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Lymphatic System and Immunity:

  1. Overview (lymphatic system)
  1. Organization
    1. Functions
    1. Production, maintenance and distribution of lymphocytes
    2. Return of fluid and solutes from tissues to blood
    3. Distribution of hormones, nutrients and wastes
    1. Lymphatic Vessels
    1. Lymphatic capillaries (terminal lymphatics)
    1. Valves => prevent backflow
    2. Major lymph collecting vessels
    1. Thoracic duct
    1. Right lymphatic duct
    1. Lymphocytes

(Innate) (Acquired)

Non-Specific Immunity Specific Immunity

Physical Phagocytes Fever Inflammation Complement Lymphocytes


T-cells B-cells NK cells

    1. Types of Lymphocytes
    1. T-cells
    1. B-cells

c. NK cells and K cells

    1. Lifespan and Circulation
    1. Lymphoid Tissue
    1. Lymphoid Organs
    1. Lymph Nodes
    1. Thymus
    1. Spleen
  1. Immunity


Innate Acquired

Fever B-cells

Inflammation T-cells

Phagocytosis K cells

Physical Barrier NK cells

Complement Antibodies

    1. Innate Immunity (Non-specific Immunity)
    1. Physical barriers
    2. Fever
    3. Inflammation
    4. Complement
    5. phagocytes
    1. Microphage
    1. Macrophage
    1. Surveillance
    1. NK cells
    1. Acquired Immunity (Specific Immunity)
    1. Fundamentals of Specific Immunity

WBCís (35% of WBC population)

T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, third population


Specific Immunity

Humoral Cell-Mediated

B-cells T-cells

Antibodies Cell-cell combat




Cell-Cell combat


Lymphoid Stem Cells


Lymphoid Stem Cells NK-cells B-cells


Cell-mediated Surveillance Ab-mediated

immunity immunity

    1. T lymphocytes
    1. B lymphocytes



    1. Antibodies


IgM - produced first

IgG - main Ab in blood

IgE - Allergies

IgA - saliva, breast milk

IgD - major surface receptor on B lymphocytes

    1. Third population cells (null cells)

D. The Immune Response

    1. T-cells & Cell-Mediated Immunity

a) TH => helper T-cells

    1. Ts => suppressor T-cells
    1. Tc => cytotoxic T-cells
    1. T-cell Activation
    1. Ag presentation
    1. Ag recognition by T-cells
    1. T-cell Activation

T-cell (inactive)

Ag presentation (MHC)

Ag recognition (CD4, CD8)

T-cell (active)


    1. B-cells & Ab-mediated immunity
    1. B-cell Activation
    1. B-cell sensitization
    2. B-cell activation

B-cell (inactive)

B-cell (sensitized)

B-cell (activate)

Memory B-cells Plasma cells Antibodies

    1. Overview




TC cells Specific Defenses Abís


Activation TH cells Activation

of T-cells of B-cells

TS cells


Produce memory Produce memory B-cells

TC cells & TC cells & plasma cells

IV. Therapeutic Applications of Immunity

    1. Immunization
    1. Use of Antisera
    1. Natural passive
    2. Artificial passive



V. Tissue Transplantation

Least Most

Liver Kidney Heart Pancreas Skin Bone Marrow

TH cells come into contact with graft tissues

Activation & TH cells move TH cells interact

Proliferation to graft site with B-cell

of TC cells

Release lymphokines Ab production

Focused attack Monocyte/macrophage Ab attach to MHC

on tissues to graft site of graft tissue

Graft tissue Graft tissue Graft tissue

attacked attacked attacked

  1. Immune Deficiency Syndromes
    1. Primary Immune Deficiencies
    1. B-cell deficiencies
    1. T-cell Deficiencies
    1. SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease)




    1. Secondary Immune Deficiencies
    1. Thymus
    1. Diet
    2. Primary Disorder
    1. Medical Treatment
    1. Stress
    1. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
    1. HIV-1 (Human immunodefieciency virus)

gp120 bind to TH cells at CD4

Viral core protein & RNA brought into TH cells

RNA codes for viral DNA Reverse


Viral DNA merges with host DNA

New Virus Synthesis AZT

Virus Shedding

Repetition of infection sequence

    1. Pathogenesis
    1. progression
    1. Infection
    2. Acute phase (30-50%)
    3. Seroconversion
    4. Chronic phase
    5. Crisis phase

3) Treatment

    1. Impact of TH cells

Decrease in TH cells


Impaired Impaired Impaired

Ab production inflammatory cellular

response immunity



Increased rate & Tumor Growth

severity of infection