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Immune System

  1. Immunity



Immunity

Innate Acquired

Fever B-cells

Inflammation T-cells

Phagocytosis K cells

Physical Barrier NK cells

Complement Antibodies


    1. Innate Immunity
    1. Acquired Immunity
    1. Fundamentals of Specific Immunity

WBCís (35% of WBC population)

T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, third population

cells



Specific Immunity

Humoral Cell-Mediated

B-cells T-cells

Antibodies Cell-cell combat


B-cells

Antibodies

T-cells

Cell-Cell combat

 

    1. T lymphocytes
    1. B lymphocytes
    1. Antibodies

 


IgM - produced first

IgG - main Ab in blood

IgE - Allergies

IgA - saliva, breast milk

IgD - major surface receptor on B lymphocytes


    1. Third population cells (null cells)

D) The Immune Response

    1. T-cells & Cell-Mediated Immunity

a) TH => helper T-cells

    1. Ts => suppressor T-cells
    1. Tc => cytotoxic T-cells
    1. B-cells & Ab-mediated immunity
    1. B-cell Activation

 

 




Ag

 

 

TC cells Specific Defenses Abís

 



Activation TH cells Activation

of T-cells of B-cells

TS cells

 


Produce memory Produce memory B-cells


TC cells & TC cells & plasma cells


  1. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
    1. HIV-1 and HIV-2

May afford some protection against HIV-1 infection.

    1. Evolution of Virulence

III) AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

A) Lifecycle of HIV (Human immunodefieciency virus)



gp120 bind to TH cells at CD4

Viral core protein & RNA brought into TH cells

RNA codes for viral DNA Reverse


Transcriptase

Viral DNA merges with host DNA

New Virus Synthesis AZT

Virus Shedding


Repetition of infection sequence


 

B) Pathogenesis

1) progression

a) Infection

b) Acute phase (30-50%)

c) Seroconversion

d) Chronic phase

e) Crisis phase

C) Treatment and Current Research

DImpact of TH cells


Decrease in TH cells

 

Impaired Impaired Impaired

Ab production inflammatory cellular

response immunity

 

 

Increased rate & Tumor Growth

severity of infection


    1. Demographics
    1. Routes of transmission (Risk Behaviors)
    1. Public Health and Public Policy
    1. United States vs Worldwide patterns of infection

 

Assignment: HIV and AIDS 20 points

  1. What is the difference between innate and acquired immunity?
  2. Give a few examples of innate immunities.
  3. What is the difference between cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity?
  4. What is the purpose of NK cells?
  5. Why are helper T-cells so important to both cell-mediated and Ab-mediated immunity?
  6. What are antibodies and how do they work?
  7. How do T-cells work?
  8. Why can you acquire resistance to some pathogens but not to others?
  9. What causes AIDS?
  10. Describe the lifecycle of HIV.
  11. Describe the disease progress of AIDS.
  12. What is meant by the latent period of infection of AIDS?
  13. Describe some current treatment methods of AIDS.
  14. Why does infection with HIV-2 seem to protect against infection with HIV-1.
  15. What is the difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2
  16. Describe the difference between high-risk, low-risk and no-risk behavior.
  17. How has public policy helped to decrease the infection rate of HIV?
  18. Describe the difference in patterns of infection in the U.S. and other places in the world.