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Immune System Disorders

  1. Immunity



Immunity

Innate Acquired

Fever B-cells

Inflammation T-cells

Phagocytosis K cells

Physical Barrier NK cells

Complement Antibodies


    1. Innate Immunity
    1. Acquired Immunity
    1. Fundamentals of Specific Immunity

WBCís (35% of WBC population)

T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, third population

cells



Specific Immunity

Humoral Cell-Mediated

B-cells T-cells

Antibodies Cell-cell combat


B-cells

Antibodies

T-cells

Cell-Cell combat

 


BONE MARROW

Lymphoid Stem Cells

THYMUS

Lymphoid Stem Cells NK-cells B-cells

T-cells

Cell-mediated Surveillance Ab-mediated

immunity immunity


    1. T lymphocytes
    1. B lymphocytes
    1. Antibodies

 


IgM - produced first

IgG - main Ab in blood

IgE - Allergies

IgA - saliva, breast milk

IgD - major surface receptor on B lymphocytes


    1. Third population cells (null cells)

D) The Immune Response

    1. T-cells & Cell-Mediated Immunity

a) TH => helper T-cells

    1. Ts => suppressor T-cells
    1. Tc => cytotoxic T-cells
    1. T-cell Activation
    1. Ag presentation
    1. Ag recognition by T-cells
    1. T-cell Activation


T-cell (inactive)


Ag presentation (MHC)


Ag recognition (CD4, CD8)

T-cell (active)

TC TH TS


    1. B-cells & Ab-mediated immunity
    1. B-cell Activation
    1. B-cell sensitization
    2. B-cell activation


B-cell (inactive)

B-cell (sensitized)

B-cell (activate)



Memory B-cells Plasma cells Antibodies

    1. Overview




Ag

 

 

TC cells Specific Defenses Abís

 



Activation TH cells Activation

of T-cells of B-cells

TS cells

 


Produce memory Produce memory B-cells


TC cells & TC cells & plasma cells


  1. Therapeutic Applications of Immunity
    1. Immunization
    1. Use of Antisera
    1. Natural passive
    2. Artificial passive
  1. Immune-Mediated Tissue Injury
    1. Hypersensitivity reactions (four types)
    1. Type I: Immediate Hypersensitivity (Anaphylaxis)

 

    1. early
    1. late

allergic asthma, hay fever, hives, eczema

    1. Type II: Ab-Dependent Cytotoxicity
    1. Type III: Immune-Complex-Meidated Hypersensitivity
    1. Type IV: Cell-Mediated, Delayed -Type Hypersensitivity


Ag presentation + TH cells

TC cells, macrophage, NK cells

Lymphokines, cellular cytotoxicity


    1. Tissue Transplantation


Least Most






Liver Kidney Heart Pancreas Skin Bone Marrow



TH cells come into contact with graft tissues

Activation & TH cells move TH cells interact

Proliferation to graft site with B-cell

of TC cells

Release lymphokines Ab production

Focused attack Monocyte/macrophage Ab attach to MHC

on tissues to graft site of graft tissue

Graft tissue Graft tissue Graft tissue

attacked attacked attacked


  1. Immune Deficiency Syndromes
    1. Primary Immune Deficiencies
    1. B-cell deficiencies
    1. T-cell Deficiencies
    1. SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease)

 

 

 

    1. Secondary Immune Deficiencies
    1. Thymus
    1. Diet
    2. Primary Disorder
    1. Medical Treatment
    1. Stress
    1. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
    1. HIV-1 (Human immunodefieciency virus)



gp120 bind to TH cells at CD4

 

Viral core protein & RNA brought into TH cells

RNA codes for viral DNA Reverse


Transcriptase

Viral DNA merges with host DNA

New Virus Synthesis AZT

Virus Shedding


Repetition of infection sequence


 

 

 

 

 

    1. Pathogenesis
    1. progression
    1. Infection
    2. Acute phase (30-50%)
    3. Seroconversion
    4. Chronic phase
    5. Crisis phase

3) Treatment

    1. Impact of TH cells


Decrease in TH cells

 

Impaired Impaired Impaired

Ab production inflammatory cellular

response immunity

 

 

Increased rate & Tumor Growth

severity of infection


  1. Autoimmune Disorders
    1. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    2. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    3. Scleroderma

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Immunity

Innate Acquired

Fever B-cells

Inflammation T-cells

Phagocytosis K cells

Physical Barrier NK cells

Complement Antibodies




Specific Immunity

Humoral Cell-Mediated

B-cells T-cells

Antibodies Cell-cell combat



BONE MARROW

Lymphoid Stem Cells

THYMUS

Lymphoid Stem Cells NK-cells B-cells

T-cells

Cell-mediated Surveillance Ab-mediated

immunity immunity



IgM - produced first

IgG - main Ab in blood

IgE - Allergies

IgA - saliva, breast milk

IgD - major surface receptor on B lymphocyte



 

 


T-cell (inactive)


Ag presentation (MHC)


Ag recognition (CD4, CD8)

T-cell (active)

TC TH TS



B-cell (inactive)

B-cell (sensitized)

B-cell (activate)



Memory B-cells Plasma cells Antibodies




Ag

 

 

TC cells Specific Defenses Abís

 



Activation TH cells Activation

of T-cells of B-cells

TS cells

 


Produce memory Produce memory B-cells


TC cells & TC cells & plasma cells


 

 

 

 

 

 


Ag presentation + TH cells

TC cells, macrophage, NK cells

Lymphokines, cellular cytotoxicity



TH cells come into contact with graft tissues

Activation & TH cells move TH cells interact

Proliferation to graft site with B-cell

of TC cells

Release lymphokines Ab production

Focused attack Monocyte/macrophage Ab attach to MHC

on tissues to graft site of graft tissue

Graft tissue Graft tissue Graft tissue

attacked attacked attacked




gp120 bind to TH cells at CD4

 

Viral core protein & RNA brought into TH cells

RNA codes for viral DNA Reverse


Transcriptase

Viral DNA merges with host DNA

New Virus Synthesis AZT

Virus Shedding



Repetition of infection sequence