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Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart:

  1. Overview of the Circulatory System
    1. Pulmonary Circuit
    1. Systemic Circuit
    1. Arteries
    1. Veins
    1. Capillaries
  1. Anatomy of the Heart
    1. The Pericardium
    1. visceral pericardium => cover the outer surface of the heart
    2. parietal pericardium => line inner surface of the pericardial sac
    3. pericardial fluid => fill space between pericardial surfaces
    1. Superficial Anatomy of the Heart
    1. Four chambers
    1. Sulchi
    1. Base and Apex
    1. Borders of the Heart
    1. Internal Anatomy and Organization


Right Atrium Left Atrium

receive blood from body receive blood from lungs


Right Ventricle Left Ventricle


sends blood to the lungs sends blood to the body

    1. Right Atrium

present during fetal development

closes after birth (fossa ovalis)

    1. Right Ventricle
    1. Left Atrium
    1. Left Ventricle
    1. The Heart Valves

(relaxed - open ; contracted - closed)

    1. The Heart Wall
    1. epicardium
    1. myocardium
    1. endocardium
    1. Blood Supply to the Heart
    1. The Coronary Arteries
    1. Right Coronary Artery
    1. Left Coronary Artery
    1. The Cardiac Veins
    1. Innervation of the Heart
    1. Cardiac Plexus => provide innervation of ANS (sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions)
    2. Cardiac centers of the Medulla

* baroreceptors & chemoreceptors

    1. Cardioacceleratory center => sympathetic
    2. Cardioinhibitory center => parasympathetic
  1. The Heartbeat
    1. Contractile cells
    1. Action potentials
    1. Step 1 - Rapid Depolarization
    1. Step 2 - The Plateau
    1. Step 3 - Repolarization
    1. Refractory period
    1. Calcium ions and contractions
    1. The Conducting System

atrioventricular (AV) node - junction between atria and ventricles

internodal pathways - link SA node and AV node

conducting cells - distribute stimulus to ventricular myocardium

( AV bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers)

( SA node > AV node> Conducting cells)

    1. SA node
    1. AV node
    1. Conducting cells
    1. AV bundle (bundle of His)
    1. Bundle branches
    1. Purkinje fibers

* conduct AP very rapidly

    1. The Electrocardiogram (EKG)
    1. P wave - depolarization of the atria
    2. QRS complex - ventricular depolarization
    3. T wave - ventricular repolarization
    1. The Cardiac Cycle
    1. Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
    1. atrial systole
    1. atrial diastole
    1. ventricular systole
    1. ventricular diastole

IV) Cardiodynamics

[cardiac output(CO) = stroke volume(SV) x heart rate(HR)]

  1. Factors affecting the Heart Rate
    1. Autonomic Innervation
    1. Hormones
    1. Drugs
    1. Changes in ion concentration
    1. Changes in body temperature