Our Time Line
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Our Historical Timeline

2.5MM -- Homo habilis (African) appears

1.0MM -- Homo erectus (African) appears

150M -- Homo sabiens sapiens (African) appears

43000 -- Africans begin iron mining in the Nile Valley

33000 -- Invasion of Europe by the Grimaldi Negroid from Africa

30000 -- Africans of Monomotapa create the first sculpture of a human figure

30000 -- Arrival of Australians in Australia

20000 -- First Cro-Magnon in Europe

17850 -- Africans cultivating and harvesting barley and einkorn wheat in the Nile Valley

15000 -- Africans in Kenya domesticate cattle

12000 -- Sebelian II rules in Pre-Dynastic Kemet

10000 -- The first calendar is introduced by the Africans of the Nile Valley

8000 -- Sebelian III rules in Pre-Dynastic Kemet

6020 -- Africans in the Congo use markings on bones to develop a numeration system

4100 -- The first solar calendar is introduced by Kemet and Kush

3800 -- Emergence of earliest Nubian civilization

3758 -- The world's first religious principles are written by the Kushite, King Ori (right & wrong)

3400 -- Nubian Kingdom of Ta-Seti founded

3150 -- King Narmer (Menes) unifies Upper and Lower Kemet and establishes Memphis as capital

3000 -- Modern West Africans develop more complex societies in Nigeria

2980 -- King Khasekhemuwy rules in Kemet during the 2nd Dynastry

2900 -- Kush invades and establishes the Kingdom of Elam in the Empire of Persia

2685 -- The Grand Lodge of Luxor was built at Danderah by Khufu

2650 -- Imhotep of Ta-Merry builds Step Pyramid and Saqqara complex during Zoser's reign

2500 -- Indus Valley civilization in India develops, Dravidians from Africa are foundation builders

2465 -- All the great pyramids at Dahshur & Giza, sun temples and mortuary complexes completed

2323 -- Pyramid Texts inscribed in tomb of King Unas

2300 -- An African King rules Mesopotamia, King Patesi of Lagash, more generally known as Gudea

2150 -- Kemet experiences cultural upheaval (until 2040 B.C.E.)

2040 -- Mentuhotep II unifies Kemet and relocates the capital to Waset

2000 -- Beginning of the Kingdom of Cush in Sudan with its capital at Kerma

1897 -- Amenemhet constructs the great Kemetic Labyrinth

1783 -- First Asian invasion of Kemet by Hyksos (until 1550 B.C.E.)

1700 -- Agricultural revolution in sub-Saharan Africa

1550 -- King Ahmose defeats the Hyksos and reunifies Kemet

1504 -- Thutmose I expands rulership to include Persia and Iraq

1500 -- Beginning of the Olmecs in Mexico (to 800 B.C.E.)

1473 -- Queen Hatshepsut rules Kemet as first female pharaoh

1391 -- Thutmose III rules Kemet at the height of its military power. Queen Tiye rules by his side.

1353 -- Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) introduces concepts of Aton as the only God in Kemet

1333 -- Tutankhamen become the king

1306 -- Seti I, the father of Rameses II builds major tomb in the Valley of the Kings

1290 -- Rameses II (Rameses the Great) rules Kemet for 67 years

1070 -- Period of great social, political, and religious decline in Kemet (until 750 B.C.E.)

970 -- Cush becomes an independent kingdom with the capital at Napata on the Nile

760 -- King Kashta rules Meroe until 751

751 -- Piye (Piankhi), Nubian king conquers Upper and Lower Kemet removing foreigners

716 -- King Shabato rules Meroe until 701

690 -- Taharqa leads military invasion of Spain and Palestine

667 -- Nubians battle Assyrians for both Lower and Upper Kemet

600 -- Pharaoh Necho (Niku) II commissioned Hanno to circumnavigate the entire continent of Africa

548 -- The Secret Temple of the Mysteries System of Delfi is burnt to the ground

538 -- King Analma'aye rules Kush until 533

533 -- King Amani-natake-lebte rules Kush until 513

525 -- Kemet invaded by Cambyses and becomes a part of the Persian Empire

513 -- King Korkamani rules Kush until 503

503 -- King Amani-astabarqa rules Kush until 478

500 -- Nok culture thrives in western Sudan (Nigeria)

478 -- King Sisaspiqa rules Kush until 458

460 -- Herodotus arrives in Kemet searching for knowledge

458 -- King Nasakhma rules Kush until 453

453 -- King Malewiebamani rules Kush until 423

423 -- King Talakhamani rules Kush until 418

418 -- King Aman-nete-yerike rules Kush until 398

398 -- King Baskakeren rules Kush until 397

397 -- King Harisiotet rules Kush until 362

380 -- 30th Dynasty is the last period of rulership by native-born Kemetic kings (ends 343 B.C.E.)

342 -- King Akhratan rules Kush until 328

332 -- Alexander of Macedonia (Alexander the Great) defeats the Persian army and conquers Kemet

328 -- King Nastasen rules Kush until 308

300 -- In Kush the royal institution of the Kentake (Candaces) or Queen Mother is established

300 -- Africans in Kenya develop a complex calendar system based on astronomical reckoning

280 -- Merotic Script, an indigenous form of written communication is introduced

260 -- Queen Bartare rules Meroe until 250

250 -- Zenith of Meroitic civilization until 100 A.D.

218 -- Hannibal leads his army across the Alps to challenge Rome

170 -- Queen Shanakdakhete rules Meroe until 160

41 -- Queen Amanishabhete rules Meroe until 12; Roman invasion occurs in 23

30 -- Augustus Caesar claims Egypt as a province of Rome

22 -- Africans living in Tanzania produce carbon steel in 1,800°C blast furnaces

12 -- Queen Amaritare rules Meroe until 12 A.D.

62 A.D. -- Queen Amanikhastashan rules Meroe (Nubia) until 85

100 -- Hausa Bokwoi rose as an empire in Nigeria (beginning as separate states)

300 -- States of Takrur and Ghana founded

330 -- Conquest of Meroitic Empire by Nuba; Aksum becomes commercial center of sub-Saharan

350 -- Aksumite king Ezana converts to Christianity and declares it the state religion.

391 -- Christian Emperor Theodosius bans the ancient religious systems of Egypt (book burning)

527 -- Christian Emperor Justinian closes the last Egyptian temple at Philae

550 -- Emperor Kanissa-ai of Ghana chooses Koranga as his capital city; his mother was born there

641 -- Moslems first invasion of Nubia (Sudan)

642 -- Conquest of Egypt by Arabs and the introduction of Islam

700 -- States of Gao and Kanem founded (until 900)

715 -- The first Moorish Dynasty, the Umayyad, ruled Spain from 715 to 750

846 -- Founding of the Kanem-Bornu kingdom east of Lake Chad

880 -- The Yoruba founded Ife, still the spiritual centre of Yorubaland

900 -- Kingdom of Ghana

990 -- Grasslanders move into the forests of Nigeria, begin dynasties at Oyo and Benin

1000 -- Islam moves into sub-Saharan Africa

1000 -- Great Zimbabwe is the capital of Mwenetupa Empire in Southern Africa

1050 -- Mandingo king Baramendana Keita converts to Islam by his own choosing

1054 -- Muslim Berbers (Almoravids) declare a jihad against the Kingdom of Ghana

1067 -- Tunka Menin rules the Empire of Ghana

1087 -- Kanem-Bornu converts to Islam

1100 -- Kingdom of Benin (until 1897)

1116 -- According to Idrisi, the emperor of Ghana lived in a stone-fortified castle with glass windows

1200 -- Establishment of Hausa kingdoms in west Africa; first kingdom: Daura

1203 -- Fall of the kingdom of Ghana to the Sosso

1230 -- The fourth and last Moorish Dynasty, The Almohade falls in Spain

1230 -- Kingdom of Mali established under King Sundiata Keita (ruled 1230-1255)

1290 -- The Dogon of Mali plot the orbits of various universes and star systems including Sirius B1

1300 -- The slave trade greatly expands in northern Africa, Ethiopia, and the West African savanna

1324 -- Emperor of Mali, Mansa Mussa goes to Mecca with an entourage of 60,000

1332 -- Death of Mansa Musa, the great king of Mali (ruled 1307-1332)

1375 -- Gao secedes from Mali, eventually becomes the Songhai Empire

1415 -- Portuguese battle Arabs and Moors in Ceuta in Morocco

1420 -- Minority Tutsi follow Hutu into Rwanda and establish a feudal monarchy

1438 -- The Portuguese travel down the coast of Africa

1440 -- Eware the Great (ruled 1440-1473) expands Benin into a great forest empire

1442 -- The Portuguese buy a small number of African prisoners of war from other Africans

1450 -- Decline of the Kingdom of Mali; rise of the Songhai Empire

1460 -- Cayor emancipates itself from Mali to become an independent province

1465 -- Seven Cayorian dynasties last until 1870; they never embraced Islam

1468 -- Sonni Ali conquers Timbuktu removing the Tuaregs who caused much damage

1484 -- The Fung Kingdom reigns in Sudan until 1790

1493 -- Muhammad Touré (1493-1528) assumes power in Songhai; the empire becomes Muslim

1500 -- Consolidation of Songhai Empire under Askia Muhammed

1517 -- Egypt conquered by the Turks of the Ottoman Empire

1518 -- The first enslaved Africans arrived in South America, the Caribbean, and North America

1529 -- Muslim state of Adal declares a jihad against Christian Ethiopia, conquers most of Ethiopia

1538 -- The first recorded importation of Africans into Brazil

1541 -- Ethiopia defeats of the Muslims

1549 --The zenith of the Songhai Empire under Askia Daud (1549-1582)

1569 -- The Great Mosque of Timbuktu is restored by Cadi El Aquib

1593 -- Moroccans defeat the Songahai with the help of firearms; rape of men & women is common

1593 -- University of Sankoré, in Timbuktu is destroyed by Arabs & the faculty is exiled to Morocco

1593 -- The great Sudanese scholar Ahmed Baba loses 1,600 books during forced exile by Arabs

1596 -- Askia Nuh does not accept Arab domination and organizes national resistance

1606 -- Enslaved Africans in Brazil establish a maroon settlement known as Palmares

1623 -- Queen Nzingha becomes Monarch of Ndanga (Angola) and declares war on the Portuguese

1655 -- 1,500 enslaved Africans go to Jamaican mountains, establishing free Maroon communities

1663 -- Slave rebellion takes place on September 13th in Gloucester County, Virginia

1672 -- Charles the II of England charters the Royal African Company for the purpose of slave trading

1695 -- King Zumbi of Palmares is killed by the Portuguese; Palmares is destroyed (November 20th)

1712 -- A slave insurrection occurred April 7th in New York City

1739 -- The Maroons of Jamaica and the British sign a peace treaty on March 1st

1739 -- Led by Cato on September 9th, slaves rebel and kill more than 25 enslavers

1770 -- Crispus Attucks is one of the first to die for America at the Boston Massacre on March 5th

1772 -- Lord Mansfield declares exportation of slaves from Britain illegal

1772 -- James Somerset, becomes de facto spokesman for Blacks in Britain

1773 -- Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral was published by Phillis Wheatley

1774 -- Henry Smeathmen proposes to the British government to set up a colony in Sierra Leone

1776 -- During American Revolution many Blacks fight for British promised freedom (ends 1783)

1777 -- The Republic of Vermont passes the 1st constitution in the U.S. prohibiting slavery

1777 -- 5,000 Africans participate in the U.S. Revolutionary War

1783 -- Blacks establish settlements in Nova Scotia separately from Whites & legally unrecognized

1786 -- Quakers in Pennsylvania begin to organize the Underground Railroad

1786 -- Blacks in London sign up for colony at Sierra Leone; disembark in Feb ‘87

1787 -- King Naimbana of Temnes permits colony to settle in a treaty with a local British governor

1787 -- The Free African Society is founded in Philadelphia by Richard Allen and Absalom Jones

1790 -- Sierra Leone, disastrous failure most die from disease; town is destroyed by local peoples

1790 -- Discontented Blacks arrive from Nova Scotia and are met by Granville Town survivors

1793 -- Congress passes the first Fugitive Slave Act on February 12th

1794 -- Sierra Leone attacked by French privateers; colony liberated in two months

1795 -- Jean Baptist Pointe DuSable establishes a trading post at the mouth of the Chicago River

1798 -- Egypt conquered by Napoleon of France

1800 -- Discontent Blacks rebel after demand for Black judges denied; rebellion crushed in a week

1801 -- War in Sierre Leone (ends 1807)

1803 -- Sierra Leone Co. petitions British Parliament for loans; they are rejected over four years

1807 -- Colony become under rule directly from London and Sierra Leone Co. is legally dissolved

1801 -- Africans led by Toussaint L'Ouverture revolt and seize complete power in Haiti from France

1807 -- The British Parliament bans the slave trade

1808 -- The importation of enslaved Africans is forbidden by the U.S.; law is ignored

1810 -- The Afro-American Insurance Company is established by three black men

1811 -- Paul Cuffe, a black nationalist begins transporting blacks from North America back to Africa

1815 -- Fulani Emirs declared a jihad against the Hausa state of Gobir

1820 -- Mohammad Ali of Egypt captures Sudan

1822 -- African Americans settlers found Monrovia, capital of Liberia

1822 -- George Wilson (a black slave) tells white slavers of Denmark Vesey's plan to lead a revolt

1823 -- Alexander Lucius Twilight graduates from Middlebury College

1827 -- The first African American newspaper is published, Freedom's Journal

1831 -- The Honorable Nat Turner begins his fight for freedom in Virginia, 60 slavers killed

1832 -- The anti-slavery Abolitionist Party is founded in Boston

1833 -- Enslaved people are freed in all British possessions

1834 -- Henry Blair is the first African American to be granted a U.S. patent (for a seed planter)

1837 -- Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (novelist), a Russian of African descent, is killed in a duel

1838 -- The first African American magazine is published, The Mirror of Liberty

1839 -- Slaves revolt on Spanish ship, Amistad and secure freedom via Supreme Court

1841 -- William A. Liedesdorff from the Virgin Islands becomes the 1st African American millionaire

1843 -- U.S. Patent Office issues Norbert Rillieux a patent for a revolutionary system of refining sugar

1844 -- Macon B. Allen is admitted to the bar in Maine to practice law as a licensed attorney

1845 -- Frederick Douglass's autobiography Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass is published

1847 -- Liberia becomes an independent republic on July 26th

1849 -- Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery; returns to th South over twenty times to free others

1850 -- Slave trade is forbidden in the District of Columbia

1850 -- Emperor Tewodros II led campaigns against Egyptian intruders

1852 -- Martin R. Delany publishes The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny...

1852 -- Daniel A. P. Murray born. Born in Baltimore on March 3. Murray, an African-American,

was assistant librarian of Congress, and a collector of books and pamphlets by and about black Americans.

1852 -- Publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel, published on March 20, focused

national attention on the cruelties of slavery.

1853 -- William Wells Brown's novel The President's Daughter is published

1854 -- The first modern college for Blacks established at Ashmun Institute (Lincoln University)

1855 -- The founder of modern Ethiopia, Emperor Tewodros II unifies Ethiopia and teaches Menelik

1856 -- Booker Taliaferro Washington born. Born in Franklin County, Virginia, on April 5, Washington

was the first principal of Tuskegee Institute (1881), and was the individual most responsible for its

early development. Washington was considered the leading African-American spokesman of his day.

1857 -- The Supreme Court denies blacks U.S. citizenship; Dred Scott loses his case

1859 -- Militantly anti-slavert, John Brown is hung for treason after raiding a federal arsenal in Virginia

1859 -- Harriet Wilson's novel Our Nig is published

1859 -- The last slave ship arrives. During this year, the last ship to bring slaves to the United States,

the Clothilde, arrived in Mobile Bay, Alabama.

Census of 1860. --U.S. population: 31,443,790-- Black population: 4,441,790 (14.1%)

1860 -- Isaac Myers begins organizing the Colored National Labor Union

1861 -- Yoruba, under pressure from black muslims, draws closer to Britain, which annexes Lagos

1862 -- Ida B. Wells is born on July 16th

1862 -- 186,000 Africans serve during the Civil War; 38,000 die in service

1863 -- The first school for freed enslaved people is founded in Frogmore, South Carolina

1863 -- Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation

1863 -- William Brown published The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, & His Achievements

1864 -- The Ku Klux Klan is organized in Pulaski, Tennessee

1864 -- Equal pay. On June 15, Congress passed a bill authorizing equal pay, equipment, arms,

and health care for African-American Union troops.

1864 -- The New Orleans Tribune. On October 4, the New Orleans Tribune began publication.

The Tribune was one of the first daily newspapers produced by blacks.

1865 -- The Thirteenth Amendment, which outlaws slavery in the U.S., is ratified

1866 -- Fisk University is established in Knoxville, Tennessee

1866 -- Presidential meeting for black suffrage. On February 2, a black delegation

led by Frederick Douglass met with President Andrew Johnson at the White House

to advocate black suffrage. The president expressed his opposition, and the meeting

ended in controversy.

1866 -- Civil Rights Act. Congress overrode President Johnson's veto on April 9 and passed

the Civil Rights Act, conferring citizenship upon black Americans and guaranteeing

equal rights with whites.

1866 -- Memphis massacre. On May 1-3, white civilians and police killed forty-six African-Americans

and injured many more, burning ninety houses, twelve schools, and four churches in Memphis, Tennessee.

1866 -- The Fourteenth Amendment. On June 13, Congress approved the Fourteenth Amendment to the

Constitution, guaranteeing due process and equal protection under the law to all citizens.

The amendment would also grant citizenship to blacks.

1866 --Police massacre. Police in New Orleans stormed a Republican meeting of blacks and whites on

July 30, killing more than 40 and wounding more than 150.

1867 -- Black suffrage. On January 8, overriding President Johnson's veto, Congress granted

the black citizens of the District of Columbia the right to vote.

1867 -- Negro League Baseball begins in early Spring until late Fall then the Winter season

1868 -- The Fourteenth Amendment, validating citizenship rights for all persons born in the U.S.

1868 -- Massacre in Louisiana. The Opelousas Massacre occurred in Louisiana on September 28,

in which an estimated 200 to 300 black Americans were killed.

1869 -- Fifteenth Amendment approved. On February 26, Congress sent the Fifteenth Amendment

to the Constitution to the states for approval. The amendment would guarantee black Americans

the right to vote.

1869 -- First black diplomat. On April 6, Ebenezer Don Carlos Bassett was appointed minister to Haiti

-- the first black American diplomat and the first black American presidential appointment. For many

years thereafter, both Democratic and Republican administrations appointed black Americans as

ministers to Haiti and Liberia.

1869 -- The British and other Ethiopians encircled Emperor Tewrodos II; he commits suicide

1870 -- The ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment secures voting rights for all male U.S. citizens

Census of 1870. --U.S. population: 39,818,449 --Black population: 4,880,009 (12.7%)

1870 -- Thomas M. Peterson is the first African American to vote

1874 -- Blanche Kelso Bruce becomes the first African American senator to serve a full term

1875 -- Civil Rights Act of 1875. Congress approved the Civil Rights Act on March 1, guaranteeing

equal rights to black Americans in public accommodations and jury duty. The legislation was

invalidated by the Supreme Court in 1883.

1875 -- The first African-American to serve a full term as senator. Blanche Kelso Bruce (Republican)

of Mississippi took his seat in the United States Senate on March 3. He would become the first

African-American to serve a full six-year term. Not until 1969 did another black American begin a Senate term.

1875 -- Clinton Massacre. On September 4-6, more than 20 black Americans were killed in

a massacre in Clinton, Mississippi

1876 -- Edward Alexander Bouchet receives a Ph.D. in physics from Yale University

1876 -- Race riots and terrorism. A summer of race riots and terrorism directed at blacks occurred in

South Carolina. President Grant sent federal troops to restore order.

1877* -- The end of Reconstruction. A deal with Southern Democratic leaders made Rutherford B. Hayes

(Republican) president, in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the South and the end of

federal efforts to protect the civil rights of African-Americans.

1879 -- The Zulus defeat the British for the last time in The Battle of Isandlwana

1879 -- A European, Dr. Felkin witnesses a caesarean operation by Banyoro surgeons in Uganda

Census of 1880.-- U.S. population: 50,155,783 -- Black population: 6,580,793 (13.1%)

1881 -- British and Ottoman troops seize control of Egypt and Sudan

1881 -- Segregation of public transportation. Tennessee segregated railroad cars, followed by

Florida (1887), Mississippi (1888), Texas (1889), Louisiana (1990), Alabama, Kentucky,

Arkansas, and Georgia (1891), South Carolina (1898), North Carolina (1899), Virginia (1900),

Maryland (1904), and Oklahoma (1907).

1881 -- Booker T. Washington establishes the Tuskegee Institute, an industrial school for blacks

1882 -- Lynchings. Forty-nine black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1882.

1883 -- Civil Rights Act overturned. On October 15, the Supreme Court declared the Civil Rights

Act of 1875 unconstitutional. The Court declared that the Fourteenth Amendment forbids states,

but not citizens, from discriminating

1883 -- Sojourner Truth dies. Sojourner Truth, a courageous and ardent abolitionist and a brilliant

speaker, died on November 26

1883 -- A political coup and a race riot. On November 3, white conservatives in Danville, Virginia,

seized control of the local government, racially integrated and popularly elected, killing four

African-Americans in the process

1883 -- Spelman College is founded in Atlanta, Georgia

1883 -- Lynchings. Fifty-three black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1883.

1884 -- Granville T. Woods secures his first patent was in 1884 for a steam boiler furnace

1884 -- British control of Nigeria expanded, set up under treaties with Yoruba rulers

1884 -- Lynchings. Fifty-one black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1884.

1885 -- Mohammed-Ahmed, a Sudanese defeats the Anglo-Arab army recapturing much land

1885 -- Belgium colonizes Zaire as Congo Free State

1885 -- A black Episcopal bishop. On June 25, African-American Samuel David Ferguson was

ordained a bishop of the Episcopal church.

1885 -- Lynchings. Seventy-four black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1885.

1885 -- A patent is awarded to Sarah Goode for a folding cabinet bed

1886 -- Menelik moves the Ethiopian capital to the Intoto valley (Addis Ababa)

1886 -- The Carrollton Massacre. On March 17, 20 black Americans were massacred

at Carrollton, Mississippi.

1886 -- Lynchings. Seventy-four black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1886.

1887 -- Ethiopians defeat a small contingent of Italians near Dogali

1887 -- The Honorable Marcus Garvey is born in Jamaica, August 17th

1887 -- Lynchings. Seventy black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1887.

1887 -- Granville T. Woods patents the rail telegraph system

1888 -- Two of the first African-American banks. Two of America's first black-owned banks

-- the Savings Bank of the Grand Fountain United Order of the Reformers, in Richmond Virginia,

and Capital Savings Bank of Washington, DC, opened their doors.

1888 -- Lynchings. Sixty-nine black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1888.

1889 -- Ida B. Wells becomes editor of the Free Press and the Highlight

1889 -- Menelik II is crowned the new Emperor and he makes a treaty with Italy

1889 -- Lynchings. Ninety-four black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1889.

Census of 1890. -- U.S. population: 62,947,714 -- Black population: 7,488,676 (11.9%)

1890 -- African-Americans are disenfranchised. The Mississippi Plan, approved on November 1,

used literacy and "understanding" tests to disenfranchise black American citizens. Similar statutes

were adopted by South Carolina (1895), Louisiana (1898), North Carolina (1900), Alabama (1901),

Virginia (1901), Georgia (1908), and Oklahoma (1910).

1890 -- A white supremacist is elected. Populist "Pitchfork Ben" Tillman was elected governor of

South Carolina. He called his election "a triumph of ... white supremacy.


1890 -- Lynchings. Eighty-five black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1890.

1891 -- Provident Hospital in Chicago, Illinois becomes the 1st African American Hospital

1891 -- Lynchings. One hundred and thirteen black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1891.

1892 -- Ida B. Wells is the first writer to document the lynching of African Americans

1892 -- Sarah Boone receives a patent for an ironing board

1892 -- Lynchings. One hundred and sixty-one black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1892.

1893 -- Lynchings. One hundred and eighteen black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1893.

1894 -- The Pullman strike. The Pullman Company strike caused a national transportation crisis.

On May 11, African-Americans were hired by the company as strike-breakers.

1894 -- Lynchings. One hundred and thirty-four black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1894.

1895 -- Douglass dies. African-American leader and statesman Frederick Douglass died on February 20.

1895 -- A race riot. Whites attacked black workers in New Orleans on March 11-12. Six blacks were killed.

1895 -- The Atlanta Compromise. Booker T. Washington delivered his famous "Atlanta Compromise"

address on September 18 at the Atlanta Cotton States Exposition. He said the "Negro problem" would

be solved by a policy of gradualism and accommodation.

1895 -- The National Baptist Convention. Several Baptist organizations combined to form the National

Baptist Convention of the U.S.A.; the Baptist church is the largest black religious denomination in

the United States.

1895 -- Lynchings. One hundred and thirteen black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1895.

1895 -- Paul Laurence Dunbar's poetry collection Majors and Minors is published

1896 -- Near Adwa, a small Tigrayen city, Ethiopia defeats the Italian colonial army and kills 12,000

1896 -- Paul Laurence Dunbar's poetry collection Lyrics of Lowly Life is published

1896 -- Plessy v. Ferguson. The Supreme Court decided on May 18 in Plessy v. Ferguson that

"separate but equal" facilities satisfy Fourteenth Amendment guarantees,

thus giving legal sanction to Jim Crow segregation laws.

1896 -- U.S. Supreme Court decides that separate but equal does not violate the Constitution

1896 -- Black women organize. The National Association of Colored Women was formed on July 21;

Mary Church Terrell was chosen president.

1896 -- Lynchings. Seventy-eight black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1896.

1897 -- American Negro Academy. The American Negro Academy was established on March 5

to encourage African-American participation in art, literature and philosophy.

1897 -- Lynchings. One hundred and twenty-three black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1897.

1898 -- Paul Robeson is born in Princeton, New Jersey on 4/9, son of an escaped enslaved person

1898 -- The Spanish-American War. The Spanish-American War began on April 21. Sixteen regiments

of black volunteers were recruited; four saw combat. Five black Americans won Congressional Medals of Honor.

1898 -- The National Afro-American Council. Founded on September 15, the National Afro-American Council

elected Bishop Alexander Walters its first president.

1898 -- A race riot. On November 10, in Wilmington, North Carolina, eight black Americans were killed

during white rioting.

1898 -- Black-owned insurance companies. The North Carolina Mutual and Provident Insurance Company

and the National Benefit Life Insurance Company of Washington, DC were established.

Both companies were black-owned.

1898 -- Lynchings. One hundred and one black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1898.

1899 -- A lynching protest. The Afro-American Council designated June 4 as a national day of

fasting to protest lynchings and massacres.

1899 -- Lynchings. Eighty-five black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1899.

1899 -- Dr. George F. Grant patented the wooden golf tee (Patent #638,920)

Census of 1900. -- U.S. population: 75,994,575 -- Black population: 8,833,994 (11.6%)

<P>1900 -- Lynchings. One hundred and six black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1900.

1900 -- Britain controls Nigeria

1900 -- The first Pan-African Congress convenes in London

1901 -- The last African-American congressman for 28 years. George H. White gave up his seat on March 4.

No African-American would serve in Congress for the next 28 years.

1901 -- Lynchings. One hundred and five black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1901.

1901 -- James and J. Rosamond Johnson write "Lift Every Voice and Sing"

1901 -- Booker T. Washington's autobiography Up from Slavery is published

1902 -- Lynchings. Eighty-five black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1902.

1903 -- W.E.B. DuBois's collection The Souls of Black Folks: Essays & Sketches is published

1903 -- Lynchings.Eighty-four black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1903.

1903 -- The Future Heavyweight Champ Jack Johnson plays 1st base for the Philadelphia Giants

1903 -- Maggie Lena Walker becomes Bank President of St. Luke Bank & Trust Company

1903 -- Williams and Walker open "In Dahomey" the first all black musical on a major Broadway stage

1904 -- The Atlanta debate between W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington occurs

1904 -- Philip Payton founds the Afro-American Realty Company in New York City

1904 -- Lynchings. Seventy-six black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1904.

1905 -- The Niagara Movement is established; among its leaders is W.E.B. DuBois

1905 -- In Negro Baseball League good teams in major cities make money; white league does not

1905 -- Lynchings. Fifty-seven black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1905.

1906 -- Soldiers riot. In Brownsville, Texas on Augu st 13, black troops rioted against segregation.

On November 6, President Theodore Roosevelt discharged three companies of black soldiers involved in the riot.

1906 -- A race riot. On September 22-24, in a race riot in Atlanta, ten blacks and two whites were killed.

1906 -- Lynchings. Sixty-two black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1906.

1907 -- Alain Locke is the first African American Rhodes Scholar

1907 -- Thurgood Marshall born. Born in Baltimore on July 2, Thurgood Marshall, was the attorney for the

NAACP in the famous case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954), in which the Supreme Court found

segregated schools to be inherently unequal. He later became the first African-American appointed to

the Supreme Court.

1907 -- A race riot. Many were killed and wounded in a race riot on August 14-19, in Abraham Lincoln's

home town of Springfield, Illinois.

1907 -- Lynchings. Eighty-nine black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1908.

1908 -- Jack Johnson wins the World Heavyweight Boxing Championship

1909 -- The NAACP is founded in New York; almost all the signers of the charter are white

1909 -- Matthew Henson reaches the North Pole

1909 -- Lynchings. Sixty-nine black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1909.

Census of 1910. -- U.S. population: 93,402,151 -- Black population: 9,827,763 (10.7%)

1910 -- Segregated neighborhoods. On December 19, the City Council of Baltimore approved

the first city ordinance designating the boundaries of black and white neighborhoods.

This ordinance was followed by similar ones in Dallas, Texas, Greensboro, North Carolina,

Louisville, Kentucky, Norfolk, Virginia, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Richmond, Virginia, Roanoke,

Virginia, and St. Louis, Missouri. The Supreme Court declared the Louisville ordinance to

be unconstitutional in 1917.

1910 -- Lynchings. Sixty-seven black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1910.

1910 -- The Hilldale Club of Negro Baseball and their stadium is owned by a Black man

1910 -- Madame C.J. Walker establishes a manufacturing plant in Indianapolis

1910 -- Granville T. Woods, master inventor (over 60 patents in his name) dies

1911 -- National Urban League is founded in New York City

1011 -- Lynchings. Sixty black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1911.

1912 -- W. C. Handy published the first blues song, Memphis Blues on September 27th

1912 -- James Weldon Johnson's novel The Autobiography of an Ex-Coloured Man is published

1912 -- Lynchings. Sixty-one black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1912.

1913 -- Menelik II dies and is succeeded by his grandson Lej Isayu

1913 -- Harriet Tubman dies. Harriet Tubman -- former slave, abolitionist, and freedom fighter

-- died on March 10.

1913 -- Federal segregation. On April 11, the Wilson administration began government-wide

segregation of work places, rest rooms and lunch rooms.

1913 -- Lynchings. Fifty-one black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1913.

1914 -- World War I. World War I began in Europe.

1914 -- Nigerian Council of six African and 30 European members was set up to advise the governor

1914 -- Lynchings. Fifty-one black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1914.

1915 -- The great migration of southern blacks to the North begins; industry needs labor

1915 -- Lynchings. Fifty-six black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1915.

1916 -- Belgium takes over rule of Burundi and Rwanda

1916 -- 350,000 African Americans serve during World War I

1916 -- Lynchings. Fifty black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1916.

1917 -- A race riot. One of the bloodiest race riots in the nation's history took place in

East St. Louis, Illinois, on July 1-3. A Congressional committee reported that 40 to 200 people

were killed, hundreds more injured, and 6,000 driven from their homes.

1917 -- Silent Protest Parade in New York City on July 27th

1917 -- NAACP protest. Thousands of African-Americans marched down Manhattan's Fifth Avenue

on July 28, protesting lynchings, race riots, and the denial of rights.

1917 -- A race riot. On August 23, a riot erupted in Houston between black soldiers and white citizens;

2 blacks and 11 whites were killed. 18 black soldiers were hanged for participation in the riot.

1917 -- World War I. America entered World War I on April 6. 370,000 African-Americans

were in military service -- more than half in the French war zone.

1917 -- The Supreme Court acts. On November 5, the Supreme Court struck down the Louisville,

Kentucky ordinance mandating segregated neighborhoods.

1917 -- Lynchings. Thirty-six black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1917.

1918 -- The Honorable Marcus Garvey incorporates the Universal Negro Improvement Association

1918 -- Manuel Raimundo Querino publishes The African Contribution to Brazilian Civilization

1918 -- The French award the Croix de Guerre to the 369th Regiment and named it "Harlem Hell Fighters"

1918 -- A race riot. On July 25-28, a race riot occurred in Chester, Pennsylvania. 3 blacks and 2 whites were killed.

1918 -- A race riot. On July 26-29, a race riot occurred in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 3 blacks and 1 white were killed.

1918 -- World War I ends. The Armistice took effect on November 11, ending World War I. The northern migration of

African-Americans began in earnest during the war. By 1930 there were 1,035,000 more black Americans in the North,

and 1,143,000 fewer black Americans in the South than in 1910.

1918 -- Lynchings. Sixty black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1918.

1919 -- "Red Summer." This was the year of the "Red Summer," with 26 race riots between the months of April and October.

These included disturbances in the following areas:

May 10 Charleston, South Carolina.

July 13 Gregg and Longview counties, Texas.

July 19-23 Washington, D. C.

July 27 Chicago.

October 1-3 Elaine and Phillips counties, Alabama.

1919 -- Oscar Micheaux finishes his first film, The Homesteader

1919 -- Paul Robeson graduates Valedictorian, Phi Beta Kappa, All-American Football from Rutgers

1919 -- W.E.B. DuBois organizes the first Pan-African Congress in Paris

1919 -- Lynchings. Seventy-six black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1919.

Census of 1920. -- U.S. population: 105,710,620 -- Black population: 10,463,131 (9.9%)

1920 -- The rise of Marcus Garvey. On August 1, Marcus Garvey's Universal Improvement Association held its national convention

in Harlem, the traditionally black neighborhood in New York City. Garvey's African nationalist movement was the first black American

mass movement, and at its height it claimed hundreds of thousands of supporters.

1920 -- Lynchings. Fifty-three black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1920.

1921 -- Bessie Coleman earns an International Pilot's license

1921 -- A race riot. On June 1, in a race riot in Tulsa, Oklahoma, 21 whites and 60 blacks were killed.

1921 -- Henry Pace forms the Pace Phonographic Corporation, which owned the Black Swan label

1921 -- Lynchings. Fifty-nine black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1921.

1922 -- Legislative Council (ten Africans, four of them elected, and 36 Europeans) in Nigeria

1922 -- Jack Johnson, the first Black Boxing Champion patents a theft-prevention device for vehicles

1922 -- Claude McKay's poetry collection Harlem Shadows is published

1922 -- An anti-lynching effort. On January 26, a federal anti-lynching bill was killed by a filibuster in the United States Senate.

1922 -- Lynchings. Fifty-one black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1922.

1923 -- Harlem Renaissance Basketball club founded

1923 -- Ethiopia becomes a member of the League of Nations

1923 -- Garrett A. Morgan receives a patent for the first automatic traffic light

1923 -- Paul Robeson graduates from Columbia Law School

1923 -- Marcus Garvey's The Philosophy & Opinion of Marcus Garvey, two volume set is published

1923 -- Jean Toomer's prose collection Cane is published

1923 -- Lynchings. Twenty-nine black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1923.

1924 -- Paul Robeson stars in the lead of The Emperor Jones in the Provincetown Theatre in NYC

1924 -- Paul Robeson stars in his first film, Body and Soul by Oscar Micheaux

1924 -- Lynchings. Sixteen black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1924.

1925 -- Malcolm X born. On May 19, in Omaha, Nebraska, civil rights leader Malcolm X was born.

1925 -- Lynchings. Seventeen black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1925.

1925 -- Daniel A. P. Murray dies. Assistant Librarian of Congress and African-American historian

Daniel A. P. Murray died in Washington, DC, on March 31.

1925 -- The Division of Negro Literature, History, and Prints (Schomburg Center) opens

1925 -- The New Negro: An Interpretation is published, formally recognizing Harlem Renaissance

1925 -- The Honorable Marcus Garvey is betrayed by his own people and is sent to prison

1926 -- Carter G. Woodson head of Ass. for Study of Negro Life & History, creates Negro History Week

1927 -- Langston Hughes's poetry collection Fine Clothes to the Jew is published

1927 -- James Weldon Johnson's God's Trombones: Seven Negro Sermons in Verse is published

1929 -- Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia

1930 -- Ras Tafari Mekonen was crowned the new Emperor Haile Selasie after the death of Empress

1930 -- The first Temple of Islam is founded in Detroit, Michigan

1930 -- The Kansas City Monarchs have the first portable light system in Negro Baseball

1930 -- Paul Robeson stars in the London production of Shakespeare's Othello

1931 -- Ida B. Wells joins her ancestors on March 25th

1933 -- H. Naylor Fitzhugh is the first African American to graduate from the Harvard Business School

1933 -- The publication of the journal Létudiant noir marks the offical birth of the negritude movement

1934 -- Paul and Essie Robeson travel to the Soviet Union at the invitation of Russian film director

1935 -- Negro Baseball League is stable; all clubs at breakeven; biggest black business, $2MM/yr.

1935 -- Mary McLeod Bethune founds the National Council of Negro Women

1935 -- Harlem Race Riot occurs

1936 -- Jesse Owens wins 4 gold medals at the Olympics in Berlin, Germany

1937 -- Zora Neale Hurston's novel Their Eyes Were Watching God is published

1937 -- W.E.B. DuBois & Paul Robeson are co-founders & co-chairmen of Council on African Affairs

1939 -- Aimé F. Césaire, The Father of Negritude uses the word in Cahier d'un retour au pays natal

1940 -- The Honorable Marcus Garvey dies with a broken heart on June 10th (God bless his soul)

1940 -- American Negro Theatre founded

1940 -- Richard Wright publishes the novel Native Son

1942 -- John H. Johnson publishes Negro Digest in November with a $500 loan on mother's furniture

1943 -- Poor people in Ethiopia revolt in Tigray

1943 -- With Paul Robeson, Othello breaks all Broadway records for Shakespearean productions

1944 -- The U.S. Supreme Court rules that no American can be denied the right to vote

1944 -- The United Negro College Fund is founded on April 24th

1945 -- Dr. Lloyd A. Quarterman receives an award of appreciation for his work on the Atomic Bomb

1945 -- The Negro Leagues reach a plateau of stability and efficiency

1945 -- Gwendolyn Brooks's poetry collection A Street in Bronzeville is published

1945 -- Richard Wright's autobiography Black Boy: A Record of Childhood and Youth is published

1946 -- Takala Walda-Hawaryat opposes the return of the exiled Emperor Selasie, is detained

1946 -- Jackie Robinson intergrates into the White Baseball League

1946 -- The Street, published by Ann Petry sells more than one million copies

1947 -- Every team in the Negro Leagues loses money; black fans more interested in integration

1947 -- Présence Africaine, a leading literary journal is founded by Senghor, Césaire, and Demas

1947 -- John Hope Franklin publishes From Slavery to Freedom

1947 -- The new Nigeria Council had 28 African (four elected) and 17 European members

1948 -- Apartheid is instituted in South Africa; it calls for the supremacy of whites

1948 -- U.S. President Harry Truman bans segregation in the armed forces

1949 -- Singer Juanita Hall is the first African American to receive a Tony award

1950 -- The U.S. government takes Paul Robeson's passport and attempts to silence him

1950 -- Ralph Bunche receives the Nobel Peace Prize for his work as a mediator in Palestine

1950 -- Gwendolyn Brooks is awarded a Pulitzer Prize for her collection of poems, Annie Allen

1951 -- The Parks Sausage Company is founded by Henry G. Parks, Jr.

1952 -- Africans rebel against British rule in the Mau-Mau uprisings in Kenya (until 1956)

1953 -- James Baldwin publishes Go Tell It on the Mountain

1953 -- Ralph Ellison receives the National Book Award for fiction for his novel Invisible Man

1954 -- A further constitution declared Nigeria a federation

1954 -- U.S. Supreme Court rules that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional

1954 -- George and Joan Johnson found the Johnson Product Company

1955 -- Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop publishes Nations Nègres et Culture

1955 -- Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery, Alabama bus

1956 -- U.S. Supreme Court outlaws segregated seating on buses

1956 -- The First Congress of African Writers is held in Paris

1957 -- The Southern Christian Leadership Conference is formed on February 14th

1957 -- Kwame Nkrumah leads Ghana to independence

1957 -- U.S. Congress passes the Voting Rights Act of 1957

1957 -- Internal self-government was gained by the Eastern and Western regions of Nigeria

1957 -- Black Orpheus, a journal of African writing is established in Nigeria

1958 -- The U.S government returns Paul Robeson's passport, his health is poor

1958 -- Addis Abeba became the registered office for the Economic Commission for Africa

1958 -- Chinua Achebe's novel Things Fall Apart is published

1958 -- Paul Robeson's autobiography Here I Stand is published

1958 -- The Book of Negro Folklore, edited by Arna Bontemps and Langston Hughes is published

1959 -- Internal self-government was gained by Northern Nigeria

1959 -- Berry Gordy establishes Motown Records in Detroit, Michigan

1959 -- Lorraine Hansberry's play A Raisin in the Sun is produced and published

1959 -- Ruth Bowen establishes the Queen Booking Company, a talent agency in New York City

1960 -- Nigeria is free

1960 -- Congo becomes an independent nation

1960 -- South African police fire on demonstrators at Sharpeville; murdering 67

1960 -- Marion Barry founds the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

1960 -- Poor people in Ethiopia revolt in Sidamo

1960 -- A coup by General Mengistu Naway and his brother Garwane Naway fails in Ethiopia

1961 -- Led by Julius Nyerere, Tanganyika achieves independence from Britain

1961 -- Wilt Chamberlain scores 100 points in a single game to create an unbreakable record

1961 -- Bob Marley, Bunny Livingston, and Peter Tosh form a group called the Rudeboys

1961 -- Ossie Davis's play Purlie Victorious is produced and published

1962 -- Rwanda and Burundi gain independence

1963 -- Under the leadership of Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya achieves independence from Britain

1963 -- Frantz Fanon publishes The Wretched of the Earth

1963 -- Poor people in Ethiopia revolt in Bale (until 1970)

1963 -- Nigeria became a Republic with Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe its first President (October 1st)

1963 -- March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom draws 250,000 demonstrators

1963 -- The Organization for African Unity is founded in the Ethiopian capital

1963 -- Queen Mother Moore forms the Reparations Committee of Descendants of U.S. Slaves

1963 -- Gordon Parks's novel The Learning Tree is published

1963 -- Wole Soyinka's plays The Lion & the Jewel and A Dance in the Forest are published

1964 -- Al-Hajj Malik Shabazz forms the Organization of Afro-American Unity

1964 -- John Coltrane records A Love Supreme, Part I, II, III, and IV

1964 -- Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace

1964 -- The Civil Rights Act abolishes segregration in public accommodations in the South

1964 -- Eight South African leaders, including Nelson Mandela are sentenced to life imprisonment

1964 -- Amiri Baraka's play Dutchman is produced and published

1965 -- Many student demonstrations in the streets of Addis Ababa

1965 -- Al-Hajj Malik Shabazz is murdered by his own people in front of family (2/21 @ 3:10pm)

1965 -- The Autobiography of Malcolm X is published

1965 -- Elijah Muhammad publishes Message to the Blackman in America

1965 -- Race riots in the Watts district of Los Angeles; over $225 million in property damage

1965 -- A white minority regime declares Rhodesia independent, civil war begins (until 1979)

1965 -- The Voting Rights Act provides guarantees for black voting in the South

1966 -- The first of seven coups in Nigeria occurred in January (many leaders murdered)

1966 -- Bobby Seale & Huey Newton found the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California

1967 -- Eastern Nigeria claims independence as  the Republic of Biafra; this leads to a civil war

1968 -- Poor people in Ethiopia revolt in Gojam

1968 -- Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee; riots occur in 125 U.S. areas

1969 -- U.S. Supreme Court rules that school districts must end racial segregation at once

1969 -- Toni Morrison's novel The Bluest Eye is published

1970 -- Poor people in Ethiopia revolt in Wolo

1970 -- Biafra was defeated in January 1970; the war takes one million Nigerian lives

1970 -- Maya Angelou published I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings

1971 -- Ernest J. Gaines's novel The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman is published

1971 -- Dr. Yosef A.A. ben-Jochannan publishes Africa Mother of Western Civilization

1972 -- Frank Wills, an African American security guard discovers the Watergate Break-in

1972 -- Wole Soyinka's autobiography The Man Died: Prison Notes of Wole Soyinka is published

1973 -- Ayi Kwei Armah published Two Thousand Seasons

1973 -- Emperor Haile Selasie is overthrown by a military coup on September 12th

1974 -- Ethiopian peasants revolt against their feudal exploiters

1975 -- Arthur Ashe wins the Wimbledon singles title

1975 -- Emperor Haile Selasie is killed in August and buried under one of his former palaces

1975 -- Another Nigerian coup, new leader Brigadier Murtala Muhammed

1976 -- Paul Robeson passes on January 23rd

1976 -- Negro History Week becomes Black History Month

1976 -- Abortive Nigerian coup, Brigadier Murtala Muhammed is assassinated

1976 -- Police fire on demonstrating students and school children in the Soweto, South Africa

1976 -- Alex Haley's novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family is published

1976 -- Ntozake Shange's play for colored girls who have considered suicide is produced

1978 -- National Black Consciousness Day (Zumbi Day) is established in Brazil on November 20th

1978 -- Muhammad Ali wins the world heavyweight boxing championship for a record third time

1978 -- James Alan McPherson receives a Pulitzer Prize for his short story collection Elbow Room

1979 -- Multi-party elections are held in Nigeria and Alhaji Shehu Shagari becomes President

1980 -- Freedom fighters destroy Rhodesia; The Republic of Zimbabwe is reestablished

1980 -- Robert Johnson establishes Black Entertainment Television with a $15,000 loan

1983 -- Guion S. Bluford, Jr. is the first African American astronaut in space

1983 -- Gloria Naylor wins an American Book Award for The Women of Brewster Place

1983 -- Alice Walker wins both an American Book Award and a Pulitzer Prize for The Color Purple

1983 -- President Shagari re-elected in Nigeria

1983 -- Another Nigerian military coup, Major-General Mohammadu Buhari becomes Head of State

1984 -- Oprah Winfrey accepts a job as host of A.M. Chicago, a morning show in the Windy City

1984 -- Archbishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa receives the Nobel Peace Prize

1984 -- Amiri Baraka's The Autobiography of LeRoi Jones is published

1984 -- Rev. Jesse Jackson is the 1st African American to make a serious run for U.S. presidency

1985 -- Another Nigerian coup, new leader Major-General Ibrahim Babangida

1985 -- Sonia Sanchez receives an American Book Award for homegirls & handgrenades

1986 -- Wole Soyinka is awarded the Nobel Prize for literature

1986 -- Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop passes on February 7th

1987 -- Dr. Benjamin S. Carson is the first to successfully separate Siamese twins joined at the head

1987 -- Ivan Van Sertima pubishes They Came Before Columbus

1987 -- Frederick D. Gregory is the first person of African ancestry to command a space shuttle

1987 -- Rita Dove receives a Pulitzer Prize for her poetry collection Thomas and Beulah

1987 -- Dr. Molefi Kete Asante publishes The Afrocentric Idea

1987 -- Reginald Lewis buys Beatrice International Foods for just under $1 billion on August 6th

1988 -- Terry McMillan wins an American Book Award for her novel Mama

1988 -- Toni Morrison receives a Pulitzer Prize for her novel Beloved

1989 -- Bill White becomes the president of Major League Basaball's National League

1989 -- Ronald H. Brown named Chairman of the Democratic National Committee

1990 -- South African F.W. de Klerk pledges to eliminate apartheid & releases Nelson Mandela

1990 -- Namibia becomes independent following a long struggle to end South African occupation

1990 -- Charles Johnson receives a National Book Award for his novel Middle Passage

1990 -- August Wilson wins a Pulitzer Prize for his play The Piano Lesson

1990 -- George Washington Carver & Percy Julian are admitted into National Inventor's Hall of Fame.

1990 -- L. Douglas Wilder of Virginia becomes the first African American elected governor in U.S.

1990 -- "In Living Color" wins an Emmy for Outstanding Comedy Series

1991 -- Dr. Frances Cress Welsing publishes The Isis Papers, The Keys to the Colors

1992 -- Dr. Mae Jemison travels into space on the space shuttle Endeavor

1992 -- A race riot sweeps across Los Angeles following the Rodney King verdict

1992 -- Derek Walcott is awarded the Nobel Prize for literature

1992 -- Anthony T. Browder publishes Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization

1993 -- Multi-party elections in Nigeria were annulled by Babangida, who shortly after resigned

1993 -- In Nigeria's seventh coup, General Sani Abacha assumes power

1993 -- Toni Morrison wins the Nobel Prize for literature

1993 -- Arthur Ashe's autobiography Days of Grace: A Memoir is published

1994 -- Llaila O. Afrika publishes Nutricide -- The Nutritional Destruction of the Black Race

1994 -- Nelson Mandela takes office as South Africa's first black president

1994 -- Plane crash kills leaders of both Burundi and Rwanda, unleashing ethnic killing

1995 -- Over one million men of African ancestry gather in Washington D.C. for the Million Man March

1996 -- Nigeria wins the Gold Medal in 1996 Olympic Football (Soccer)

1997 -- In January Kofi Annan of Ghana becomes the seventh secretary-general of the United Nations

1997 -- Tiger Woods wins The Masters; breaking several golf records in the process

1997 -- In May Laurent Kabila is declared president of the Democratic Republic of Congo (ex-Zaire).

1997 -- The first made-in-Nigeria saloon car known as Z-600 launched in the eastern city of Owerri

1997 -- Over one million women of African ancestry gather in Philadelphia for Million Woman March

1997 -- Multi-party elections begin in Nigeria

1997 -- Ivorian Freedom Neruda & Nigerian Christine Anyanwu win International Press Freedom Prize

1997 -- Uganda becomes Africa's major coffee producer with exports exceeding 4.2 million bags

2??? -- The Black man returns home to build a new nation with his partner the Black woman

As I always say once you know the truth you no longer have an excuse

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