KERALA ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS
The formation of Kerala
The states of Travancore and Cochin merged to form one state on 1st-July-1949. This was follwed by the amalgamation of Malabar into the Travancore-Cochin state on 1-November,1956 to form the state of Kerala.
Seats in the Kerala Assembly:
|Number of seats||108||118||126||133||140|
Elections before 1956
2. Shri. C.Kesavan took over as CM for a brief period.
3. Shri. A.J.John,1951-52. Number of seats 108 out of which Congress got 44 seats. Ministry was formed with the support of Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress which had 8 seats. This ministry fell when Travancore TamilNadu Congress withdrew its support.
4. Shri. Pattom Thanu Pilla,1954. In the election held in February 1954, Congress got 45 setas out of 118 while Praja Socialist Party (PSP) got 19 seats. On 17th-March-1954, PSP minstry with Shri.Pattom A. Thanu Pilla as the CM took charge.An agitation by the Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress demanding merger of southern parts of Travancore with Tamil Nadu turned violent and led to the death of seven in police firing. near Marthandam. Congress supported the no confidence motion which was tabled following this tragic event and the ministry fell.
5. Shri. Panampalli Govinda Menon,1955. With the support of
Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress, Shri. Panampalli Govinda Menon took charge
of a Congress headed government in February 1955. This ministry fell in
1956 following split in the Congress.
Elections after 1956
After the fall of Panampally government, President's rule was imposed in Kerala for the first time. The first election to the assembly of Kerala took palce in Febraury-March, 1957 while the state was under President's rule. Meanwhile the southern areas of Travancore (Thovala, Agastheeswaram, Kalkulam, Vilavankod, and parts of Chenkotta) had been handed over to Tamil Nadu under the lingusitic State Reorganization scheme. Malabar and Kasargod were added to Kerala.
1. Shri.E.M.S. Nampoodiripad, 1957,Feb-March. First election to the newly born Kerala state assembly. The Communist Party of India walked away with 60 of the 126 seats (47.62%). The congress got 43 seats, PSP nine, Muslim League(ML) eight. 6 independents also won at the hustings. The new ministry under Shri.EMS Nampoodiripad, with support from the independents, was sworn in on 5th April 1957, ending the President's rule.
2. President's rule,1959,July31. EMS ministry dismissed, following the 'Vimochana Samaram'.
3. Shri.Pattom A. Thanu Pilla. Feb,1960. The combined forces of Congress, PSP and ML faced the communist party. The Congress got 63 seats out of 126 (50%) its highest in any elections in Kerala. With 20 seats of PSP and 11 of ML this combination was far ahead of the Communist pary with 29 seats and the 3 independents. As in 1954, PSP got the CM's chair.
4. 1962 Sep,25. Shri Pattom A. Thanu Pillai resigned, following his appointment as the Governer of Punjab.
5. Shri. R.Sankar. 1962. became the CM with 10 ministers.
6. 1964, Sep,10. R.Sankar ministry resigned following a no confidence motion which was supported by fifteen congress members along with the opposition. President's rule imposed. for the third time.
7. 1965, Assembly elections produced a strange result. Several events which occured in 1964 foreshadowed the course of politics in Kerala ever since. The communist party split to form CPI(M) leaving the rest as CPI. Kerala Congress was formed by those who had left the congress. The PSP and ISP(Indian Socialist Party) combined to form the Samyukta Socialist Party. The process of splits and electoral alliances had been started.
As a result of these phenomena, there were now eight parties in the fray. Congress got 36 seats, CPI(M) 41 seats and CPI(3) seats. SSP got 13 seats while the Kerala Congress got 23 seats. Muslim League got 6 seats. KTP with one seat, Swathanthra Party with one seat and six independents were the other victors. The seating arrangement was so bizarre that President's rule continued.
8. Shri. EMS Nampoodiripad. 1967. The CPI(M) along with CPI,RSP, SSP,ML,KSP,KTP got a majority. (The seat position is given in table). The Congress went down with just 9 seats. The dynamics of Coalition politics especially when the partners are many and no one has a clear lead brought the EMS ministry down in 1969.
9. Shri.C.Achyutha Menon,1969. On November1,1969 Rajya Sabha member, C.Achyutha Menon became the CM.
10. Shri.C.Achyutha Menon.1970 The Congress-CPI led coalition again took over on 1970,Oct,4 and lasted till 1977,March,25. That is quite a record! All India Muslim League was formed in 1976.
11. Shri.K.Karunakaran. 1977. The combination of Congress, Kerala Congress, CPI, RSP took charge on 1977,March.. Shri.K.Karunakaran resigned following an adverse ruling from the High Court in the 'Rajan case'.
12. Shri.AK.Antony.1977 took over as CM on 1977,April 27 and resigned on 1978 October 26 over disagreement with the Congress High Command over the Chikmagalloor election.
13. Shri.P.K.Vasudevan Nair.1978. took over as CM on1978 October 27. He resigned on 1979,Oct,7. over the Bhoodan Bill and stressing the need for the left parties to form an alliance.
14. Shri.C.H.Muhammed Koya.1979 became CM on October 12 th, 1979 with PSP, KC(J) and NDP as allies. Resigned on 1-Dec-1979 after the Kerala Congress(Mani) and Congress(U) withdrew thier support. Ministry disoolved.
15. President's rule,1979, again.
16. Shri.E.K.Nayanar. 1980. became CM on 24-Jan,1980. The assembly election of 1980 saw the communist parties face the polls together The Left Democratic Front included CPI(M), CPI, Congress(U), RSP, KC(M), AIML and KC(P) and got 93 seats. The United Democratic Front was a union of Congress(I), IUML, KC(Jo), PSP, NDP and SRP and got 46 seats. Withdrawal of support by Congress(Antony) and Kerala Congress(Mani) led to the fall of this ministry on Oct,20,1981.
17. Shri.K.Karunakaran. 1981. led a minsitry for three months till March 17,1982.
18. Shri.K.Karunakaran, 1982. This minsitry completed five years. After this election Congress(Antony) reunited with the congress, and the KC(M) and KC(J) joined hands again only to split once more by 1987. IUML and AIML became one. The JD(G) split into two as did the NDP and RSP. M.V.Raghavan, expelled from the CPI(M), forme the Communist Marxist Party(CMP).
19. Shri.E.K.Nayanar.1987. The Hindu Munnani participated for the first time in the 1987 elections. So did CMP.
20. Shri.K.Karunakaran. 1991. Resigned as CM on May 1994.
21. Shri.AK.Antony,1994 took over as CM and continued till April,1996.
22. Shri.E.K.Nayanar. 1996. The LDF came to power again after the April,1996 election.