ADJUTANT: A staff officer who transmits orders, details and mounts guards, &c. The Adjutant-General is the principal staff officer of the army; he supervises the camp, and is the organ of the general commanding.
AIDE-DE-CAMP: Attendant of a general officer who receives and bears orders, &c.
ALARM POST: Place of assembly in case of alarm.
ALIGNMENT: Placing in line.
APPROACHES: Trenches by which besiegers approach a fortified place; they are opposed by counter-approaches.
APRON: The piece of leather or sheet lead which covers the vent of a cannon.
ASSEMBLY: Signal to form by company.
BANQUETTE: An elevation of earth within a fort, three or four feet wide, and less than five feet from the top of the parapet, to enable short men to fire over.
BARBETTE: Guns stand on raised platforms and fire over the parapet, thus having a free range.
BARRICADE: To block up, obstruct.
BASTION: A work at one of the angles of a fortification, consisting of two faces and two flanks.
BERM: A narrow space between parapet and ditch.
BIVOUAC: To camp round fires without the shelter of tents.
CADENCE: Uniform time and step in marching.
CAISSON: The ammunition wagon accompanying a cannon.
CALIBRE: Diameter of the bore of a piece.
CANTONMENTS: Soldiers' quarters in towns and villages.
CAPITULATE: To surrender on conditions.
CARTEL: Agreement for an exchange of prisoners.
CASOABEL: The knob at the breech of a gun.
CASEMATE: Bomb-proof chambers in fortifications from which guns are fired through windows, called embrasures.
CASHIER: To dismiss ignominiously.
CAVALIER: A work in the interior of a bastion.
CHASE OF A GUN: Its length from trunnions to muzzle.
CHEEK: The timber side of a gun-carriage.
CHEVAUX-DE-FRISE; Square beams, 6 to 9 feet long, from which pointed stakes project at right angles; used to stop breaches, &c.
CIRCUMVALLATION, LINE OF: A ow parapet and trench of earthwork encircling a besieged place.
CAMP COLORS: Flags eighteen inches square, to mark evolutions
COMMISSARY: Provision purchaser.
CONVOY: A detached guard to accompany supplies.
CORPS: A body of troops under one commander.
COUNTERSCARP: Outer wall or slope of the ditch of a fort.
CUIRASSIERS: Heavy cavalry with breastplates or cuirasses.
CURTAIN: The line of flat wall between two bastions.
DEPLOY: To manoeuvre troops from column into line of battle.
DRAGOONS: Cavalry who sometimes serve on foot.
ECHELON: An arrangement of troops, by which front and flanks are alike protected.
EMBRASURE: An opening in a wall or defense, through which to fire guns.
ENFILADE: To rake the whole length of a work or line.
EPROUVETTE: A small mortar for testing gunpowder.
ESCALADE: An assault with scaling ladders.
FALSE ATTACK: A strategic feint.
FASCINES: Bound bundles of long twigs used for fortifications, &c.
FIELD OFFICERS: Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Major.
FILE: A line of men on behind the other.
FLYING SAP: A line of gabions, behind which man approach a defense.
FORAGE: Oats, hay and straw for horses.
FORLORN HOPE: A party selected to begin an attack.
FUGLE-MAN: A drilled soldier who acts as guide in the manual, &c.
FUSE: The means by which a shell is exploded.
GABION: A bottomless cylindrical basket, used in building entrenchments.
GENERAL OFFICERS: All above the rank of colonel.
GLACIS: Parapet of the covered way of fortifications.
GRAPE: Large shot packed in bags by nines, and used for cannon.
GRENADE: A shell thrown from the hand.
GUIDONS: Small cavalry and light artillery flags.
GUNPOWDER: Composition of 76 parts salt petre, 14 charcoal and 10 sulphur.
HAVERSACK: A cotton or linen bag for a soldier's rations.
HOLSTERS: Pistol cases on cavalry saddles.
HOWITZER: Chambered cannon for firing canister, hollow shot &c.
INTERVAL: Distance between platoons, companies, regiments, &c.
INVEST: To shut up within a town or camp.
KNAPSACK: Foot soldier's traveling bag, strapped on his back, and containing clothing and necessaries.
LIGHT INFANTRY: Infantry scattered as skirmishers.
LINKS: Thongs of leather to enchain cavalry horses.
MAGAZINE: Chamber for arms, ammunition, provisions, &c.
MINE: A passage dug under military works and stocked with powder to blow them up.
MORTAR: A short chambered gun with large bore for throwing shells
MUSTER: Parade of troops for inspection.
ORDERLY: A soldier attendant upon an officer.
ORDNANCE CORPS: A corps of officers in charge of arms and ammunition.
OUT-POST: A body of troops posted beyond the regular lines.
OUT-WORKS: Works outside the regular fortifications.
PAIXHAN: A large howitzer.
PARALLELS: The lines or trenches by which besiegers approach a fort.
PARAPET: A barrier of earth to intercept the fire of an enemy.
PARK: A number of cannon in close order.
PAROLE: Word of honor given by a prisoner to his captor.
PATROL: Small guard under a non-commissioned officer, whose duty it is to preserve order in the encampment.
PICKET: A small out-post guard.
PONTOONS: Small boats to aid in the formation of bridges.
PORT-FIRE: A match for firing cannon.
QUARTERMASTER: Officer providing quarters and clothing.
RANK: A line of men side by side. Rank and file include privates and non-commissioned officer.
RATION: Daily allowance of food.
RECONNOITER: To survey, examine.
REDOUBT: A small fortification.
RELIEF: One-third of a guard. Each third is on duty two hours and off four.
RESERVE: Select body of troops retained in the rear.
REVEILLE: Beat of the drum at daybreak.
RICOCHET: Rebounding of shot from the ground at a very obtuse angle.
RIFLE: Any fire-arm with a curved groove in the barrel.
ROSTER: List of officers and men, by which to regulate their duties.
ROUND: A general discharge of cannon and musketry.
ROUNDS: Visiting or personal inspection of the guards and sentries.
SAFEGUARD: A passport.
SALIENT: An advanced angle.
SALLY-PORT: Chief entrance to a fort.
SAP: An excavation by which to approach a fort or between trenches.
SHELLS: Hollow balls filled with explosive material, fired by a fuse.
SKIRMISH: A loose, desultory kind of engagement between small detachments.
SORTIES: Sally parties.
SPHERICAL-CASE SHOT: Thin shells, loaded with musket-balls, for a howitzer.
SQUADRON: Two troops of cavalry.
STAFF: Officers attached to headquarters.
SUBALTERN: Any commissioned officer below a captain.
SURGEON: Army doctor.
TACTICS: Knowledge of the order, disposition and formation of troops.
TATTOO: Drum beat at 9 1/2 P.M., for retiring.
TRAVERSES: Parapets of earth thrown up as a protection against ricochet shots.
TROOP: Company of cavalry.
VIDETTES: Out-post sentries on horseback.
VENT: The passage of a gun or cannon which connects with the charges, and through which the spark passes to discharge it.
WINDAGE: Difference between the diameter of the shot and bore.
WINGS: Right and left divisions of an army.
ZOUAVES: Light infantry, originally Arabs and Moors.
*****Taken from the page of the 6th Ohio Reenactors. Many Thanks.
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