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Immune System

  1. Immunity


Innate Acquired

Fever B-cells

Inflammation T-cells

Phagocytosis K cells

Physical Barrier NK cells

Complement Antibodies

    1. Innate Immunity
    1. Acquired Immunity
    1. Fundamentals of Specific Immunity

WBCís (35% of WBC population)

T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, third population


Specific Immunity

Humoral Cell-Mediated

B-cells T-cells

Antibodies Cell-cell combat




Cell-Cell combat


    1. T lymphocytes
    1. B lymphocytes
    1. Antibodies


IgM - produced first

IgG - main Ab in blood

IgE - Allergies

IgA - saliva, breast milk

IgD - major surface receptor on B lymphocytes

    1. Third population cells (null cells)

D) The Immune Response

    1. T-cells & Cell-Mediated Immunity

a) TH => helper T-cells

    1. Ts => suppressor T-cells
    1. Tc => cytotoxic T-cells
    1. B-cells & Ab-mediated immunity
    1. B-cell Activation






TC cells Specific Defenses Abís


Activation TH cells Activation

of T-cells of B-cells

TS cells


Produce memory Produce memory B-cells

TC cells & TC cells & plasma cells

  1. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
    1. HIV-1 and HIV-2

May afford some protection against HIV-1 infection.

    1. Evolution of Virulence

III) AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

A) Lifecycle of HIV (Human immunodefieciency virus)

gp120 bind to TH cells at CD4

Viral core protein & RNA brought into TH cells

RNA codes for viral DNA Reverse


Viral DNA merges with host DNA

New Virus Synthesis AZT

Virus Shedding

Repetition of infection sequence


B) Pathogenesis

1) progression

a) Infection

b) Acute phase (30-50%)

c) Seroconversion

d) Chronic phase

e) Crisis phase

C) Treatment and Current Research

DImpact of TH cells

Decrease in TH cells


Impaired Impaired Impaired

Ab production inflammatory cellular

response immunity



Increased rate & Tumor Growth

severity of infection

    1. Demographics
    1. Routes of transmission (Risk Behaviors)
    1. Public Health and Public Policy
    1. United States vs Worldwide patterns of infection


Assignment: HIV and AIDS 20 points

  1. What is the difference between innate and acquired immunity?
  2. Give a few examples of innate immunities.
  3. What is the difference between cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity?
  4. What is the purpose of NK cells?
  5. Why are helper T-cells so important to both cell-mediated and Ab-mediated immunity?
  6. What are antibodies and how do they work?
  7. How do T-cells work?
  8. Why can you acquire resistance to some pathogens but not to others?
  9. What causes AIDS?
  10. Describe the lifecycle of HIV.
  11. Describe the disease progress of AIDS.
  12. What is meant by the latent period of infection of AIDS?
  13. Describe some current treatment methods of AIDS.
  14. Why does infection with HIV-2 seem to protect against infection with HIV-1.
  15. What is the difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2
  16. Describe the difference between high-risk, low-risk and no-risk behavior.
  17. How has public policy helped to decrease the infection rate of HIV?
  18. Describe the difference in patterns of infection in the U.S. and other places in the world.