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The Cellular Level of Organization

1. Define cytology.

2. What is the difference between interstitial fluid and cytoplasm?

3. What is the makeup and function of the plasma membrane?

4. What role do carbohydrates and proteins play in the plasma membrane?

5. Describe the difference between diffusion, osmosis, carrier-mediated transport, active transport and vessicular transport.

6. What is the difference between non-membranous and membranous organelles?

7. List the cellular organisms and describe their function.

8. Describe what happens in interphase & the four stages of mitosis.

Neural Tissue

1. What are the functions of neural tissue?

2. How do the CNS, PNS, effectors and receptors interact in the nervous system?

3. What type of neuroglia are found in the CNS? PNS?

4. What is the structure of an axon?

5. What is retrograde transport?

6. How are neurons classified?

7. What is transmembrane potential?

8. What forces contributed to the normal transmembrane potential of a neuron?

9. What is a graded potential?

10. What happens during a hyperpolarization?

11. What happens during a depolarization?

12. What is an action potential?

13. What is the all-or-non principle?

14. What are the steps in the generation of an action potential?

15. What is the difference between continuous and saltatory conduction?

16. What are the different types of synapses?

Endocrine

1. What are the three types of hormones? Which type is lipid soluble?

2. What is the mechanism of water-soluble hormones as compared to lipid-soluble hormones?

3. Describe how the hypothalamus acts to regulate the endocrine system.

4. What is the difference in regulation of the anterior and posterior pituitaiy by the hypothalamus?

5. What are the gonadotropins and what function do they have in the endocrine system?

6. What hormones play a part in fluid and electrolyte balance?

7. Describe the ways alcohol influences the endocrine system.

8. What is the importance of thyroxine?

9. What hormone stirnulates the formation of calcitriol from cholecalciferol? In what organ does this conversion occur?

10. What is the significance of a large thymus during childhood?

  1. What portion of the Adrenal Gland produces glucocorticoids?

12. How do the hormones produced by the kidney affect a change when blood pressure falls?

13. How do the alpha and beta cells of the pancreas work to maintain blood glucose levels?

14. What endocrine organ affects changes in circadian rhythms?

Urinary System

1. What is the difference between the cortex and medulla of the kidney?

2. Describe the blood supply of the kidney.

3. What is a nephron? What are the parts of the nephron?

4. Where would you find fenestrated capillaries? What is their significance?

5. How is the GFR regulated?

6. What activities occur at the renal corpuscle?

7. What activities occur at the proximal convoluted tubules?

8. What is the countercurrent Multiplier System?

9. What activities occur at the distal convoluted tubules?

10. What activities occur at the collecting tubules?

11. What methods are used to measure GFR?

12. What is renal failure?

13. Describe the role of aldosterone and ADH in control of renal function.

14. Describe the parts of the urinary system and their functions

15. Describe the process of dialysis.

Respiratory

  1. What are the functions of the respiratory system?
  2. What is the difference between the upper and lower respiratory system?
  3. Describe the regions of the pharynx and their function.
  4. Describe the anatomy of the larynx.
  5. Describe the changes in cartilage from the trachea to the alveoli.
  6. Describe the differences in the right and left lung.
  7. How does the ANS regulate the bronchioles?
  8. What are the functions of the two types of alveolar cells?
  9. What are the four steps of respiration?
  10. Describe how Boyles law contributes to respiration.
  11. Describe how Daltons law and Henrys law contribute to the condition known as the bends.
  12. How do the changes in partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide contribute to the process of diffusion?
  13. What conditions contribute to a change in the kinetics of hemoglobin saturation?
  14. Describe the factors that help regulate respiration.

Reproductive

  1. Describe the similarities and differences between the male and female reproductive system.
  2. Describe the anatomy of the testes and the key structures important for descent of the testes.
  3. Describe the sequence of tubes used to move sperm from the testes to the penis.
  4. What is the affect of alcohol on the Leydig cells?
  5. Describe the male accessory organs and their functions.
  6. Describe the function of the various ligaments associated with the ovary and uterus. Why are these ligaments not found in the male reproductive system?
  7. Describe the steps in the ovarian cycle.
  8. Describe the functions of the uterus.
  9. Describe the phases of the uterine cycle.
  10. How are the ovarian and uterine cycle coordinated?
  11. Describe the difference in hormonal control of the male and female reproductive system.

Development and Genetics

  1. What are the three stages of prenatal development?
  2. Define the following terms:

*Cleavage *Gastrulation *Morula *Blastocyst *Trophoblast

  1. What happens during the pre-embryonic stage of development?
  2. What happens during the embryonic stage of development?
  3. What happens during the fetal stage of development?
  4. What is progeria?
  5. What are teratogens?
  6. What stage of development is most affected by teratogens?
  7. Define the following terms:

*Homozygous *Heterozygous

*Dominant *Recessive

*Genotype *Phenotype

  1. Describe what a punnet square is and how it is used.
  2. What does the principle of independent assortment have to do with the study of genetics?
  3. Descnbe the differences in a pedigree analysis of an autosomal recessive and dominant disease.
  4. Give an example to illustrate the principle of incomplete dominance.
  5. Give an example to illustrate the principle of codominance.
  6. Explain the difference between an X-inked and Y-linked disease.
  7. Give an example of an autosomal disease. Give an example of an autosomal aneuploidy.
  8. Give an example of a sex-linked disease. Give an example of an sex-linked aneuploidy.

 

Heart

  1. What are the six main parts of the Circulatory system?
  2. Describe the layers of the heart.
  3. Describe the organization and functions of the four chambers of the heart.
  4. Describe the valves of the heart, their locations, functions and regulation.
  5. How is the heart supplied with blood?
  6. What is the difference between contractile cells and conducting cells?
  7. Describe the steps of an action potential.
  8. What are the main differences between cardiac and skeletal contractile cells?
  9. What is the function of conducting cells?
  10. Describe the conducting system.
  11. What is the significance of the 100 msec delay at the AV node?
  12. What are the phases of the cardiac cycle?
  13. What factors can affect the cardiac output?
  14. Describe the function of the parasympathetic innervation of the heart.
  15. Describe the location and function of the baroreceptors and chemoreceptors of the circulatory system.

Blood vessels and circulation

  1. Describe the three layers of a blood vessel
  2. Describe the differences between arteries and veins.
  3. What are the three types of arteries?
  4. What are the three types of veins?
  5. Why are valves found in veins?
  6. What is the difference between pressure and resistance?
  7. Describe some factors that alter the amount of resistance in a blood vessel.
  8. What are the three fluid compartments?
  9. Describe the difference between hydrostatic and oncotic pressure.
  10. What are the local mechanisms of regulation?
  11. What are the neural mechanisms of regulation?
  12. What are the hormonal mechanisms of regulation?

Blood

  1. What are the functions of blood?
  2. Describe the composition of blood.
  3. What are the functions of the proteins in blood?
  4. Describe the process by which RBCs, WBCs and platelets are made.
  5. Describe how the shape of a RBC helps contribute to its function
  6. Describe the structure and function of hemoglobin.
  7. What is the significance of the difference in lifespan of RBCs, WBCs and platelets?
  8. Describe the different WBCs and their functions.
  9. What is the role of platelets in the blood?
  10. What is the difference between the intrinsic and extrinsic clotting pathway?
  11. What is fibrin? What is its role in hemostasis?
  12. What is the function of vonWillebrand factor?
  13. What is the role of folic acid? Vitamin K? Vitamin B12?
  14. What is the common point in the intrinsic and extrinsic clotting pathway?