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Respiratory System:

  1. Functions
    1. Gas exchange between air and blood
    2. Conduction of air to the exchange surfaces
    3. Protecting respiratory surfaces
    4. Sound production
    5. Olfaction
    6. Regulation of blood pH
  1. Organization
    1. Structures
    1. Upper
    1. Lower
    1. Respiratory mucosa
    1. Respiratory epithelium
    1. nasal cavity/pharynx => pseudostratified, ciliated columnar with goblet cells
    2. lower respiratory => pseudostratified, ciliated columnar
    3. bronchioles => cuboidal
    4. alveoli => squamous
    1. Lamina propria
    1. Respiratory Defense System
  1. Upper Respiratory System
    1. Nose and Nasal cavity
    1. Nasal mucosa
    1. Pharynx
    1. Nasopharynx
    2. Oropharynx
    3. Laryngopharynx
  1. Larynx
    1. Cartilages of the Larynx
    1. Thyroid cartilage
    1. Cricoid cartilage
    1. Epiglottis
    1. Arytenoid cartilage
    2. Corniculate cartilage
    3. Cuneiform cartilage
    4. Laryngeal ligaments
    1. Intrinsic
    2. Extrinsic
    3. Ventricular
    4. Vocal
    1. Sound production
    1. Phonation => sound production
    2. Articulation => modification of sounds
    1. Laryngeal musculature
    1. Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
    1. Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
  1. Trachea
  1. Primary Bronchi
  1. Lungs
    1. Lobes of the Lung

 

 

 

    1. Bronchi
    1. Bronchioles
    1. Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli
    1. Alveolus

VIII. Pleural Cavities/Pleural Membranes

 

 

 

  1. Respiratory Physiology
    1. Pulmonary Ventilation
    1. Boyles law

 

    1. Pressure and airflow to the lungs
    1. Respiratory Cycle
    1. Respiratory Muscles
    1. Muscles used in inhalation
    1. Diaphragm
    2. External intercastals
    3. Accessory muscles
    1. Muscles used in exhalation
    1. Internal intercostals
    2. Abdominal muscles
    1. Modes of breathing
    1. Quiet breathing (Eupnea)
    2. Forced breathing (Hyperpnea)
    1. Respiratory Rates
    1. Gas exchange at the Respiratory Membranes
    1. Daltonís law

 

    1. Henryís law

 

    1. Diffusion at the Respiratory Membrane
    1. Large pressure differences across the respiratory membranes
    2. small diffusion distance
    3. solubility of gases
    4. large total respiratory surface area
    5. coordination of blood and air flow
    1. Partial pressures


pO2 pCO2

alveolar space high low

lung capillaries low high

systemic capillaries high low

tissue cells low high


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    1. Gas pickup and Delivery
    1. Oxygen Transport
    1. Hemoglobin Saturation

 

 

 

  1. Control of Respiration
    1. Local Regulation
    1. changes in lung perfusion
    2. changes in alveolar ventilation
    1. Respiratory Centers of the Brain
    1. Medulla Oblongata
    1. Dorsal Respiratory Group
    1. Ventral Respiratory Group
    1. Apneustic and Pneumotaxic Centers (Pons)
    1. Apneustic Center
    1. Pneumotaxic Center
    1. Chemoreceptor Reflexes ( oxygen and carbon dioxide)
    1. Carotid bodies
    2. Aortic bodies
    3. Medullary chemoreceptors
    1. Baroreceptor Reflexes
    1. Protective Reflexes