**Physics, the Fundamental Science**

Chapter 1

- Physics

- Physics as a Physical Science

- Physical Science => The study of the matter.
- Matter => Anything that has mass and takes up space.
**Physics => The study of the physical properties of matter.**(*The study of the basic nature of matter and the interactions that govern its behavior.)*

- Classical Physics => Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Optics, Electricity and Magnetism.
- Modern Physics => Atomic Physics, Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics and Condensed-Matter Physics.

- Physical properties

**Properties => Qualities/attributes that, taken together, are usually unique to an object. (**Size, Color, Shape, Odor)

- Measurements

- Physics is a quantitative science
- Measurement => The process of comparing a property of an object to a well-defined and agreed-upon referent.

(Precision & Description)

- Unit => A well-defined and agreed-upon referent.

- Measurement Systems

- Metric vs. English System
- Standard Units (Metric System)
- Metric Prefixes

Length – meter (m) Mass – kilogram (kg)

Volume – liter (L)

__Prefix__ __Symbol__ __Meaning__

Giga- G 1,000,000,000 x base unit

Mega- M 1,000,000 x base unit

Kilo- K 1,000 x base unit

Base Unit

Deci- d 0.1 x base unit

Centi- c 0.01 x base unit

Milli- m 0.001 x base unit

Micro- m 0.000,001 x base unit

- Quantitation

- Measurement => A number and a unit.

- Data

- Measurement information used to describe something.
- Can describe objects, conditions, events or changes that are occuring.
- Used to further your understanding of a situation or test a hypothesis.

- Examples:

- Driving routes
- Volume comparison
- Ratios and Generalizations

Volume Area

Cube a 1 in^{3} 6 in^{2}

Cube b 8 in^{3} 24 in^{2}

Cube c 27 in

- Ratio => A relationship between two numbers, one divided by another.
- Velocity = distance/time
- Density = mass/volume

__Block A__ __Block B__

Mass = 81.0 g Mass = 135g

Volume = 30 L Volume = 50 L

Density = 2.7 g/L Density = 2.7 g/L

- Symbols & Equations

a. Symbols => Each symbol stands for a very

specific property or concept. These quantities represent a number and a unit.

- Equation => A statement that describes a

relationship where the quantities on one side of the equal sign are identical to the quantities on the other side.

- Describe a property
- Define a concept
- Describe how quantities change

together.

5. ^{ }Proportions

- Direct
- Inverse
- Square
- Inverse square

- Constants

- May or may not have units.

- Graphs

- Scientific data can be represented in a variety of ways.
- A graph shows how changes in one variable correspond with changes in a second variable.
- Dependent variable => y-axis
- Independent variable => x-axis
- Slope = x/ y

y

x

- Scientific Method

- Involves making a varied series of inquiries by
*observing*,*questioning*,*interpreting*and*concluding*.

Observations

Formulate a Hypothesis

Design a Controlled Experiment

Prior Knowledge Collect Data

Interpret Data

Draw Conclusions

- What is a Hypothesis?

- A tentative explanation of events that occur or of how something works.
- Hypothesis are subjected to rigorous testing.
- Testing proves a hypothesis false/true.
- Hypotheses must be about the observable universe.

- Verifiable vs. Falsifiable Hypotheses

- Verifiable => Confirmable
- Falsifiable => Capable of being shown to be untrue

- Specific vs. General Hypotheses

- Hypotheses that are easy to verify generally tell us very little.
- Scientific hypotheses are usually
*absolutely falsifiable but not absolutely verifiable.*

In science, you continually attempy to prove your hypothesis is incorrect. Scientific statements are tentative!

- What is a Theory?

- A cluster of related hypotheses that share a common vocabulary and a common subject matter.