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Nervous System Dysfunction:

  1. Neural Tube Defects
    1. Spina bifida
    1. Meningocele
    1. Meningomyelocele
    1. Anencephaly
  1. CNS Infections

meningitis => subarachnoid space

encephalitis => brain

myelitis => cord

    1. Acute bacterial meningitis

increased intracranial pressure


necrosis of vessels


    1. Viral Meningitis

headache, light sensitivity, malaise, fever, vomiting stiff neck, drowsiness and backache


    1. Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease
    1. Reyes Syndrom

vomiting, lethargy, increased intracranial pressure, edema, liver failure

hypoglycemia, acidosis, increased bilirubin, mitochondrial injury

  1. Nervous System Tumors
    1. CNS Tumors



ependymal cells

schwann cells

C.T. cells surrounding peripheral nerve impulses (neurofibromas)

headaches, GI symptoms, change in mood or personality, seizures

increased intracranial pressure, infiltration, cerebral edema

Tumor growth in skull


Impaired Increased Focal Compression Increased

CSF flow osteoclast brain of nerves intracranial

activity damage pressure

Hydrocephalus Thinning Alteration of

of skull CNS function


EEG abnormalities

    1. PNS Tumors
    1. Neurofibromatosis
  1. Sensory, Motor and Degenerative Disorders
    1. Sensory Disorders
    1. Meniereís Syndrome

vertigo, tinnitus, buzzing sound, hearing loss

surgery, herbal extracts

    1. Motor Disorders
    1. Myasthenia Gravis


muscles of face, neck & limb girdles weaken, eyelids droop, muscle wasting, severe weakness, more severe during day and with fatigue.

Acetylcholinesterase blockers

Decreased immune response (thymectomy)

immunosuppressants, anti-inflammatories

plasmapheresis to remove Ig.

    1. Duchenneís Muscular Dystrophy

waddling gait, weakness and wasting


increased CK (female carriers also)

gene therapy

    1. Saran Gas poisoning

cholinergic inhibitors until new enzyme can be made

    1. Cerebral Palsy

* Please Read on Own*

    1. Degenerative Disorders
    1. Multiple Sclerosis

Decreased conduction velocities, optic neuritis (often first sign), and altered mental states

corticosteroids, ACTH, symptom management

    1. Parkinsonís

muscle rigidity, tremor suppressed during movement, poor balance, stooped posture

hypotension, increased perspiration, constipation

active exercise encouraged

drug therapy for later stages - levodopa with a degradation


    1. Huntingtonís Disease
    1. Alzheimers Disease

discrimination of stimuli

storing new memories

retrieving old memories

abstraction/problem solving

judgement & reasoning

orientation in time and space

language processing

execution of voluntary movements