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Nutrition – Digestive Process

  1. Macromolecules
    1. Carbohydrate
    1. Lipids
    1. Protein
    1. Nucleic Acids
  1. Digestive Process
    1. Chemical vs. Mechanical Processes
    2. Digestive System
    1. Mouth
    1. Stomach
    1. Small intestine

Chemical digestion

Nutrient absorption

    1. Large intestine

Nutrition - Metabolism

  1. Nutrition

*Nutrient => A substance in food that is used by the body to promote

normal growth, maintenance and repair.

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, Water

    1. Carbohydrates

*Sugars and Starches

    1. Dietary Sources

*major sources from plants

*Sugars => fruits, sugar cane, honey & milk

*Starches => grains, legumes, root vegetables

    1. Uses in the body

*Glucose => Major body fuel => ATP

*Neurons/RBC’s => MUST use glucose

    1. Dietary Requirements

*Can have a wide variety in intake

*Body can use fats & proteins for energy

*125-175 gm/day

    1. Lipids

*Fats and Oils

    1. Dietary Sources

*Triglycerides => Most abundant

*Saturated =>Animals,*Unsaturated => Plants, seeds *Cholesterol => eggs, meat, milk

    1. Uses in the Body

*Use controlled by liver & adipose tissue

*Essential for four reasons:

    1. Absorb fat-soluable vitamins
    2. triglycerides => major energy source for hepatocytes and skeletal muscle
    1. Phospholipids => myelin & cell membranes
    2. Protection, insulation & heat
    1. Dietary Requirements

*make-up about 40% of caloric intake in Americans

*American Heart Association

Total fat - 30% or less of total caloric intake

Saturated fats - 10% or less of total fat intake

Cholesterol - 250 mg or less per day

C) Proteins

    1. Dietary Sources

*Eggs, Meat, Milk => Complete Proteins

*Legumes, Nuts, Cereals -> Protein rich but incomplete

    1. Uses in the Body

*Structural materials ( keratin, collagen & muscle


*Functional materials (enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin)

    1. Dietary Requirements

*Reflects a persons age, size & metabolic rate

*0.8 g/kg body weight per day

    1. Vitamins

*organic compounds needed in minute amounts for growth &

good health.

*most function as coenzymes

*most are not make by the body

*Either fat-soluable (A,D,E,K) or water-soluable (B,C)

*Vitamins A,C,E => anti-oxidants

    1. Minerals

*Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chloride &


*Mineral rich foods => vegetables, milk & legumes