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Chapter 1 - Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

  1. What is the difference between Anatomy and Physiology?
  2. What are some of the characteristics that define a living thing?
  3. Describe the defferent levels of organization of a human being?
  4. Describe what the term homeostasis means.
  5. What is the difference between positive and negative feedback?
  6. Describe the anatomical position.
  7. Describe the divisions of the body cavities.
  8. What is the difference between superficial and sectional anatomy?

Chapter 2 - The Chemical Level of Organization

  1. Describe the makeup of an atom.
  2. What is the difference between an ionic and covalent bond?
  3. What are the 3 types of chemical reactions?
  4. How does an enzyme function in a reaction?
  5. What are the four main classes of organic molecules?
  6. What are the functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins & nucleic acids?
  7. What is glycogen & how is it made?
  8. What is the importance of amino acids in the synthesis of a protein?
  9. What are the five main groups of lipids?
  10. What are the four levels of structure of a protein?
  11. What are the differences between DNA and RNA?

Chapter 3 - The Cellular Level of Organization

  1. Define cytology.
  2. What is the difference between interstitial fluid and cytoplasm?
  3. What is the makeup and function of the plasma membrane?
  4. What role do carbohydrates and proteins play in the plasma membrane?
  5. Describe the difference between diffusion, osmosis, carrier-mediated transport, active transport and vessicular transport.
  6. What is the difference between non-membranous and membranous organelles?
  7. List the cellular organisms and describe their function.
  8. Describe what happens in interphase & the four stages of mitosis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4 - The Tissue Level of Organization

  1. What are the four basic types of tissues?
  2. What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
  3. How is epithelial tissue classified?
  4. Where are the different types of epithelial tissue found?
  5. What is the difference between endocrine & exocrine glands?
  6. Describe how exocrine glands are classified.
  7. What are the functions of connective tissue?
  8. How is connective tissue classified?
  9. What types of cells and fibers are found in connective tissue?
  10. Describe the types of connective tissue proper
  11. What are the fluid connective tissues?
  12. Describe the supporting connective tissues?
  13. What are the functions of muscle tissue?
  14. What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
  15. What is the function of neural tissue?
  16. What are the parts of a neuron?

 

 

Chapter 25 - Metabolism

  1. What is metabolism?
  2. What is a nutrient?
  3. Describe the role of carbohydrates in metabolism?
  4. Describe the role of lipids in metabolism.
  5. Describe the role of proteins in metabolism.
  6. What are vitamins & minerals?
  7. What is cellular respiration?
  8. What are the four steps in carbohydrate metabolism?
  9. What is b-oxidation?
  10. What are the problems associated with using proteins as a primary energy source?
  11. Why are carbohydrates preferentially used for energy over lipids?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5 - The Integumentary System

  1. What is the function of skin?
  2. What are the components of the cutaneous membrane?
  3. What are the accessory structures?
  4. What are the layers of the epidermis?
  5. Where is thick skin found?
  6. How is skin color achieved?
  7. What are the two layers of the dermis?
  8. What is the purpose of the dermis?
  9. What is the hypodermis?
  10. What is the structure of a hair?
  11. What is the function of hair?
  12. What are the two types of hair?
  13. What types of glands are found in the skin?
  14. What is the structure of a nail?
  15. What are the steps in the repair of skin?
  16. What changes occur during aging?

 

Chapter 6 - Osseous Tissue

  1. What are the functions of bone?
  2. What are the four features of a representative sample of bone?
  3. What are the four types of cells found in bone?
  4. What is the difference between spongy and compact bone?
  5. Describe the process of endochondrial ossification.
  6. Describe the process of intramembranous ossification.
  7. What is the difference between ossification and calcification?
  8. What is the importance of the metaphysis?
  9. What is appositional growth?
  10. Describe the dynamic nature of bone.
  11. How does bone act as a calcium reserve?
  12. What are the steps to the repair of a fracture?
  13. How does bone change with aging?
  14. How are bones classified?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10 - Muscle Tissue

  1. What are the functions of muscle tissue?
  2. What is the organization of the connective tissue?
  3. What is the structure of a muscle fiber?
  4. What role do the t-tubes and sarcoplasmic reticulum play in muscle physiology?
  5. What is the organization of a sarcomere?
  6. What makes up the thin filaments? Thick filaments
  7. What is the sliding filament theory?
  8. What is a neuromuscular junction?
  9. What are the steps that occur when a neuron stimulates a muscle?
  10. Describe the steps in the contraction cycle.
  11. What is a twitch?
  12. What is wave summation?
  13. What is the difference between complete and incomplete tetanus?
  14. Describe the shifts in metabolism that occur as a muscle goes from resting to moderate activity to peak activity.
  15. What is the Cori Cycle
  16. What are the different types of skeletal muscle fibers?
  17. What changes occur with aging?

Chapter 12 - Neural Tissue

  1. What are the functions of neural tissue?
  2. How do the CNS, PNS, effectors and receptors interact in the nervous system?
  3. What type of neuroglia are found in the CNS? PNS?
  4. What is the structure of an axon?
  5. What is retrograde transport?
  6. How are neurons classified?
  7. What is transmembrane potential?
  8. What forces contributed to the normal transmembrane potential of a neuron?
  9. What is a graded potential?
  10. What happens during a hyperpolarization?
  11. What happens during a depolarization?
  12. What is an action potential?
  13. What is the all-or-non principle?
  14. What are the steps in the generation of an action potential?
  15. What is the difference between continuous and saltatory conduction?
  16. What are the different types of synapses?
  17. What occurs when an action potential reaches a cholinergic synapse?
  18. What is an EPSP? IPSP?