Physics, the Fundamental Science
- Physics as a Physical Science
- Physical Science => The study of the matter.
- Matter => Anything that has mass and takes up space.
- Physics => The study of the physical properties of matter. (The study of the basic nature of matter and the interactions that govern its behavior.)
- Classical Physics => Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Optics, Electricity and Magnetism.
- Modern Physics => Atomic Physics, Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics and Condensed-Matter Physics.
- Physical properties
- Properties => Qualities/attributes that, taken together, are usually unique to an object. (Size, Color, Shape, Odor)
- Physics is a quantitative science
- Measurement => The process of comparing a property of an object to a well-defined and agreed-upon referent.
(Precision & Description)
- Unit => A well-defined and agreed-upon referent.
- Measurement Systems
- Metric vs. English System
- Standard Units (Metric System)
Length – meter (m) Mass – kilogram (kg)
Volume – liter (L)
- Metric Prefixes
Prefix Symbol Meaning
Giga- G 1,000,000,000 x base unit
Mega- M 1,000,000 x base unit
Kilo- K 1,000 x base unit
Deci- d 0.1 x base unit
Centi- c 0.01 x base unit
Milli- m 0.001 x base unit
Micro- m 0.000,001 x base unit
- Measurement => A number and a unit.
- Measurement information used to describe something.
- Can describe objects, conditions, events or changes that are occuring.
- Used to further your understanding of a situation or test a hypothesis.
- Driving routes
- Volume comparison
Cube a 1 in3 6 in2
Cube b 8 in3 24 in2
Cube c 27 in3 54 in2
- Ratios and Generalizations
- Ratio => A relationship between two numbers, one divided by another.
- Velocity = distance/time
- Density = mass/volume
Block A Block B
Mass = 81.0 g Mass = 135g
Volume = 30 L Volume = 50 L
Density = 2.7 g/L Density = 2.7 g/L
- Symbols & Equations
a. Symbols => Each symbol stands for a very
specific property or concept. These quantities represent a number and a unit.
- Equation => A statement that describes a
relationship where the quantities on one side of the equal sign are identical to the quantities on the other side.
- Describe a property
- Define a concept
- Describe how quantities change
- Inverse square
- May or may not have units.
- Scientific data can be represented in a variety of ways.
- A graph shows how changes in one variable correspond with changes in a second variable.
- Dependent variable => y-axis
- Independent variable => x-axis
- Slope = x/ y
- Scientific Method
- Involves making a varied series of inquiries by observing, questioning, interpreting and concluding.
Formulate a Hypothesis
Design a Controlled Experiment
Prior Knowledge Collect Data
- What is a Hypothesis?
- A tentative explanation of events that occur or of how something works.
- Hypothesis are subjected to rigorous testing.
- Testing proves a hypothesis false/true.
- Hypotheses must be about the observable universe.
- Verifiable vs. Falsifiable Hypotheses
- Verifiable => Confirmable
- Falsifiable => Capable of being shown to be untrue
- Specific vs. General Hypotheses
- Hypotheses that are easy to verify generally tell us very little.
- Scientific hypotheses are usually absolutely falsifiable but not absolutely verifiable.
In science, you continually attempy to prove your hypothesis is incorrect. Scientific statements are tentative!
- What is a Theory?
- A cluster of related hypotheses that share a common vocabulary and a common subject matter.