Women Pastors in the Lutheran Church?
Online Resources for the Study of Gender and the Ministry,
the Order of Creation, and Related Topics

http://tinyurl.com/womenpastors



Three Lutheran clergymen in Nürnberg, Germany
(1689 etching by A. Böner)



I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet. (1 Tim. 2:12, ESV)

As in all the churches of the saints, the women should keep silent in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak,
but should be in submission, as the Law also says. (1 Cor. 14:33b-34, ESV)

...appoint elders in every town as I directed you – if anyone is above reproach, the husband of one wife... (Titus 1:5c-6a, ESV)

Therefore an overseer must be above reproach, the husband of one wife... (1 Tim. 3:2, ESV)




(oil painting originally in the St. Nicholas Church, Leipzig, Germany)


This web page is dedicated to the study of one of the most fundamentally important issues currently facing the Evangelical Lutheran Church – and the Christian Church as a whole.

As far as printed material is concerned, I recommend a book entitled Women Pastors? The Ordination of Women in Biblical Lutheran Perspective. This collection of essays, from Concordia Publishing House, is edited by Matthew C. Harrison and John T. Pless.

Online resources that I consider to be helpful in the study of these matters are found below. For the sake of an accurate understanding of the various arguments that are made by all “sides” in this debate, I include material that defends and promotes the classic Confessional Lutheran position (to which I conscientiously adhere), as well as material that (in my judgment) departs from this position to a greater or lesser degree.

If anyone knows of other essays or papers on the Internet that might be listed on this web page, or if anyone would like to submit something for possible inclusion, please contact me. I would also appreciate being informed of any broken or misdirected links. Thanks!

– David Jay Webber

Email:



The Apostles


MATERIAL WITH WHICH I AGREE OR MOSTLY AGREE:

Early Church Quotes on Female Pastors [HTML]
The Lutheran Doctrine of the Ministry: Confessional and Theological Resources [PDF]
Martin Luther on Gender and the Ministry [PDF]
Chemnitz, Chytraeus, and Andreae on Gender and the Ministry [PDF]
Shall Women Preach in the Congregation? An Exegetical Treatise (J. L. Neve) [HTML]
The Doctrine of the Ministry in the Writings of E. H. Klotsche [HTML]
The Doctrine of the Ministry in the Writings of C. H. Little [HTML]
Question of Admission of Women to Church Offices (C. H. Little) [HTML]
Question of Admission of Women to Church Offices (C. H. Little) [HTML]
Preaching of God’s Word by Christian Women (Francis Pieper) [HTML]
“The Order Yields to the Need” (John Gerhard) [HTML]
Is it Proper for a Woman to be Called to Administer the Lord’s Supper to Other Women? (David Jay Webber) [HTML]
Women and the Ministry (Ulla Hindbeck) [PDF]
The Ordination of Women and Ecclesial Endorsement of Homosexuality (John T. Pless) [PDF]
Study of 1 Corinthians 11:3 (Duane Oesterloh) [HTML]
Ordained by God (several authors) [HTML]
1 Corinthians 14:33b-38, 1 Timothy 2:11-14, and the Ordination of Women (Peter A. Kriewaldt) [HTML]
The Gospel, Scripture and Tradition (Peter A. Kriewaldt) [HTML]
Women’s Ordination: Unraveling the Confusion (Ian Hamer) [HTML]
The Ordination of Women and the Doctrine of the Holy Trinity (John W. Kleinig) [HTML]
The Ordination of Women and the Doctrine of the Holy Trinity (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
The Ordination of Women and the Doctrine of the Holy Trinity (scroll down to p. 48) (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
The Office of Ministry and Ordination (John W. Kleinig) [HTML]
Ministry and Ordination (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
God’s Mandate for Ministry and the Ordination of Women (John W. Kleinig) [HTML]
Is the Ordination of Women Church Divisive? (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
Disciples But Not Teachers: 1 Corinthians 14:33b-38 and 1 Timothy 2:11-15 (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
Disciples But Not Teachers: 1 Corinthians 14:33b-38 and 1 Timothy 2:11-15 (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
Scripture and the Exclusion of Women from the Pastorate (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
Scripture and the Exclusion of Women from the Pastorate (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
Ordered Community: Order and Subordination in the New Testament (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
Ordered Community: Order and Subordination in the New Testament (scroll down to p. 45) (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
The Subordination of the Exalted Son to the Father (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
The Subordination of the Exalted Son to the Father (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
The Case for the Ordination of Men Only: Its Use of 1 Corinthians 14:38 (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
The Use of Tractate 26 to Promote the Ordination of Women (John W. Kleinig) [PDF]
The Orders of Creation and the Ordination of Women (Noel Weiss) [PDF]
The Women’s Ordination Debate in the Lutheran Church of Australia (Gregory L. Lockwood) [HTML]
The Women’s Ordination Debate in the Lutheran Church of Australia (Gregory L. Lockwood) [HTML]
The main texts - the sedes doctrinae (seat of the doctrine) - 1 Cor 14:33b-38, 1 Tim 2:11-14 (Gregory L. Lockwood) [HTML]
Are We Looking at Two Different Approaches to Scripture?: Women’s Ordination, A Test Case (Gregory L. Lockwood) [HTML]
Post-modernism, Feminist Theology, the Authority of Scripture, and the Issue of the Ordination of Women (Norma Koehne) [HTML]
Ecumenical Implications and Considerations on the Subject of the Ordination of Women (J. T. E. Renner) [HTML]
Study on 1 Timothy 3 v. 1-13: Its Relevance to Discussions on Ordination of Women (Geoff Noller) [HTML]
A Response to the CTICR Article “1 Corinthians 14:33b-38 and 1 Timothy 2:11-14 Permit the Ordination of Women” (Geoff Noller) [HTML]
A Response to the CTICR Article “A Case For The Ordination Of Women And Men” (T. T. Reuther) [HTML]
Comments on the Article “Hermeneutics And The Ordination Of Women” (T. T. Reuther) [HTML]
Galatians 3:26-29 and the Ordination of Women (T. T. Reuther) [HTML]
Comments on “A Case for the Ordination of Women and Men” (T. T. Reuther) [HTML]
“Paul’s Epistles and the Lutheran Confessions”: A Critical Review (Peter Koehne) [HTML]
“A Case for the Ordination of Women and Men”: A Critical Review (Peter Koehne and Adam G. Cooper) [HTML]
Responding to the Challenge to make Women Pastors (Adam G. Cooper) [HTML]
The Ordination Debate and the Sola Scriptura (Gordon Gerhardy) [HTML]
Logical Fallacies in “A Case for the Ordination of Women” (Mark Tuffin) [HTML]
Why Does the LCA Ordain Men Only? – A Summary (LCA CTICR) [PDF]
Why I Am Committed to Upholding the Current Public Teaching of the LCA (Fraser Pearce) [HTML]
The Place of Women in the Life and Work of the Church (Wilbert R. Gawrisch) [PDF]
Women in the Teaching Ministry (Wilbert W. Gawrisch) [PDF]
The Role of Women in the Church with Special Reference to Genesis 1-3 (Wayne D. Mueller) [PDF]
An Exegesis of Genesis 2:18-24 (Michael J. Albrecht and Thomas P. Nass) [PDF]
The Revised This We Believe of the WELS on the Ministry (Thomas P. Nass) [PDF]
An Exegetical Study of Galatians 3:28: “There is No Male and Female...in Christ Jesus” (Richard D. Balge) [PDF]
An Exegetical Study of 1 Corinthians 14:33b-36 (Siegbert W. Becker) [PDF]
The Status of Woman in the Public Life of the Congregation (William Henkel) [PDF]
Exegesis of 1 Timothy 2 with Emphasis on Women in the Church (Thomas C. Henning) [PDF]
Consistent Application of the Scriptural Injunctions Concerning the Role of Women in the Church (Keith C. Kruck) [PDF]
Exegesis of I Timothy 2:11-15 (David P. Kuske) [PDF]
The Role of Man and Woman According to Holy Scripture (Carl J. Lawrenz) [PDF]
Exploring Old Testament Foundations that Support Distinct Roles for Men and Women... (John C. Lawrenz) [PDF]
Authentein – A Word Study (Armin J. Panning) [PDF]
Report of the Committee on the Role of Man and Woman According to Holy Scriptures (WELS COP) [PDF]
Scriptural Principles of Man and Woman Roles (WELS COP) [HTML]
The Proper Translation of Aner and Gyne in the New Testament (Michael R. Riley) [PDF]
The Role of Women Teachers in the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (Lowell K. Smith) [PDF]
A Study of the Word Authentew (Stephen P. Valleskey) [PDF]
Exegesis of I Timothy 2:11-15 (WLS Faculty) [PDF]
Women’s Call to Serve in the Church, the Home, and Society (Edward C. Fredrich) [PDF]
Women in the Church: Are They Seeking a Bigger Role? (I Timothy 2:9-15) (Alan H. Siggelkow) [PDF]
Authority and false teaching (Richard L. Gurgel) [HTML]
Questions of leadership, value, and authority (John F. Brug) [HTML]
Man and woman roles (Wayne D. Mueller) [HTML]
Man and woman in God’s world (Mark E. Braun) [HTML]
The Order of Creation and the Headship Principle (Steven D. Spencer) [PDF]
Roles of Men and Women in the Church (ELS) [HTML]
The Office of Prophetess in the New Testament (Rolf D. Preus) [HTML]
Authentein (LCMS CTCR) [DOC]
A Minority Opinion to the CTCR’S Response to Questions on Lay Teachers of Theology (LCMS CTCR members) [DOC]
Dissenting Opinion on Women in Congregational Offices (LCMS CTCR members) [PDF]
An Exegetical Study of 1 Corinthians 14:33b-38 (Walter A. Maier) [HTML]
The Service of Women in the Church in Light of the Order of Creation (Robert W. Wentzel) [PDF]
Women in the History of the Church: Learned and Holy, But Not Pastors (William C. Weinrich) [HTML]
Women in the History of the Church: Learned and Holy, But Not Pastors (William C. Weinrich) [PDF]
It Is Not Given to Women to Teach [Part 1] (William C. Weinrich) [PDF]
It Is Not Given to Women to Teach [Part 2] (William C. Weinrich) [PDF]
May Women be Ordained as Pastors? (David P. Scaer) [PDF]
The Office of the Pastor and the Problem of Ordination of Women Pastors (David P. Scaer) [PDF]
A Lutheran Response to Evangelicalism: Ordination of Women (David P. Scaer) [PDF]
1 Timothy 3:1-7 and Titus 1:5-9 and the Ordination of Women (Ernie Lassman) [PDF]
The Ordination of Women to the Pastoral Office (Alvin L. Barry) [PDF]
Some Thoughts on the Role of Women in the Church (Walter A. Maier II) [PDF]
The Position of the Christian Woman, Especially as Worker in the Church (Paul Edward Kretzmann) [HTML]
Theses on Woman Suffrage in the Church (Douglas McC. Judisch) [HTML]
Theses on Woman Suffrage in the Church (Douglas McC. Judisch) [PDF]
Thank God a Seven-Year-Old Knows What Ms. Meyer Doesn’t (Paul R. Harris) [HTML]
The Gender of God (David A. Grassley) [HTML]
Tell the Women Who They Are (Emily Carder) [HTML]
Women’s Ordination: The Un-Apostolic and Anti-Apostolic Confession (Emily Carder) [HTML]
Male and Female He Created Them (Michael L. McCoy) [PDF]
Feminism and the Church (Tim Pauls) [PDF]
On “Let’s Include Women in the Pastoral Office” (Pr. Karl Wyneken) (David O. Berger) [HTML]
On Pr. Arnold Voigt’s “...because it is a woman...,” (David O. Berger) [HTML]
Confessional Lutheranism in Today’s World (Robert D. Preus) [HTML]
Falling From Faith In Christ, Of The Church, And Of The Lutheran Reformation (Wolfgang Buscher) [PDF]
Pastoral Letter on the Ordination of Women to the Pastoral Office of the Church (Jobst Schöne) [PDF]
Regin Prenter on the Ordination of Women (Peter Brunner) [PDF]
Twenty-Three Theses on the Holy Scriptures, the Woman, and the Office of the Ministry (Bo Giertz) [PDF]
The Argument over Women’s Ordination in Lutheranism as a Paradigmatic Conflict of Dogma (Armin Wenz) [PDF]



Tryphaena, Phoebe, Tabitha, and Jesus


MATERIAL WITH WHICH I DISAGREE OR MOSTLY DISAGREE:

The Orders of Creation: Some Reflections on the History and Place of the Term in Systematic Theology (Edward H. Schroeder) [PDF]
Women Pastors: Christ’s Gifts to the Church (Edward H. Schroeder) [HTML]
Ordaining Women: Two Views (Jennifer Ferrara and Sarah Hinlicky Wilson) [HTML]
On Ordaining Women (various reactions to Ferrara and Wilson) [HTML]
The Case for the Ordination of Women – A Summary (LCA CTICR) [PDF]
Final Report on the Ordination of Women (LCA CTICR) [HTML]
Six papers specially prepared by the LCA’s CTICR [PDF]
1 Timothy 2:11,12: Total Ban or Local Restriction? (Peter F. Lockwood) [HTML]
Paul, the Mission to Jews, and Women in the Churches (Victor C. Pfitzner) [HTML]
The Abuse and Use of the Distinction Between Law and Gospel in the Debate on the Ordination of Women (John G. Strelan) [HTML]
The Development of Doctrine and the Ordination of Women (Mark W. Worthing) [HTML]
Positive Ecumenical Consequences of Ordaining Women (Maurice E. Schild) [HTML]
Online Self-Study Course (several authors) [HTML]
United in Christ (several authors) [HTML]
A Case for the Ordination of Women [Part 1] (Edgar Mayer) [HTML]
A Case for the Ordination of Women [Part 2] (Edgar Mayer) [HTML]
A Case for the Ordination of Women [Part 3] (Edgar Mayer) [HTML]
Holy Communion (Richard L. Gurgel) [HTML]
Heirs Together of the Gracious Gift of Life (Richard H. Stadler, Michael J. Albrecht, and Iver C. Johnson) [PDF]
The Ordination of Women (LCUSA / Raymond Tiemeyer) [HTML]
Ministry of Women: Hermeneutics, Exegesis and Theology (J. J. Leese) [HTML]
Freedom for Ministry in the Lutheran Confessional Writings (David G. Truemper) [HTML]
Silence in the Church: The Woman Question in Missouri (Mary L. Todd) [HTML]
An Argument for Women Pastors and Theologians (Matthew L. Becker) [HTML]
Theses on Women in the Church (Arnold J. Voigt) [WPD]
What Does This Mean?: Theses on Women in the Church (Arnold J. Voigt) [HTML]
Ordain Women Now in the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod [HTML]
Response to Questions on Lay Teachers of Theology (LCMS CTCR) [DOC]
The Service of Women in Congregational and Synodical Offices with Guidelines for Congregations (LCMS CTCR) [PDF]
Woman Suffrage in the Church (LCMS CTCR) [PDF]
Response to the Dissenting Opinion on The Service of Women in Congregational and Synodical Offices (LCMS CTCR Executive Committee) [PDF]



“When women preach people learn ill”
(image and caption from a painted window, ca. 1564, Limoges, France)


MATERIAL OF WHICH I HAVE A MIXED OPINION:

The Leadership Role of Women in the Early Eastern Church (Wendy Mayer) [HTML]
Authority and Leadership in the Early Western Church (Roger W. Whittall) [HTML]
From Mission to Ministry: One Woman’s Journey (Tonya Eza) [HTML]
Latvia Revived (an interview with Janis Vanags) [HTML]
The Validity of the Churchly Acts of Ordained Women (David P. Scaer) [PDF]
Women in the Church: Drawing the Line between Truth and Tradition (Daniel P. Leyrer) [PDF]
Are There Legal Requirements in the New Testament? (August O. W. Pieper) [PDF]
Application of the Scriptural Principles Concerning the Service of Women in the Church (John F. Brug) [PDF]
The Order of Creation as Moral Law and as It Is Applied by the New Testament Writers to the Role of Man and Woman (David P. Kuske) [PDF]
Women in the Church: Scriptural Principles and Ecclesial Practice (LCMS CTCR) [PDF]
Theses on The Role of Women in The Church (LCC CTCR) [HTML]
The Fundamental Arguments to the Question of Ordaining Women into Church Office (SELK) [HTML]
The Fundamental Arguments to the Question of Ordaining Women into Church Office (SELK) [PDF]
Debate Over Women’s Ordination in the SELK (scroll down to p. 73) (John R. Wilch) [PDF]



The Moravian Anna Nitschmann preaching to Pennsylvania Quakers in the early 1740s
(painting by Paul Adam Schöpfel)



(1602 oil painting by Andreas Herrneisen, Kasendorf, Germany)



“Preaching is entrusted to the man and not to the woman, as Paul also teaches, insofar as this has to do with Christian matters.
Otherwise, it can occasionally happen that a woman gives better advice, as one reads in Scripture.
But apart from that, the offices of leading, preaching, and teaching God’s word are commanded to the man.”

– Martin Luther

“...the Holy Spirit has excepted women, children, and incompetent people from this function,
but chooses (except in emergencies) only competent males to fill this office,
as one reads here and there in the epistles of St. Paul that a bishop must be pious, able to teach, and the husband of one wife –
and in I Corinthians 14 he says, ‘The women should keep silence in the churches.’
In summary, it must be a competent and chosen man. ...Moses says in Genesis 3, ‘You shall be subject to man.’
The Gospel, however, does not abrogate this natural law, but confirms it as the ordinance and creation of God.”

– Martin Luther

“The impropriety of women’s preaching and praying in public we fully admit; we deem it both immodest and sinful.”
– Matthias Loy

“A careful exegesis always will show beyond all doubt that in 1 Cor. 14:34-36
and in 1 Tim. 2:12-14 Paul forbids the women to preach in the church.”

– J. L. Neve

“...only those who are properly called have the right publicly to teach in the church and administer the sacraments.
And the church that follows Christ’s example and obeys his word, commits those public functions to men and not to women.
Scripture plainly says that it is not permitted unto women publicly to teach in the church.”

– E. H. Klotsche

“The gifts of divine grace render all conditions of men alike before the Lord;
but they do not in any way affect the order of creation by which God made them male and female and differentiated them. ...
This view may be old-fashioned and contrary to the trend of the age, the progress of which we may not be able to stem;
but to be faithful to the Scriptures we must not be silent, but let the voice of our protest be heard.”

– C. H. Little

“It is well-known that the majority of Christians worldwide do not practice women’s ordination.
The Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox, and many Protestant churches
in both the south[ern hemisphere] and the north[ern hemisphere] do not believe in this doctrine.
Therefore, the doctrine of women’s ordination is an idiosyncratic teaching of a few liberal, northern Protestant churches,
and it is largely enforced through the domination of a powerful elite that brooks no dissension.”

– Bishop Walter Obare Omwanza



The last ordination at which Luther officiated, at the St. Andrew Church in Eisleben, Germany, in 1546
(1569 painting by Heinrich Göding)


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