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Page of Roman Numerals

What can Roman Numerals be used for?

Plus, John from Rice University who has an awesome animation page shared:
Chemists use Roman numerals in various ways. Most periodic tables will have them running across the top of each column (or "group") to signify oxidation states. Also, they are used extensively in the transition metal series to differentiate the various coordination compounds.
Check out his site at my links below.


I have received several Emails regarding 1999 and how to write it in Roman Numerals. From what I understand there is quite a bit of debate among scholars on how to write it properly.

There are four versions that I have seen:

This is the version I have seen used most and is most consistent in how to apply subtraction in Roman Numerals
This version uses no subtraction and is a favorite of the purists
A combination of the first two
Uses the subtraction rule in roman numerals to its fullest extent

According to a Washington Post interview - Marietta Nelson of the National Institute of Standards and Technology says that there are no written rules, but that the institute "favors" the MCMXCIX format.

It's easy to forget your basic roman numerals. This page is devoted to making roman numerals easy to translate into Arabic numerals.

I have been very busy lately working on the science class that I teach, so I'm afraid that this page is still very much a mess. However, if you have any questions, go ahead and e-mail me to ask. Afterall, I am a teacher and I love answering questions. If I don't know the answer off the top of my head, I'll do my best to find out for you.

Your basic roman numerals:

1 - I
2 - II
3 - III
4 - IV
5 - V
6 - VI
7 - VII
8 - VIII
9 - IX
10 - X
20 - XX
30 - XXX
40 - XL
50 - L
60 - LX
75 - LXXV
80 - LXXX
90 - XC
100 - C
500 - D
1000 - M

A few examples of how these basic numbers can be combined to form other numbers:

22 - XXII
365 - CCCLXV
1999 - MCMXCIX
2000 - MM
2112 - MMCXII
504 - DIV

Now, there are also special symbols for higher numbers. However, I have not yet learned how to program them in HTML, so I will have to describe them.

5,000 - V with a bar across the top
10,000 - X with a bar across the top
50,000 - L with a bar across the top
100,000 - C with a bar across the top
500,000 - D with a bar across the top
1,000,000 - M with a bar across the top

You will notice a trend in these. All the symbols are similar to earlier ones. Suppose you wanted to write 20,000 in roman numerals, but forgot the symbol for 20,000. Easy, just use the symbol XX for twenty, and add the bar across the top. The bar multiplies the original number by 1,000. So, 20,000 is XX times 1,000. Simply add the bar.

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Corleone's Page of Corleone
Joan Us or Die!
Paracho's Delightfuly Porn Free Web Page
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John's Animated Gifs
Physics! (Legalize Physics)