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The Exodus of the Hebrews, Moses and The Pharaohs



Part IX


Who was Moses, Pharaoh, Pharaoh’s Daughter and Nu-ghan





The term Pharaoh, according to Newbrough's footnote, is Phoenician for Sun King. Historians believe it was not used for Egypt's rulers until the 18th Dynasty. However, it appears that the term was used before then, and applied to the King of Egypt. Oahspe states that Egypt had several languages at the time:


Bk of the Arc of Bon,

||27/14.2. The languages of the learned were Fonecean and Par'si'e'an;

but the native languages were Eguptian, Arabaic, Eustian, and Semis.

The times (calendar) of the learned gave two suns (365 days) to a year,

but the times of the tribes of Eustia gave only six months to a year.||


The term "Pharaoh" being Phoenician, was probably not absorbed into native languages of Egypt until after Ahmose I. The Ezra bible uses "Pharaoh" in the Exodus account, but it was written more than a thousand years later (ca 494 bce, See Mythical Conquest of Canaan ). Oahspe uses "Pharaoh" also, but it seems that Oahspe's use indicates that it was a term used at the time.

Oahspe gives certain details that relate directly to the four individuals, Moses, Pharaoh, his daughter (Leotonas), and Nu-ghan. I have no doubt that it is not just co-incidence that Oahspe provides essential information that allows us to piece together fragments of historical accounts and archaeological evidence together so that connections can be made between the various pieces of the long past events.  Not only do the two Pharaohs emerge from what seemed like a lost history of the past, but Moses and Leotonas also appear, with all the authority of the Pharaoh of Egypt!



Some of the crucial details Oahspe provides are dates and time periods:


The beginning of the Arc of Bon was 1550 b.c.e. Moses was about 40 years old and ready to begin working for the release of the Israelite Faithists from Egypt. This confirms that the Faithist migration at the beginning of the Arc of Bon was around 1546 b.c.e.


Bk of the Arc of Bon

||27/15.24. When the three were alone that night, lo and behold,

it was the beginning of the dawn of light. And Moses’ ears were

opened and he heard the Voice of Jehovih (through His angels)


 27/15.25. Behold, O king and you, Leotonas, and you Moses, now is

the beginning of My power on the face of the earth. Moses, My son,

you shall take your people out of the land of Egupt; and I will bestow

upon them the lands of the ancients, even where I will lead you.

Do not change your laws, O king; let Egupt have her way, and let the

Israelites have their way also.||


||27/20.15. At the time Moses reached Shakelmarath he was forty-four

years old.....||



The Oahspe account states that after the dawn of the Arc of Bon, Moses travelled with his brother, Aaron for 3 years, organizing and preparing for the Migration before he revisited the King, his adoptive father. The old king was ill and would not live much longer, but he lived on for at least another 7 months during which time his commissioners surveyed and reported on the conditions of the lands where the Israelites would travel. After receiving the reports of Pharaoh’s commissioners, Moses appointed a time for the migration. This means that the time from the beginning of the project, when Moses his adoptive father and sister heard Jehovih’s words, to the time that the succeeding Pharaoh came to the throne, must have been 4 years, being just months before the appointed time to leave.


Bk of the Arc of Bon,

||27/16.11. Jehovih said: And the Heads shall have seventy-seven

days notice; and they shall notify the rab'bah of their places, so that

due preparation shall be made for the start. Nevertheless, the time

appointed to your people shall be kept secret with the Heads and

with the rab'bahs. And whatever number the rab'bah can send

forth, he shall notify the Head; and when all things are ready, that

number shall go forth on the day appointed, everyone on the same


27/16.12. And Moses appointed the tenth day of the month Abib,

when all the people should start....||

To summarise and clarify the times and dates around the time of the migration of the Israelites, a table is provided:




DATE   bce

Birth of Moses




Dawn of Arc of Bon


5 years, 40 days


Moses travels to set on foot the migration


3 years


Pharaoh appoints commission of inspectors


7 months


Moses appoints migration date giving notice to family heads.


77 days (2.5 months)


Time from when migration plan is set on foot to the time when the Red Sea is crossed


4 years, 207 days (7 months)


Moses reaches Shakelmarath when he is 44 years old









Who were Moses, His Adoptive Father and Mother/Sister?


Pharaoh who was Moses’ adoptive father had a grown daughter at the time of Moses’ birth, which means that he must have been on the throne for at least more than 44 years before he died around 1546 b.c.e. Thus, a clue to his identity should be a lengthy rein prior to 1546 b.c.e. at least as far back as 1590 b.c.e. However there are no accounts of any pharaoh reigning anywhere near as long as that in the 2nd Intermediate period. But the third last ruler of the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom, Amenemhat III reigned for some 56 years. His only known offspring was one daughter. But, someone named Amenemhat IV is listed as having reigned for some 9 years before Amenemhat III’s daughter, Sobekneferu, who reigned for 3 years before the end of that dynasty. Amenemhat IV's relationship to Amenemhat III is mysterious, he appears to be treated as a son, yet, Amenemhat III had no son. He was appointed by Amenemhat III as a co-regent. It was usual for the pharaohs of that time to co-rule with the heir to the throne. Historians speculate that he was a grandson of Amenemhat III, and Sobekneferu was his aunt or sister. 



                                          Amenemhat IV                                                                                                  Sobekneferu





The uncertain relationship of Amenemhat IV to Amenemhat III and Sobekneferu is remarkably similar to the relationship as outlined in Oahspe, between Moses and his adoptive father and mother/sister.


Book of the Ark of Bon,

||27/15.3. And they bore the child into the palace, and Leotonas said

to the king: Behold a wonder of wonders: I have found an Israelite

child in a basket in the rushes, and only Gods know how it came, or

how it scaled the walls. The king said: Keep the child, and it shall be

both a brother and a son to you. Nevertheless, my guards shall find

the way my grounds are entered, or blood will be upon them.||


27/15.13. Moses grew and became a large man, being a pure I’huan,

copper-colored and of great strength. And Pharaoh, having no son,

bestowed his heart on Moses, and raised him as a prince, having

provided him men of great learning to teach him. Moses was master of

many languages and also made acquainted with kings and queens and

governors far and near. And he espoused the cause of the king.....||



Not much is said of Amenemhat IV, an interesting point that affirms Oahspe’s account of Moses’ activity before the beginning of the plans for the Migration is the following:

retrieved 8 Oct, 07

||....His short reign was relatively peaceful and uneventful; several dated expeditions were recorded at the Serabit el-Khadim mines in the Sinai.||



The Mines of Serabit el-Khadim used Asiatic slaves, a fact that is evidenced by proto-sinaitic (early hebrew) inscriptions which are found on the walls in the mines and on rock faces in the area.

retrieved 1 March, 08

||Built upon a 755-metre-high summit reached by a tortuous path, the rock-hewn temple known as Sarabit el-Khadim ("Heights of the Slave" in Arabic) is an enduring symbol of pharaonic power over the nameless thousands that once toiled in the mines of Sinai. Erected during the XII Dynasty, when mining reached its apogee, the temple consists of open courts and sanctuaries dedicated to the goddess Hathor in her aspect "Mistress of Turquoise", and the god Soped, "Guardian of the Desert Ways". Both deities are invoked on rock-cut and freestanding steles relating to mining expeditions, which were only possible for half of the year due to the heat and scarcity of water, which made a permanent colony impossible. The temple (whose precincts were segregated from the mining area by a crude stone wall) was abandoned during the reign of Ramses VII.||



Oahspe reveals that when the Egyptian court pressured Pharaoh to remove Moses from his position (a position which would allow him to inherit the Egyptian throne after Pharaoh), his conscience led him to become actively concerned about the Israelites and their unfortunate conditions as slaves under the Egyptians. He spent 4 months investigating the conditions of the Israelites.


Bk of the Arc of Bon,

||27/15.21. So Moses departed and traveled over the land of

Egupt, and was four months absent before returning to Pharaoh.

And Moses related to him all the grievances of the Israelites;

explaining the tasks put upon them; their denial before the courts;

their forbiddance to education, and also extolled them highly for                                                                             Amenemhat III

being a peaceful and virtuous people.||                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

There does of course, remain the consideration that the recorded dates of Amenemhat IV’s expeditions to the mines were made before Moses made his investigations into the conditions of the slaves, however, this evidence is presented to indicate that Amenemhat IV’s details do not contradict the personal details about Moses, but rather they appear to match remarkably, far more than one would expect by coincidence.                                                                                          

Amenemhat IV is believed to have ruled as co-regent for at least the first year of his reign, but references to him often show him to be co-regent with the king beyond that time, including temple dedications attributed to both Amenemhat III and IV, and a signet seal with both names.

Historically, Amenemhat IV is known to have ruled for more than 9 years, Oahspe states that Moses was in his position of representing Pharaoh for 12 years. There is a close correspondence in these two periods, and it could well be that Moses acted in his position for a period before his adoptive father, approving of his work, made him co-regent






Scarab (throne-name of Amenemhat III,    Horus-name of Amenemhat IV)











Bk of the Arc of Bon

27/15.14.|| So Pharaoh made Moses ambassador to the foreign

kingdoms, in which capacity he served twelve years. But because

of the prejudice against him, for being of Israelite blood, the

court of Pharaoh importuned the king for his removal and Moses

was so removed from office under the king.

15. The king said to Moses: My son, this is a double infliction on

me in my old days; in the first place it is as a sword-thrust to cut off

my love to you, lest you some day become king; and in the second

place, it is hard for a Pharaoh to be dictated to by his own court....

17. [Moses] As for myself, I think this is a rebuke put upon me by

Jehovih because I did not labor for my own people. ||




Once Moses was removed from this position as Pharaoh’s ambassador, he travelled throughout Egypt, for 4 months investigating, then for another 3 years arranging the Migration. The pharaoh was old and ill. His daughter begged Moses not to leave them alone. This explains why it was Pharaoh’s daughter who would have been occupying the position of regent for the Pharaoh in place of Moses, acting and representing the wishes of her old and ill father in the last three years of his life, and ensuring that Moses was free to proceed with the plans of the Migration.


Historically, Sobeknefrure is recorded as ruler and considered by Egyptologists to have been a ruler in her own right, even thought it is a complete anomaly for a woman to be ruler of Egypt in that period, she would have been the first female ruler in her own right, in 1500 years!  Hatshepsut, who ruled as regent was eliminated from history because she then declared herself Pharaoh and ruled independently, because as a woman, she could not legitimately rule in her own right.


Sobeknefrure could only have ruled as regent for her father while the old pharaoh was still living. The close accord with the period of Pharaoh’s daughter’s regency and the period of Moses’ forced retirement from his position 4 years before that, to the death of the old Pharaoh as detailed in Oahspe is extraordinary.


Turin King List Names of:


                                                             Amenemhat IV                                                                                                       Sobeknefrure


Translation: The King of Upper and Lower Egypt [Sobek]-nef[ru]-re, 3 years, 10 months and 24 days



Translation: The King of [Up]per and Lower Egypt Maakherure has functioned in the kingship for 9 years, 3 months and 27 days







According to Oahspe, a famine occurred in the last years of the Pharaoh’s reign, at the same time there was great dissatisfaction among the Egyptian nobles toward Pharaoh’s plans to allow the slaves to migrate:


Bk of the Arc of Bon

||27/15.5. The courtiers and nobles, therefore, importuned the king

to choose one of two things: Either to banish Moses out of the country,

and put aside all arrangements for the migration of the Israelites; or,

on the other hand, to abdicate the throne in favour of Nu-ghan. In

the meantime, a whole year’s drought came upon Egupt, and the

rivers did not overflow, so that a famine was sure to fall upon many

parts of the country.

6. The king answered, the demands of the courtiers and nobles with

these words: I am Pharaoh, king of Egupt! Look to the threatened

famine; provide the stores for my people. I declare to you all, a new

thing is come to the world, which is: Migration from Bondage!

Nor is it in the power of nobles or courtiers or kings to stay this invention.||

retrieved 4 Oct, 07

||....The end of Amenemhat's [III] reign was plagued by a drastic decrease in the annual floods of the Nile, which was to have its impact on the country's wealth and economy....||



Low Nile levels are also associated with the time of the Expulsion of the Hyksos:

retrieved 1 March, 08

||.......Granted, then, that the Nile flowed through the desert in the time of Amenemhat III, there must at some later period have come a day when it suddenly ran dry. This catastrophe is supposed to have taken place about the time of the expulsion of the Hyksos (circa B.C. 1703 [The expulsion of the Hyksos was c 1550 b.c.e.]), when a great disruption of the rocky barrier at Silsilis is thought to have taken place; so draining Nubia......||



Low Nile flood levels at the end of Amenemhat III’s reign, also accords with low levels recorded in Sobeknefrure’s third year, and since she could only be a co-regent, the rightful Pharaoh would continue to be ruler and the same records would also be known as his.

retrieved 1 March, 08

||.........This latter document from the Nubian fortress of Kumma relates a poor flood of some 1.83 meters, and dates to Sobekneferu's last year........||



The Pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom had built extensive canals to control flooding and maximise available water for agriculture, which gave the Egyptians the capacity to weather regular fluctuations of the Nile. If the low Nile levels and threatened famines in the last year of Sobekneferu’s co-regency and the end of Amenemhat III’s reign occurred in the year that the Israelite slaves migrated from Egypt, then this drastic loss of labor force and the various catastrophic plagues as described in the Ezra bible and the Oahspe, would have been the extraordinary factors added to the threatened famine, which would have had such a significant impact on Egypt’s wealth and economy.

Some biblical scholars, also consider the 12th Dynasty to be the Egypt of Moses, and Amenemhat III to be Moses adoptive father and Sobekneferu as the princess who found him among the rushes, and Amenemhat IV to be Moses:



Egyptian princess Sobekneferu

Egyptian princess Sobekneferu. Is this the face of the woman who drew Moses out of the water because she had no child of her own? Some biblical scholars believe so.

The mud-brick pyramid of Amenemhet III

The mud-brick pyramid of Amenemhet III. He may well be the pharaoh who reigned at the time of Moses’ internship in the king’s


Mud brick mixed with straw Mud brick mixed with straw—perhaps like those the Israelites made

||The last of the great pyramids of Egypt was built by Amenemhet III at Hawarra, 110 km (70 miles) south of modern Cairo. This Pharaoh could well have been the foster father of Moses.Amenemhet III may have had one son, known as Amenemhet IV, who was an enigmatic character who may have followed his father or may have been a co-regent with him. If the latter, Amenemhet IV could well have been Moses. Amenemhet IV mysteriously disappeared off the scene before the death ofAmenemhet III. || from Searching for Moses by David Down; TJ Archives; Vol.15.Issue 1; 53-57; April 01:  retrieved 8 March, 08.

||Amenemhet III had a daughter, Sobekneferu, was the last ruler of this dynasty, and she had no son to succeed her. She might well have been the daughter of Pharaoh who ‘came down to wash herself at the river’ (Exodus 2:5). This was not because she had no bathroom at the royal palace. Instead, she would most likely have been there praying to the Nile fertility god, Hapi, for a baby. When the basket containing the baby Moses came to her attention she may well have considered it an answer to her prayer. || from The Pyramids of Ancient Egypt by David Down; Creation Archive; Vol.26.Issue 4; 44-49; Sept. 04:  retrieved 8 March, 08.

However, the dependence upon the Ezra bible to locate the Pharaoh of the Exodus, and to match the times for the dates of the Exodus and the mythical invasion of Canaan, leave such biblical scholars in confusion because they continue to cling to 1446 b.c.e. as the date of the Exodus.



Who was Nu-ghan, the Pharaoh of the exOdus of the hebrews?



In attempting to identify Nu-ghan, it should be taken into account that as a succeeding Pharaoh, not related to the previous dynasty, he would have had the power and motivation to eliminate references or connections to his predecessor, whose affiliation with the hated Hebrews through his adopted son Moses would have been abhorrent to Nu-ghan.


Bk of the Arc of Bon,

||27/16.15. And on the eve of the success to the Israelites, the king of

Egupt, being at the point of death, sent for Moses, and Moses went to

him. The king said: If it should be the Lord’s will to take me off before

your people are gone, you will have great bother; for my successor,

Nu-ghan, has a great hate toward Israel.||



The other aspect to be taken into account is that by the time of Ezra, the records of Egypt were in confusion when the account of the Exodus of the Hebrews was copied from the Egyptian records by Ezra ca 494 b.c.e. (See Mythical Conquest of Canaan).

 Ahmose I was attributed a reign of 25 years and the dates of his reign differ according to varying sources. Some say he reigned as early as 1567 b.c.e., but others place the beginning of his reign at 1539 b.c.e., most, however, agree it was around 1550 b.c.e. He was supposed to have inherited the throne of Upper Egypt from his brother (Kahmose) who inherited from his father, Tao II, who was preceeded by his father, Tao I.  As already demonstrated in previous parts of this series, this was a southern nomarch dynasty named as the 17th Dynasty of the 2nd Intermediate period by Manetho. The records of this dynasty indicate that Ahmose I inherited his position as early as 10 years old. If this were correct, it would mean that when he acquired his full title as a nomarch of Egypt, he was still a youth at the court of Amenemnhat III of the 12th Dynasty Middle Kingdom, but not yet Pharaoh of Upper and Lower Egypt.

When Ahmose I  succeeded the Egyptian throne he became the first Pharaoh of a new dynasty and established a new order which became known as The New Kingdom. He was credited with a militaristic defeat of the rulers of the Delta region, the Hyksos, and bringing Nubia back within Egyptian dominion. He was also credited with building the last royal pyramid in Abydos in tribute to Osiris, but then abandoning the Osirian religion after the Expulsion of the Hyksos, and establishing the cult of Amun/Re, and moving the royal power base to Thebes.

retrieved 29 Sept, 07

||Under Ahmose's reign, the city of Thebes became the capital for the whole of Egypt. It also became the center for a newly established professional civil service, where there was a greater demand for scribes and the literate as the royal archives began to fill with accounts and reports…||


Ahmose’s burial place is unknown, although most Egyptologists are convinced he was not buried in Abydos with previous rulers of the 17th dynasty. But his son has been credited with beginning the tradition of God King burial in The Valley of the Kings.


Considering what we know about the record keeping of Pharaohs and what we are told about Nu-ghan ordering records to be written about the Exodus of the Hebrews from an Egyptian perspective, it would not be difficult to assume that a whole lot of rewriting and cleansing of history took place at that time to support the beginning of a new era and dynasty which would attribute much credit to the one who began it.

And so, a critical comparison of historical events in comparison to the events as stated in Oahspe provides more remarkable correlations between the two.

retrieved 29 Sept, 07.

||There was no distinct break in the line of the royal family between the 17th and 18th dynasties. The historian Manetho, writing much later during the Ptolemaic dynasty, considered the final expulsion of the Hyksos after nearly a century and the restoration of native Egyptian rule over the whole country a significant enough event to warrant the start of a new dynasty….||



A new dynasty indicates a new line of pharaohs, therefore the reason for the establishment of a new dynasty in recording the genealogy of pharaohs would be that the pharaoh was not in direct descendent of the previous pharaohs.  Hence Manetho’s account does not support the longstanding tradition of the Egyptian pharaohs. It is more probable that Ahmose I was not in direct line of the last Pharaoh. Being a “southern prince” and succeeding the throne through the lesser southern nome, the ancestry of Ahmose I‘s lesser dynasty has been historically mistaken as the throne of Egypt when he succeeded to the Egyptian throne after the last pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.



Oahspe tells us that Moses’ adoptive father had a daughter, but no son to succeed him, the throne had to pass to another male after the death of the Pharaoh, and since Moses, Pharaoh’s adopted son, was no longer contender for the throne, it fell to Nu-ghan.


Nu-ghan and his courtiers were said to reside in Harboath, which apparently was close to the route the Hebrews were to take toward the wilderness of the Sinai.


Bk of the Arc of Bon,

||27/16.16. Moses said: What, then, shall be done? The king said:

Behold, the pestilence has overspread Najaut and Arabenah. Your

people will be cut off from traveling that way. Nu‑ghan and his courtiers

dwell in Harboath. Moses replied: My people shall march

through Najaut and Arabenah; neither shall the pestilence come upon

them, for the hand of the Almighty is in this matter.||



In maps of Ancient Egypt, the place Horbeit (Harboath), is also known as Tanis and Hawaret, this location later became the city of Pi-Ramses, or as named in the Ezra bible Exodus account, Rameses. Two places South East of Tanis are Avaris and Tjaru (possibly Arabenah and Najaut), which are indeed directly west of where Sukkoth is believed to have been situated, being the place were the multitudes passed as they entered the wilderness. (This wilderness area, known as the Sinai wilderness, was known to Amenemhat IV who had made a number of expeditions to the mines of Sarabit el-Khadim).

From this conversation between Moses and the King, we can also deduce that Nu-ghan and Moses' adoptive father, resided in different locations. And it appears that, once Nu-ghan succeeded the Egyptian Throne, he had not moved his residence before the Exodus occurred.


Thebes however is a great distance south and so Horbeit must not be the ancestral residence of Nu-ghan. And this also accords with historical facts, since the strategy of the latter Pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom, to reduce the power of the nomarchs, was to take the sons of the nomarchs to their courts and bring them up, educating them and giving them positions directly sub-ordinate to the Pharaoh.

retrieved 1 March, 08

||Senwosret III [father of Amenemhat III] was continuing the practices initiated by his predecessors to centralize the government around his court. Although attempts were made earlier during the Middle Kingdom to reduce the power of the nomarchs, it was this pharaoh that was responsible for instituting the practices that usurped their remaining power. Senwosret required the male children of nomarchs to be educated at Lisht and then serve the state somewhere detached from their homeland. Nearly all of the nomarchs were personally appointed by the pharaoh and many of their traditional titles disappeared from the archaeological record. Practices such as those mentioned above crippled the succession of the powerful familial nomarchs.

Because of the influx in the population of the capital, more positions became necessary to teach the nomarchs’ children and to keep them employed afterward. It is not surprising that during Senwosret’s reign numerous Old Kingdom titles were brought back and even more new titles were created. In order to centralize and keep the powerbase of the state within his court, Senwosret inadvertently created a bureaucracy like never seen before...........||



The relationship of Nu-ghan to the Egyptian throne is not explicit in Oahspe other than he was the successor approved of by the King’s court. It is possible that the successor was the most powerful noble of Egypt next to the Pharaoh, and if Nu-ghan was Ahmose I, then he is identified as the nomarch of Upper Egypt, whose power was supported by the nobles of Thebes.


Ahmose I had sons, but his heir apparent died before Ahmose, being only 12 years old, and so a younger son, Amenhotep succeeded Ahmose I.

retrieved 28 Sept 03

||Ahmose-ankh was Ahmose's heir apparent, but he preceded his father in death sometime between Ahmose's 17th and 22nd regnal year. Ahmose was succeeded instead by his eldest surviving son, Amenhotep I, with whom he might have shared a short co-regency.||



This is another detail which accords with Oahspe’s account regarding the Pharaoh Nu-ghan, which is that his heir apparent (first-born male) died the night of the Passover:


Bk of the Arc of Bon,

||27/28.16. Now on the night of the passover, when the Israelites made the

covenant on the blood of the lamb, a hot wind blew upon the face of the earth;

and the first-born of the Eguptians fell dead, both man and beast. And

Pharaoh’s son died, and his brother’s son; and the first born of every courtier,

and every noble’s first born, and all other people, their first born, so that I

every family there lay one dead.||



Moses, Pharaoh, Pharaoh’s daughter and Nu-ghan can be accounted for in Egyptian history and it so happens that all four are recorded as Kings of Egypt. More correlations between the archaelogical record and Oahspe's account of the four identified Egyptian rulers can be found in the pyramids and religions of the time. Both of these apsects are addressed in Part X and XI.







All Oahspe references are from the Standard Edition Oahspe of 2007






The Exodus Part X – The Exodus Marks the End of the Pyramidal Age

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