: ahŽ-mi-sski Colors: Red: maŽ-o (Blood: mi-i) Yellow: hi-yo-vo Blue: oŽ-da-da-vo Green: hoŽ-kho-o-zi-vi Orange: maŽ-hi-yo-vo (red-yellow) White: voŽ-o-mo or voŽ-go-mo Black: moŽ-o-da-vo or mo-go-do-vo Purple: hoŽ-pii-i-hi-vi Brown: miŽ-ssh-go-nhi-vi People: Singular: Plural: Youngman: kso-vii kso-vii-hi-ho Youngwoman: ksi-ii ksi-ii-hi-ho Son: hi-hau-ho hi-ha-hi-vo Daughter: ni-ss-don-ni ni-ss-don-nau-ho Endearing names for boys: gii-di mok-soi-ss-zi My friend: (masculine) ni-viss-ssi-ni ni-viss-ssi-ni-hi-yoo Their friends: (masculine) hi-viss-ssi-ni-ni-yo Your friend: (masculine) i-ssi-ni i-ssi-ni-ni-yoo My friend: (feminine) ni-viss-ssi-i ni-viss-i-yoo Your friend: (feminine) i-ssi-i i-ssi-i-yoo Their friends: (feminine) hi-viss-ssi-i-vo Whiteman: viŽ-ho-i vi-hoŽ-i Whitewoman: viŽ-ho-ah i vi-ho-ahŽi-yoo Whiteboy: vi-hoŽ-gi-so vi-ho-giŽ-so-no Whitegirl: vi-ho-ga-gi-so vi-ho-gaŽ-gi-sono Child: geiŽ-ssh-goni gei-ssh-gonŽ-niho Little girl: hi-iŽ-gei-ssh-goni hi-iŽ-gei-ssh-gon-niho Little boy: hi-dan-ni-gei-ssh-goni hi-dan-ni-gei-ssh-gon-niho Woman: hiŽ-i hi-iŽ-yoo Man: hi-dan-ni hi-dan-ni-yoo Blackman: maoda-viŽ-ho-i maoda-vi-hoŽ-i Blackwoman: maoda-vi-ho-ah-i maoda-vi-ho-ahi-yoo Blackboy: maoda-vi-ho-gi-so maoda-vi-hoŽ-gi-sono Blackgirl: maoda-vi-ho-ga-gi-so maoda-vi-ho-gaŽ-gi-sono Baby: mi-shiŽ-vho-zi mi-shi-vho-do Person: vhosŽ-dan i vhos-dan-niŽ-yoo Other tribe: noŽ-zi no-zi-yoo Family: Mother: ni-go-i ni-go- i i (To address) (My mother) Father: ni-hoi ni-ho-ii (To address) (My father) Grandmother: nis-gi-i nis-gi- i i (To address) (My grandma) Grandfather: nam-shimiŽ namŽ-shimi (To address) (My grandpa) Singular: Plural: Daughter: ni-don-ni ni-don-nô Son: ni-a ni-hau-ho Grandchildren: niŽ-khi ni-khi-hi-yoo Old man: ma-haŽ-gi-sso ma-ha-giŽ-ssi-ho Old woman: mha-dum-ha mha-dum-ha-hi-o Your father: iŽ-ho Your mother: ni-ss-go Aunt: nha-i Uncle: (my) ni-hi-ssh-i-no-zi Brother: hi-ni-ho (His or her) Sister: hi-mi-ho (His or her) My brother: ni-hi-ni-hin-o-zi My sister: ni-him-hin-o-zi His or her younger brother or sister: hi-vi-sim-mo Your younger brother or sister: i-ssi-mi His or her aunt: hi-hi-ho His or her uncle: hi-sshi-ho His or her cousin: hi-viss-son-no I am his or her cousin: ni-hi-viss-son-nin-o-zi My cousins: ni-viss-son-no Your cousins: ni-viss-son-no His or her child: hi-niss-son-no Your child: ni-niss-so My child: ni-niss-so Their children: hi-niss-son-hi-vo Your grandchild: i-khi Their grandchildren: or hi-niss-son-hi-vo Son or daughter-in-law: Animals: Cat: boisso boi-sson-no Dog: hoŽ-dum oi-ss-gi-so a-gi-sso ho-dum! oi-ss-gi-ho a-gi-sson-no Beaver: hoŽ-mi-i ho-miŽ-i Cow: ho-do-vi-i ho-do-vau-o Horse: mo-i-no-ah mo-i-no-hum Bull: hi-mo-zii-ho-do-vi-i hi-mo-zii-ho-do-vau-o Coyote: o-ko-mi o-ko-mi-hi-yo-o Wolf: hoŽni ho-ni-hi-yo-o Skunk: kha-o kha-on Opossum: o-ki-viss-si o-ki-vi-ssi-yo-o Raccoon: mi-z-go-mi mi-z-go-mi-hi-yo-o Goat: go-ss-si go-ss-si-ni Sheep: bi-bi-i-go-ss-si bi-bi-i-go-ss-si-ni Fox: vo-gi-sso vo-gi-ssi-ho Lion: ni-no-ssiŽ-hum ni-no-ssi-humŽ Pig: iss-go-ssi-ssi-ho-dum (pointed or, sharpnosed dog) Prairie dogs: o-non-ni-moni-sski-ho Deer: vau-zi-vi vauzi-vi-ni Elk: mo-i moihi-yo-o Rat: no-i-zi no-i-zi-ho Mouse: ho-gii ho-gi-ho Bear: na-go na-go-yo-o Monkey: ma-go ma-go-yo-o Elephant: zhi-ssi-si zhi-ssi-si-hi-yo-o Fish: no-maŽ-ni noŽ-ma-ni Turtle: ma-i-no ma-i-no-ni Soft shell turtle: iss-go-si-si/ma-i-no (sharped nosed) Snapping turtle: hi-on-ni/ma-i-no Frog: oonŽ-ha-i oon-haŽ-i Snake: ssh-shi-no-vo-zi Lizard: ha-dau-hi-sso (fast runner) Fowl: vi-gi-ssi-no Owl: mi-ss-da-i mi-ss-da-yo-o Chichen: go-ki-ya-khi go-ki-ya-khi-ni Duck: sshi-ssh sshi-sshi-yo-o Crow: o-ga-ki oga-ki-yo-o Quail: go-goŽ-vi i go-go-viŽ-i-yo-o Pigeon: hi-Žmin hi-min-ni-yo-o Turkey: mi-khi-ni mi-khi-ni-yo-o Hawk: i-no-o i-no-yo-o Bird: viŽ-gi-so vi-giŽ-si-ho Little bird: vi-gi-ssi-hi-so Mocking bird: hi-ssto-sshi-mi New born bird: mo-ni-vi-da Eagle: niŽ-zi Nighthawk: bi-i Insect: mi-sski-so Ant: haŽ-zi-sski ha-zi-sski-ho Grasshopper: haŽ-go-ta Caterpillar: miŽ-sshi-mi-ni Praying mantis: ni-ssta-mon-ni Squirrel: noŽ-gii-hi-sso Mosquito: ho-o-ma Snow: hiss-da-ssi It is snowing: i-hoii-do-o It is raining: i-ho-o-go It is windy: ii-hi-ha It is sunny: i-hiiho-da It is cloudy: i-vo-i-vi It is cold: i-do-ni-do It is warm: ii-kho-vo It is a hot day: i-yo-hiiŽ-ho-da Tornado: hi-vo-vi-da-sso (whirlwind) Egg: vo-vo-zi vo-vo-do-zi Ice: ma-omi Cloud: vo-i Earth: ho-i Moon: da-ii-sshi-i Sun: i-sshi-i Star: ho-ho-gi ho-do-gi-yo-o Sod or dirt: hi-sshi-gi Sand: hi-si-yo-vo-i Forest: maŽ-da-i Tree: ho-z-zi ho-zi-do Leaf: vi-bo-zi vi-bo-do-zi Stick: ka-ma-khi kam-khi-yo-zi River: o-hi-i Little river or creek: o-hi-gi-so Spring: ho-hum-mi-i Stone: ho-ho-ni-i ho-ho-ni-yo-o Small stone: ho-ho-ni-gi Pebbles: ho-ho-ni-gi-son-no Hill: zi-bo-o-ma-o-i Level plane: zi-ss-do-don-no Mountain: ho-ho-nii-vi Cliff: o-khi-yi-noi-vi Peak: vo-ss-so Mid-winter: ssi-dovi-yi-ni-vi Mid-summer: ssi-dovi-mi-yi-ni-vi Christmas: zi-kho-si-ni-sstovi (To hang things) i-ho-si-ni-sstovi Santa Clause: hiss-da-ssi-vi-ho-i (snow-whiteman) Utensils: Plate: vi-i-sso-hi-ssto-zi Dish: hi-do-go hi-do-go-no-zi Spoon; hum-mi-ss-go Fork: i-ni-ko-mo-hi-ssto-zi Knife: mo-shŽ-gi Drinking cup: nomi-ni-vi-do-go Cooking pot: hom-ssi-vi-do-o Pan: hi-do-o Black kettle: mo-dav-vi-do-o Household Items: Table: di-khi-miss-si-ss-do-zi Chair: di-khi-ssii-ss-do-zi (on top of) Oil cloth: hi-sso-kho-sshi-hon-no Dish towel: nho-hi-yo-o Lard bucket: ah-mi-sski-vi-do-o Iron: hi-so-kho-yo-o Bed: sshii-sshi-ss-do-zi Quilt: ho-no-go ho-no-go-no Pillow: mi-i-ssto-o- mi-i-ssto-no Mattress: do-nov-ho-no-go Blanket: bo-oo-ma Shawl: hooŽ-ma Trunk, suitcase or purse (container): vi-ho-si-yo-o Various sayings: I'm a Cheyenne: ni-zhi-si-da Cheyenne: zhi-zhi-sstaŽ-si I speak Cheyenne: ni-zhi-si-ni-ss-zi That's all or enough: nhiŽ-ssh Exclamation like Oh!: hi! Listen: oŽ-da Listen attentatively: a-ha-ss-zi-oh Be quiet: hi-go-do-i This one: ziŽ-do That one: daŽ-do This thing: hiŽ-do That thing: haŽ-do Who? : ni-vii ? Who are they? : ni-vi-si-yo-o ? What; why? or what is it? : hi-ni-i-zi ? What is your name: ni-don-sshi-vi ? Thank you: haŽ-ho What is it? : hi-no-vi-i ? What was it? : hi-no-vi-i-zi ? Which one is it? : di-si-vo-o ? Who is this?: ni-vii-zi-do ? Who is that? : ni-vii-da-do ? Up: hi-umi Down: ah-no-do Earth; ground; floor: hoi-vi Come in (plural): iss-zin-ni Come in (singular): iss-zin-ss-zi Sit down (plural): hum-ssto-i Sit down (singular): hum-ssto-ss-zi You is understood. Over there: ha-taal Over here: hi-zhiyo I'm going or I'm leaving: ni-ss-i Welcome (vistor offered honor place, opposite the teepee door.): vo-da-ma It is good: i-pi-vi-i It is a good day: i-pi-vii-sshi-vi It is a good morning: i-pi-vii-vo-no-o Come eat (singular): him-ss-sii-ss-zi Come eat (plural): him-ss-si I am hungry: ni-hi-yhi-ni Let us go eat: ni-him-ssim-mi I am going to eat: ni-him-ssi What are you doing? : ni-don-sshi-vi Where are you going? : do-ssi-ni-ho-o-zi Yes (feminine): hiŽ-hi-i Yes (masculine): haŽ-ah No! (neutral): hoŽ-va-hun Just what are you doing? : nii-vi-don-sshi-vi ? He or she is writing: i-mkhoi-hone-ni They are writing: i-mkhoi-hone-ni-yo-o To learn or to know: hi-ni-i-ni You will learn: ssta-ni-i-ni He or she is going to learn: i-doss-hi-ni-i-ni They are going to learn: i-doss-hi-ni-ini-no-yo Name: vi-hi-ssto-zi Your name: ni-vi-hi-ssto-zi His or her name: hi-vi-hi-ssto-zi Their names: hi-vi-hi-ssto-vi-vo-zi Write your name: mkhoi-o-zi ni-vi-hi-ssto-zi My classmate: ni-vi-ssto-sston-ni-mo (I'm reading with him) My friend (masculine): ni-viss-si-ni His (male) friends: hi-viss-si-no Her (female) friends: hi-viss-si-o My (female) friends: ni-viss-si-i His or her brother-in-law: hi-vi-dum-mi His sister or sister-in-law: hi-ya-khi-i-him-o He or she came: i-ho-i-ni They came: i-ho-i-ni-yo-o To want or desire: ho-i I want (one thing): ni-ho-i I want (more than one thing): ni-ho-ha-no-zi I am cold: ni-ni-do-ssi He or she is cold: i-ni-do-ssi They are cold: i-ni-do-ssi-yo-o How do you feel? : ni-do-ni-do-mo-di? (inquiring about physical ailment) I feel good: ni-pi-vo-mo-di He is ill: i-ha-mo-di He became ill: i-ha-mo-ti-yo-zi Don't do that: ni-vi-nhi-sshi-vi Shut the door: hone-no-zi-hi-ni-do-o Unlock the door: di-di-i-no-zi-hi-ni-do-o Open the door: on-ssdi-no-zi-hi-ni-do-o I am sleepy: ni-ni-o-zi-di-no He or she is sleepy: i-ni-o-zi-di-no He is sleepy: i-ni-o-zi To wash it: sshi-hi-no-zi Soap: sshi-sshi-voin-ni-ss-do-zi Wash your face: sshi-sshi-voin-ni-ss-zi (soap your face) Wash your hands: sshi-sshi-o-ni-zi Wash your hair: sshi-hi-no-zi-ni-mi-go To bathe or swim:: doŽ-hum Take a bath: do-hum-ss-zi I'm going to take a bath: ni-hi-do-hum-mi He is going to take a bath: i-hi-do-hum He will take a bath: i-doss-i-do-hum To arrive: ho-i-yo-zi They arrived: i-ho-i-yo-hi-yo-o They've arrived: i-ho-i-yo-zi-yo-o He or she arrived: i-ho-i-yo Came: ho-i-ni I came: ni-ho-i-ni To see: voo-mo I saw him: ni-voo-mo He or she saw him: i-voo-mo I saw them: ni-voo-mo-o They saw them: i-voo-mo-vo We saw them: ni-voo-mon-ni-yo-o Yesterday: i-sshi-vi Tomorrow: mi-vo-no-o It is evening: i-hi-doi-vi It is night: i-dii-i-vi When it is night time: mi-i-sshi-dii-i-vi Noontime (midday): ssi-do-vii-sshii-vi Midnight: ssi-do-dii-i-vi Afternoon (end of midday): mi-in-ssi-do-sshii-vi Go to bed (singular): ti-yo-vi-ssh-zi Go to bed (more than one): ti-yo-vi-ssh Sleep: ni-o-zi Go to sleep (one): ti-ni-o-zi-zi Go to sleep (more than one): ti-ni-o-zi To work: ho-zi-o I am working: ni-ho-zi-o I am going to work: ni-hi-ho-zi-o He or she is working: i-ho-zi-o They are working: i-ho-zi-ho-hi-yo-o I quit working: ni-nho-zi-o He or she quit working: i-nho-zi-o They quit working: i-nho-zi-o-hi-yo-o Being lazy: hone-ni-zi-ss-di He or she is lazy: i-hone-ni-zi-ss-di I am lazy: ni-hone-ni-zi-ss-di They are lazy: i-hone-ni-zi-ss-do-o To be tired: ki-ni-yo-zi I am tired: ni-ki-ni-yo-zi He or she is tired: i-ki-ni-yo-zi They are tired: i-ki-ni-yo-zi-yo-o We are tired: ni-ki-ni-yo-zi-mi Bee: haŽ-nom-mi ha-nom-ma Paper: mkho-sstoo-o Papers: mkho-sstoo-no-zi Pencil: mkho-sston-ni-ssto-zi Eraser: vhon-ho-ni-ssto-zi To read or attend school: hoi-sston-ni I am reading: ni-hoi-sston-ni He is reading: i-hoi-sston-ni They are reading: i-hoi-sston-ni-yo-o I am going to school: ni-hi-hoi-sston-ni He or she is to school: i-hi-hoi-sston-ni They are going to school: i-hi-hoi-sston-ni-yo-o Schoolhouse: mkho-sston-ni-mha-yo-o Bell: ah-khii-vo Writing: mkhoi-hone-ni I am writing: ni-mkhoi-hone-ni You are writing: ni-mkhoi-hone-ni Window: vo-nhi-ni-ss-do-zi Open the window: hi-i-mi-nozi vo-nhi-ni-ss-do zi Close the window: i-no-vi-no-zi vo-nhi-ni-ss-do-zi What is your name?: ni-don-sshi-vi?\ Afternoon: mi-in-ssi-do-voi-si Towel: nhi-vhoi-ni-ssto-zi He wants: i-ho-i They want: i-ho-hi-no-vo I don't feel well: ni-ssi-pi-vo-mo-ti Money (metal): mi-gii-di Silver dollar: mi-khi-mi-gii-di Half a dollar: o-khi-mi-gii-di Quarter: toi-vi-zi Seventy-five cents: o-khi-ni-toi-vi-zi Ten cents: vo-go-mi-mi-gii-di Nickel: mo-da-mi-gii-di Penny: mai-mi-gii-di Papermoney: mkho-sston-ni-mi-gii-di