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Blood:

  1. Introduction
  1. Functions of Blood
    1. Transportation
    2. Regulation of pH and electrolyte composition
    3. Restriction of fluid losses
    4. Defense against toxins and pathogens
    5. Stabilization of body temperature
  1. Composition of Blood
    1. Plasma
    1. Formed Elements
  1. Plasma
    1. Plasma proteins
    1. Albumins
    1. Globulins
    1. Transport globulins
    1. Thyroid-binding globulin => thyroxine
    2. Metalloproteins => metal ions
    3. Apolipoproteins => triglycerides, lipids
    4. Steroid-binding proteins => Testosterone
    1. Immunoglobulins (Antibodies)
    1. Fibrinogen
    1. Other plasma proteins
    2. Origins of the plasma proteins
    1. Liver
    2. Plasma cells
    3. endocrine organs
  1. Formed elements
    1. Hemopoiesis

Stem Cell

 

Stem Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell

Progenitor Cell Progenitor Cell Progenitor cell

Any RBC Any WBC Platelet

    1. Erythropoiesis

Vitamin B12 => RBC maturation


Stem Cell

Erythrocyte progenitor Cell

GF EPO

Reticulocyte

EPO

Erythrocyte


2. Leukopoiesis


Stem Cell

GF

Granulocyte/Monocyte progenitor

Granulocyte progenitor Monocyte progenitor

GF

GF


Neutrophil Basophil Eosinophil Monocyte

3. Thrombopoiesis


Stem Cell

 

Megakaryocyte progenitor cell

GF

Megakaryocyte

Thrombopoietin (IL-6)

Thrombocyte


    1. Red Blood Cells
    1. Abundance of RBCs
    1. Structure of RBCs
    1. Shape => biconcave disc
    1. Organelles
    1. Hemoglobin (Hb)
    1. Structure
    1. Function
    1. Abnormal hemoglobin
    1. RBC lifespan and circulation

a. Hemoglobin conservation and recycling

    1. Blood types

mother Rh(-) and baby Rh(+)

    1. White Blood Cells
    1. Characteristics of WBC circulation and movement
    1. General Functions
    1. Neutrophils (50-75%)
    1. Eosinophils (2-4%)
    1. Basophils (1%)
    1. Monocytes (2-8%)
    1. Lymphocytes (20-30%)

 

 

    1. Platelets

VI. Hemostasis


Prothrombin XIIi


Fibrinogen Thrombin

XIIa


Fibrin Crosslinked

fibrin mesh