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MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

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A&P DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

Alimentary Tract-- tract through which food passes

Digestion -- Process by which food is broken up physically & more or less dissolved (digest) & changed into a substance suitable for absorption & use by the body.

Entero --root word meaning intestine

Gastro-- root word meaning stomach

Gastrointestinal System-- system that includes the stomach & intestines

Nutrient -- chemical substance that provides nourishment & affects the nutritive & metabolic process of the body.

Nutrients-- are essential for growth, reproduction, & maintenance of health.

NUTRIENTS

Carbohydrate---: any of a group of organic compounds made up carbon & water.

Fat---: Nutrient composed of glycerol & fatty acids occurring in various consistencies ranging from liquid to solid. The term fat means “load,” indicating that a gram of fat is “loaded” with more than twice as many calories as other nutrients.

Triglyceride--- fat by-product consisting of three types of fatty acids, saturated fat, monosaturated fat, & polyunsaturated fat. Examples include fat from animals, which is primarily saturated fat, & fat from vegetables, nuts, or seeds, which is mainly monosaturated & polyunsaturated fat.

Cholesterol---: Fat-soluble type of steroid substance found in animal products such as butter and egg yolks.

Fatty Acid---: any of several organic acids produced by the breakdown of fat.

Lipid---: any of the free fatty acid fractions in the blood.

Lipoprotein---: Substance in which fat has attached itself to a protein so that it can circulate throughout the body. Examples of lipoproteins are (chylomicrons) which originate in the intestine & digested fat in blood stream. The remaining types of lipoproteins are named for their density, such as

(LDL) low-density lipoproteins,

(HDL) high-density lipoproteins.

The low-density lipoproteins are referred to as “bad” because high amounts are associated with diseases such as heart disease.

Essential Mineral---: any inorganic substance that plays a part in the regulation of body functions; examples include

iron,

magnesium,

potassium;

a deficiency of any of the minerals can cause illness, such as iron deficiency anemia.

Vitamin: any organic substance vital to health & living. Examples include vitamin A, C, & E. Because vitamins are essential for health, a deficiency in any one results in some form of disease.

Terms related to Salivary Glands

Parotid---: Salivary glands situated around the front of each ear

Saliva---: colorless, watery fluid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands & containing digestive juices..

Sublingual---Salivary gland located under the tongue.

Submandibular---: Salivary gland located under the lower jawbone.

Terms Related To The Mouth

Bucca--: inside of the cheek that makes up the wall of the mouth.

Os, Ora--: opening into the mouth

Stoma--: (mouth) This is also the general term for a mouthlike opening.

Tongue---: Highly moveable muscular structure that functions to mix saliva with food & aids in chewing & swallowing. Numerous taste buds are located on its surface.

Tonsil--: Prominent oval mass of tissue on each side of the back of the mouth at the fauces.

Uvula--: small grapelike structure hanging from the back edge of the soft palate.

Terms Related To Sets Of Teeth

Deciduous teeth--: also referred to as “milk teeth” & “baby teeth” The teeth that normally fall out & are replaced by permanent teeth.

Edentulous--: Condition in which there is a lack of teeth : commonly referred to as toothless.

Permanent teeth--: any of the 32 adult teeth that replaces the 20 deciduous teeth

Wisdom teeth : common term for the third molars, the last teeth of the upper & lower jaw. They are referred to as wisdom teeth because of the assumption that a person gains wisdom around the same time as these teeth appear, about 17 to 21 years of age.

Terms relating to parts of a tooth

Cementum --tissue on the outer surface of the root of the tooth that holds the tooth firmly in place.

Dentin--: hard section of the tooth

Enamel--: hard, glossy covering of the crown of the tooth.

Gingiv--: root word meaning “gums”.

Periodontal Membrane--: fibrous connective tissue around the tooth.

Pulp Cavity--: central hollow portion of the tooth that contains pulp, the inner substance of the tooth.

Root--: portion of the tooth embedded in the alveolus.

TERMS RELATED TO THE TONGUE

Frenulum---: small band of tissue that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth. It is also referred to as the lingual frenum.

Papillae--: small nipple-shaped projections on the surface of the tongue; commonly referred to as the taste buds because they pick up taste & are shaped like small buds.

Terms related to anatomy of the stomach

Cardiac sphincter---: circular band of muscle fibers that keeps the entrance to the stomach, which is near the heart closed tightly.

Fundus -- upper portion of the stomach toward the left.

Body--: middle portion of the stomach

Rugae---: wrinkles or folds of the stomach wall that permit the stomach to expand.

Antrum--: chamber of the stomach that is the entranceway to the duodenum.

Pyloris--: opening between the stomach & the intestine. The action of the pyloris controls the emptying of the stomach.

Pyloric sphincter-- circular band of muscle that keeps the exit from the stomach closed tightly.

.Terms related to the small intestine

I. Duodenum: first portion of the small intestine, which is 12 finger-breadths long the name means 12.

Jejunum--: middle section of the small intestine, so named because it has been found to be empty at death.

Ileum--: last section of the small intestine, so named because it is the most twisted part of the intestines.

Ileocecal Valve--: structure controlling the flow of intestinal contents from the ileum to the cecum; the ileum is the end of the small intestine & the cecum the beginning of the large intestine.

II. Terms related to Large Intestine

Appendix--: wormlike organ hanging down from the end of the cecum. It is commonly referred to as the appendix although its full name is the Vermiform appendix

Cecum--: beginning part of the large intestine, which has a blind pouch (appendix).

Colon--: large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum.

III. Ascending Colon--: section of large intestine that moves upward.

Transverse Colon--: section of the large intestine that goes across the abdomen.

Descending Colon--: section of the large intestine that moves downward.

Sigmoid Colon--: part of the large intestine that is shaped like the Greek letter sigma

IV. Rectum--: part of the large intestine that is straight.

Anus--: ringlike opening at the end of the Alimentary Tract through which solid wastes of digestion are excreted. This opening has a sphincter that allows a person to hold the anus tightly closed.

Terms Related to Abdominal Membranes

Mesentery--: membrane attached to the intestines that holds them more or less in the middle of the abdominal cavity.

Peritoneum--: membrane lining the abdominal cavity enclosing the abdominal organs. It stretches around the abdominal contents.

Omentum--: fold of peritoneum hanging like an apron from the stomach to adjacent organs in the abdominal cavity.

Terms Related To The Abdominal Cavity

Celiac--: abdominal cavity

. Omphal-- : belly button

Umbilicus--:belly button located in the middle of the abdomen where the umbilicus exits the body of the fetus & connects to the mother.

Terms Related to the Duct System

Hepatic Duct: tube that leads from the liver.

Cystic Duct: tube that leads from the gallbladder.

Common Bile Duct: duct formed by the joining of the hepatic & cystic ducts that continues too join the pancreatic duct.

Pancreatic Duct: tube that carries the digestive enzymes from the pancreas to the duodenum.

Terms related to the activity of digestive system

Mastication: act of chewing

Deglutition: act of swallowing or passing food down the throat.

Peristalsis: progressive waves of contractions around the walls of the digestive organs that move contents through the digestive tract.

Absorption: action in which the end products of digestion are taken away or sucked up from the digestive system into the lymphatic system.

Defecation: act of removing waste matter of the intestines from the body.

Flatus: release or blowing of accumulated air from the intestines.

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Reproduction in humans is sexual, new human offspring requires contribution of two parent cells- the female ovum & male sperm.

I. Common Structural & Functional Characteristics between the Sexes there is a common general structure & function between the Reproductive systems of the male & female. In both men & women the organs of the repro-system are adapted for the specific sequence of functions that permit development of sperm or ova followed by successful fertilization & then the normal development & birth of a baby The male & female repro-systems are similar in that both have Essential & Accessory Organs

GAMETES: The sex cells in humans

Male Gametes ; sperm

Female Gametes; ova

Zygote; The ova & sperm fuse during fertilization to produce a cell called a zygote When the sperm & ovum unite it becomes a zygote it is a zygote until it attaches to the uterine wall

Upon implanting in the uterine wall the zygote becomes an embryo it is a embryo until the end of the 7th week from the start of the 8th week until its delivered it is a fetus

GESTATION: period of time during which the development of a child is progressing ( in the UTERUS)

Male Reproductive System

II. Essential Organs Or MAIN ORGAN

The Essential organs of reproduction in the male are the GONADS

Gonads are a pair of main sex glands called TESTES TESTES; produce SPERMATOZOA ( THE MALE SEX CELLS)

ACCESSORY ORGANS

consist of the following structures. 1. A series of passageways or ducts that carry the sperm from the testes to the exterior. 2. Additional sex glands that provide secretions that protect & nurture sperm. 3. The external reproductive organs called the external genitals.

Table of ESSENTIAL ORGANS

GONADS: testes (right & left Testes)

Table of ACCESSORY ORGANS

Ducts SUPPORTIVE SEX GLANDS EXTERNAL GENITALS 2 Epididymis 2 seminal vesicles scrotum 2 vas deferens 2 bulbourethral or penis 2 ejaculatory duct COWPER’S GLAND urethra prostrate gland

The glands provide secretions that nurture & provide motility. In both the male & female reproductive system.

TESTES ( Structure & Location) Testes are the gonads of men, located in the pouchlike scrotum which is suspended outside the body cavity behind the penis. There are two of them they hang in a double pouch sac with a septum in between. This exposed location provides an environment about 1 C (3 F) cooler than the normal body temperature. Which is an important requirement for the normal production & survival of sperm.

Each TESTIS is a small oval gland about 3.8 cm ( 1 1/2 inches) long, & 2.5 cm ( 1 inch) wide. The testis is shaped like an egg that has been flattened slightly from side to side.

TUNICA ALBUGINEA

Tough whitish membrane that surrounds each testis, it covers the testicle & then enters the gland to form the many septa that divide it into sections or LOBULES SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES what makes up the lobules these coiled structures form the bulk of the Testicular tissue mass.

INTERSTITIAL CELLS small, specialized cells lying near the septa that separate the lobules they are the interstitial cells of the testes that secrete the MALE SEX HORMONE TESTOSTERONE

Seminiferous Tubule each is a long duct with a central lumen or passageway SPERM develops in the walls of the tubules & are then released into the lumen & begin their journey to the exterior of the body.

TESTIS FUNCTION

SPERMATOGENESIS SPERM PRODUCTION

From Puberty on the seminiferous tubules continuously form spermatozoa or sperm The number of sperm produced each day diminish with increasing age, most men continue to produce significant number of sperm throughout life. The testes prepare for sperm production before puberty by increasing the numbers of SPERM PRECURSOR ( STEM) cells called SPERMATOGONIA SPERMATOGONIA cells located near the outer edge of each seminiferous tubule. Before puberty SPERMATOGONIA increase in number by the process of MITOTIC CELL DIVISION

MITOTIC CELL DIVISION Recall that MITOSIS results in the division of a PARENT CELL into 2 DAUGHTER CELLS each identical to the parent cell & each containing a complete copy of the genetic material represented in the normal number of 46 chromosomes.

FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH)

when a boy enters puberty circulating levels of FSH cause a SPERMATOGONIUM undergo a unique type of cell division. When the SPERMATOGONIUM cell division & Mitosis under the influence of FSH it produces 2 daughter cells. One of these cells remains as a SPERMATOGONIUM and the other forms another more specialized cell called a PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTE

PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES then undergo a specialized type of division called MEIOSIS which ultimately results in sperm formation.

DIAGRAM OF MEIOTIC EVENTS & CELL TYPES LEADING TO

SPERM FORMATION SPERMATOGONIUM ONE CELL UNDER GOES MITOTIC DIVISION RESULTS IN TWO DAUGHTER CELLS ( ONE Cell remains SPERMATOGONIUM) (ONE Cell = PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTE) PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTE UNDERGOES MEIOSIS1 = 2 Secondary Spermatocyte 2 Secondary Spermatocyte undergoes MEIOSIS ( DNA not replicated before division) Results in4SPERMATIDS which develop into Spermatozoa SPERMATIDS have only half the genetic material & half the chromosomes (23) of other cell bodies SPERMATOCYTES lie deeper in the tubule walls than the spermatogonia. All characteristics that a baby will inherit from its father at fertilization are contained in the condensed nuclear (genetic) material found in each sperm head.

This Genetic information can fuse with the genetic material contained in the mother’s ovum only if successful fertilization occurs. Ejaculation of sperm into the female vagina during sexual intercourse is only one step in a long journey that these sex cells must make before they can meet and fertilize an ovum.

STRUCTURE OF A MATURE SPERM

Sperm head= contains the nucleus with its genetic material from the father

ACROSOME= covers the nucleus: a specialized structure containing enzymes that enable the sperm to break down the covering of the ovum and permit entry if contact occurs.

MIDPIECE= contains MITOCHONDRIA that breaks down (ATP) to provide energy for the tail movements required to propel the sperm FLAGELLA = tail of sperm allows movement of sperm PRODUCTION OF TESTOSTERONE

The Other FUNCTION OF THE TESTES FUNCTIONS OF TESTOSTERONE

1. It MASCULINIZES. The various characteristics that we think of as male develop because of testosterones influence ( Example- Young boy’s voice change) 2. It promotes & maintains the development of the male accessory organs ( prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and so on ) 3. It has a stimulating effect on protein anabolism . Testosterone thus is responsible for the greater muscular development & strength of the male. TESTOSTERONE is thought of as the “MASCULIZING HORMONE” or the “ANABOLIC HORMONE”

REPRODUCTIVE DUCTS The ducts through which sperm must pass after exiting from the testes until they reach the exterior of the body. Sperm are formed within the walls of the seminiferous tubules of the testes. When they exit from these tubules within the testes they enter and pass in sequence, through the EPIDIDYMIS, DUCTUS (VAS) DEFERENS, EJACULATORY DUCT, and the URETHRA on their journey out of the body. EPIDIDYMIS (2) Each epididymis consists of a single & very tightly coiled tube about 6 m (20 feet) in length. It is a comma shaped structure that lies along the top & behind the testes inside the scrotum. Sperm mature & develop their ability to move or swim as they pass through the EPIDIDYMIS. DUCTUS ( VAS) DEFERENS (2) is the tube that permits sperm to exit from the epididymis and pass through the scrotal sac upward into the abdominal cavity . Each DUCTUS DEFERENS is a thick smooth very muscular and movable tube that can be easily felt or palpated through the thin skin of the scrotal wall . It passes through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity as part of the SPERMATIC CORD SPERMATIC CORD a connective tissue sheath that also encloses blood vessels & nerves EJACULATORY DUCT & URETHRA once in the abdominal cavity the ductus deferens extends over the top & down the posterior surface of the bladder where it joins the duct from the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct. The ejaculatory duct passes through the substance of the prostate gland and permits sperm to empty into the urethra which eventually passes through the penis and opens to the exterior at the external urethral orifice.

ACCESSORY GLANDS OR SUPPORTIVE SEX GLANDS SEMEN or SEMINAL FLUID mixture of sex cells or sperm produced by the testes and the secretions of the accessory or supportive sex glands. The accessory glands contribute over 95% of the secretions to the gelatinous fluid part of the semen including the 2 seminal vesicles, one prostate gland, and 2 bulbourethral ( COWPER’s) glands. In addition to the production of sperm, the seminiferous tubules of the testes contribute somewhat less than 5% of the seminal fluid volume Usually 3 to 5 mL ( about 1 t) of semen is ejaculated at one time and each millimeter normally contains about one million sperm. Semen is ALKALINE and protects sperm from the acidic enviroment of the female repro-tract. SEMINAL VESICLES (2) are pouchlike glands that contribute about 60% of the seminal fluid volume. Their secretions are yellowish, thick, & rich in sugar fructose. This fraction of the seminal fluid helps provide a source of energy for the highly motile sperm.

PROSTATE GLAND (1)

lies just below the bladder and is shaped like a doughnut. The urethra passes through the center of the prostate before traversing the penis to the end at the external urinary orifice. The prostate secretes a thin, milk-colored fluid that constitutes about 30% of the total seminal fluid volume. This fraction helps to activate the sperm & maintain their motility.

BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS ALSO CALLED ( COWPER’S GLANDS) 2 Resemble peas in size & shape. Located just below the prostate gland & empty their secretions into the penile portion of the urethra. The mucus-like secretions of these glands lubricate the terminal portion of the urethra & contribute less than 5% of the seminal fluid volume. Breakdown of Seminal Fluid seminal vesicles 60% prostate gland 30% bulbourethral glands ( cowper’s glands) less than 5% seminiferous tubules less than 5%

EXTERNAL GENITALS

The penis & scrotum make up the external reproductive organs or GENITALIA PENIS the organ that when made stiff & erect by the filling of its spongy or erectile tissue components with blood during sexual arousal, can enter & deposit sperm in the vagina during intercourse. the penis has 3 seperate columns of erectile tissue in its shaft

1. CORPUS SPONGIOSUM surrounds the urethra

2. CORPORA CAVERNOSA which lies on top of the corpus spongiosum to the outside

3. GLANS at the distal end of the shaft over which the skin is folded doubly to form a loose-fitting retractable casing called the FORESKIN or PREPUCE

If the foreskin fits too tightly about the glans a CIRCUMCISION or surgical removal of the foreskin is usually performed to prevent irritation.

The external urethral orifice is the opening of the urethra at the tip of the glans.

SCROTUM skin covered pouch suspended from the groin. It is divided into 2 sacs by a septum; each sac contains a testis, epididymis, the lower part of the ductus deferens and the beginning of the spermatic cords.

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

STRUCTURAL PLAN composed of essential & accessory organs

ESSENTIAL ORGANS are GONADS

GONADS are the 2 Ovaries

OVARIES produce OVA

OVA are the female sex cells ACCESSORY ORGANS

1. A series of ducts or modified duct structures that extend from near the ovaries to the exterior

2. Additional sex glands, including the mammary glands, which have an important reproductive function only in women.

3. The external reproductive organs or external genitals TABLE OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ESSENTIAL ORGANS GONADS; right & left OVARIES ACCESSORY ORGANS DUCTS SEX GLANDS EXTERNAL GENITALS 2 uterine tubes 2 Bartholin’s glands VULVA uterus 2breasts Vagina OVARIES STRUCTURE & LOCATION Are the gonads of the female, they have a puckered, uneven surface, each weighs about 3 grams. They resemble large almonds in size & shape and are attached by ligaments in the pelvic cavity on each side of the uterus. OVARIAN FOLLICLES: are embedded in a connective tissue matrix just below the outer layer of each ovary in a newborn baby girl are about 1 million ovarian follicles each Ovarian Follicle contains an OOCYTE OOCYTE an immature stage of the female sex cell By the time a girl reaches puberty further development has resulted in the formation of a reduced number of ovarian follicles About 400,000 of what are now called PRIMARY FOLLICLES PRIMARY FOLLICLES each follicle has a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS around the oocyte During the reproductive lifetime of most women only about 350 to 500 of the primary follicles fully develop into MATURE FOLLICLES MATURE FOLLICLES ovulate & release an ovum for potential fertilization Follicles that do not mature degenerate and are reabsorbed into the ovarian tissue. GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE a mature ovum in its sac PROGRESSION OF DEVELOPMENT from Primary Follicle to OVULATION As the thickness of the granulosa cell layer around the oocyte increases a hollw chamber called an ANTRUM appears & a secondary follicle is formed. Development continues & after ovulation the ruptured follicle is transformed into a hormone secreting glandular structure called the CORPUS LUTEUM (YELLOW BODY) OVARY FUNCTIONS OOGENSIS the production of female gametes ( sex cells) -- This specialized type of cell division is responsible for development of OVA During the developmental phases experienced by the female sex cell from its earliest stage to just after fertilization, 2 meiotic divisions occur. As a result of meiosis in the female sex cell, the number of chromosomes is reduced equally in each daughter cell to half the number (23) found in other body cells (46) However the amount of CYTOPLASM is divided unequally The result is formation of one large OVUM & small daughter cells called POLAR BODIES that DEGENERATE The ovum with its large supply of CYTOPLASM is one of the body’s largest cells & is uniquely designed to provide nutrients for rapid development of the embryo until implantation in the uterus occurs At fertilization the sex cells from both parents fuse & the normal chromosome number (46) is achieved. PRODUCTION of ESTROGEN & PROESTROGEN The second major function of the ovary is secretion of the sex hormones Hormone production in the ovary begins at puberty with the cyclic development & maturation of the ovum. The granulosa cells around the oocyte in the growing and mature follicle secrete estrogen The corpus luteum which develops after ovulation cheifly secretes proestrogen but also some estrogen ESTROGEN the sex hormone that causes development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics & stimulates growth of the epithelial cells lining the uterus. ACTIONS OF UTERUS 1. Development & maturation of female reproductive organs, including the external genitals 2. Appearance of pubic hair & breast development 3. Development of female body contours by deposition of fat below skin surface & in the breasts & hip region. 4. Initiation of the first menstrual cycle PROGESTERONE is produced by corpus luteum which is a glandular structure that develops from a follicle that has just released an ovum If stimulated by the appropriate anterior pituitary hormone the corpus luteum produces progesterone for about 11 days after ovulation PROGESTERONE stimulates proliferation & vascularization of the epithelial lining of the uterus & acts with estrogen to initiate the menstral cycle in girls entering puberty. REPRODUCTIVE DUCTS 2 UTERINE TUBES also called (FALLOPIAN TUBES or OVIDUCTS) serve as ducts for the ovaries even though they are not attached to them The outer end of each tube terminates in an expanded funnel-shaped structure that has fringelike projections called FRIMBRIAE along its edges. This part of the tube curves over the top of each ovary& opens into the abdominal cavity.The inner end of each uterine tube attaches to the uterus & the cavity inside the tube opens into the cavity in the uterus Each tube is about 10 cm (4inches) in length. After ovulation the discharged ovum first enters the abdominal cavity & then enters the uterine tube assisted by the wavelike movement of the FIMBRIAE & the beating of the cilia on their surface once in the tube the ovum begins its journey to the uterus. Fertilization occurs in the first third of the uterine tube in the wide area. UTERUS a small organ only about the size of a pear ( very strong) Made mostly of muscle ( MYOMETRIUM) with only a small cavity inside. During pregnancy the uterus grows many times larger so that it becomes big enough to hold a baby and a considerable amount of fluid. PARTS OF UTERUS BODY: the upper portion CERVIX: the lower narrow section FUNDUS the area above the level where the uterine tubes attach to the body of the uterus ( it rounds out to form a bulging prominence) The uterus normally ( not in pregnancy) lies in the pelvic cavity just behind the urinary bladder. By the end of pregnancy it becomes large enough to extend up to the top of the abdominal cavity, it then pushes the liver against the under side of the diaphragm 3 FUNCTIONS OF UTERUS 1. Menstruation 2. Pregnancy 3. Labor The corpus luteum stops secreting progesterone & decreases its secretion of estrogens about 11 days after ovulation. About 3 days later, when the progesterone & estrogen concentrations in the blood are at their lowest levels menstruation starts. Small pieces of the mucous membrane lining of the uterus or the ENDOMETRIUM ( inside lining of uterus) pull loose leaving torn blood vessels underneath. Blood & bits of endometrium trickle out of the body. Immediately after menstruation, the endometrium starts to repair itself. It again grows thick & becomes lavishly supplied with blood in preparation for pregnancy. If fertilization does not take place the uterus once again sheds the lining made ready for a pregnancy that did not occur. This cycle continues & repeats itself and is called MENSTRUAL CYCLE MENSTRUATION first occurs at puberty normally repeats itself about every 28 days or 13 times a year for 30 to 40 years. before it ceases at menopause when a women is somewhere around 50 VAGINA a distensible tube about 10 cm (4 inches) long main mainly of smooth muscle & lined with mucous membrane, it lies in the pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder & the rectum. Functions as part of the female repro-tract that opens to the exterior, it is the organ that sperm enter to journey to the ovum & is also the organ from which the baby emerges ACCESSORY OR SUPPORTIVE SEX GLANDS BARTHOLIN’S GLANDS (greater vestibular) One lies to the right of the vaginal outlet & one lies to the left of the vaginal outlet Secretion of a mucuslike lubricating fluid is their function, their ducts open into the space between the labia minora & the vaginal orifice called the VESTIBULE BREASTS Lie over the pectorial muscles & are attached to them by connective tissue ligaments (of COOPER) . Breast size is dertimined more by the amount of fat around the glandular (milk-secreting) tissue than by the of glandular tissue itself.So the size of the breast has little to do with its ability to secrete adequate amounts of milk after the birth of a baby. Each breast consists of 15 to 20 divisions or lobes that are arranged radially. Each lobe consists of several lobules and each lobule consists of milk secreting glandular cells. the milk-secreting cells are arranged in grapelike clusters called ALVEOLI Small LACTIFEROUS DUCTS drain the aveoli & converge toward the nipple. AREOLA colored area around the nipple EXTERNAL GENITALS the external genitalia or VULVA of women consist of the following parts 1. MONS PUBIS Skin covered pad of fat over the symphysis pubis covered with hair after puberty 2. CLITORIS composed of erectile tissue is located just behind the anterior junction of the labia minor ( the female version of the penis) ( is the center of arousal & orgasism in women) 3. ORIFICE of URETHRA just below the clitoris ( the opening of the urethra) 4. LABIA MINORA (small lips) located within the labia majora & are covered with modified skin. these two lips join anteriorly at the midline 5. VESTIBULE the area between the labia minora & the vaginal orifice 6. HYMEN membranous ( partially closes the vaginal orifice) in virginity 7. ORIFICE, ( DUCT of BARTHOLIN’S GLAND) open on either side of the vaginal orifice inside the labia minora ORIFICE of VAGINA opening to vagina LABIA MAJORA extended downward from the elevated mons pubis they are the large lips these elongated folds are composed mainly of fat & numerous glands are covered with pigmented skin & hair on the outer surface & are smooth & free from hair on the inner surface PERINEUM the area between the vaginal opening & the anus. This area is sometimes cut in surgical procedures called an epistomy to prevent tearing of tissue during childbirth MENSES menstrual flow MENARCHE the first menstrual flow

LINKS For NURSING INFORMATION

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