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Immune System Uses and Disorders

Therapeutic Applications of Immunity

    1. Immunization
    1. Use of Antisera
    1. Natural passive
    2. Artificial passive

Immune-Mediated Tissue Injury

    1. Hypersensitivity reactions (four types)
    1. Type I: Immediate Hypersensitivity (Anaphylaxis)
    1. early
    1. late

allergic asthma, hay fever, hives, eczema

    1. Type II: Ab-Dependent Cytotoxicity
    1. Type III: Immune-Complex-Meidated Hypersensitivity
    1. Type IV: Cell-Mediated, Delayed -Type Hypersensitivity


Ag presentation + TH cells

TC cells, macrophage, NK cells

Lymphokines, cellular cytotoxicity


    1. Tissue Transplantation


Least Most






Liver Kidney Heart Pancreas Skin Bone Marrow



TH cells come into contact with graft tissues

Activation & TH cells move TH cells interact

Proliferation to graft site with B-cell

of TC cells

Release lymphokines Ab production

Focused attack Monocyte/macrophage Ab attach to MHC

on tissues to graft site of graft tissue

Graft tissue Graft tissue Graft tissue


attacked attacked attacked

 

Immune Deficiency Syndromes

    1. Primary Immune Deficiencies
    1. B-cell deficiencies
    1. T-cell Deficiencies
    1. SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease)
    1. Secondary Immune Deficiencies
    1. Thymus
    1. Diet
    2. Primary Disorder
    1. Medical Treatment
    1. Stress

 

 

 

    1. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
    1. HIV-1 (Human immunodefieciency virus) - Life cycle



gp120 bind to TH cells at CD4

 

Viral core protein & RNA brought into TH cells

RNA codes for viral DNA Reverse


Transcriptase

Viral DNA merges with host DNA

New Virus Synthesis AZT

Virus Shedding


Repetition of infection sequence


    1. Pathogenesis
    1. progression
    1. Infection
    2. Acute phase (30-50%)
    3. Seroconversion
    4. Chronic phase
    5. Crisis phase

3) Treatment

 

 

 

 

 

 

    1. Impact of TH cells

    2. Decrease in TH cells

       

      Impaired Impaired Impaired

      Ab production inflammatory cellular

      response immunity

       

       

      Increased rate & Tumor Growth


      severity of infection

       

       

       

    3. Demographics of HIV
    1. Routes of transmission (Risk Behaviors)
    1. Public Health and Public Policy
    1. United States vs Worldwide patterns of infection