GROUPS AND GROUP THERAPY
A group is three or more people with related goals.
Characteristics of groups:
Types of groups:
Primary groups- members have face-to-face contact. They have boundaries, norms, and explicit and implicit interdependent roles. An example would be a family
Secondary groups- an example would be a political party or a business. There are no relationship bonds or emotional ties. They are larger and more impersonal than primary groups.
Formal group-This type of group has structure and authority. Authority stems from above and interaction is usually limited. A faculty meeting would be an example of a formal group.
Informal group- provides much of a person’s education and contributes to his or her cultural values. The members do not depend on each other.
Group norms- over time a pattern of interaction develops within the group to which certain behavioral expectations are attached. Norms affect the scope and functioning of a group. They also help to structure role expectations, provide sanctions, taboos and reference power to the group. A formalized norm is called an agenda of the meeting. Other group norms may be universal such as electing a secretary.
Group leadership- the concepts of power, influence and authority have an impact on leadership
T group (training group)- the purpose is to improve the group members’ ability to communicate or relate to others in the group.
Styles of leadership- It is influenced by several factors including, the personality of the leader; traits, characteristics and purpose of the group; and the degree of cognitive, emotional or mental impairment of the group members.
In a consensus, all members of the group agree on the decision.
Majority vote- usually occurs n a democracy where consensus is not possible
Minority decision- a subcommittee explores the situation in great depth and reaches a decision.
Roles in groups:
Group task roles- identifies group problems and selects methods to solve those problems. Problem solving helps the group to meet its goal or mission. Example: initiator-contributor
Group building and maintenance roles- orientated to the functioning of the group as a whole. They alter or maintain the way a group works to strengthen, regulate and perpetuate the group. Examples are the following:
Advantages of group therapy:
Disadvantages of group therapy:
THERAPUETIC FACTORS OF GROUP THERAPY
Therapeutic factors do not work alone they are interdependent.
Types of Therapy Groups
Psychoanalytic group psychotherapy
Each client in the group has a relationship with the therapist. Group communication is on three levels, unconscious, semi-conscious, and conscious material. The group focuses on interpretation of dreams, free association, and other dormant content produced in the group. The therapist turns these experiences into conscious, healthy learning experiences.
The three ego states (parent, child, and adult) are examined. The goal is that the client will communicate with the proper Ego State for the situation.
The goal is to increase or maximize the client’s rational thinking.
Rogerian group therapy
Therapist goal is to help clients’ express their feeling towards one another. The therapist encourages the expression of feelings, clarifies feelings with clients, and accepting clients and their feelings in a nonjudgmental way. The clients learn to accept their feelings and gain a positive self-regard.
Focuses on self-exploration, self-expression, and self-awareness. Emphasizes the here and now. They focus on everyday problems and how to solve them.
Interpersonal group therapy
Focuses on how individuals develop anxiety and how they resolve it. Anxiety arises from interpersonal relationships and is reduced through interpersonal support. The main goal is to promote the individuals comfort with others in the group and transfer it to other relationships.
The client brings up a topic to delve into and the therapist directs the client through scenes involving the topic. The audience identifies with the feelings and action on stage. A catharsis occurs for the client and the audience.
It is a single uninterrupted session lasted from 12 hours to three or more days. These groups allow short periods to be way from the group to eat or sleep. The goal is personal change or growth.
The purpose of this group is personal change often because of deeply felt experiences.
Community support groups
Self help groups
Stages of Group Development
Initial stage- Members become acquainted with each other. They may be unclear about the goals of the group. Roles, norms, and responsibility begin to takes place. Depend on the leader for direction
Working stage- members are free to approach or attempt to solve their problems. Conflict and cooperation surface.
Mature – development of workable norms and a group culture. Resolves conflict when it occurs. Accepts others’ differences without placing judgment on them. Evaluates own work and individuals take responsibility for their work. Discusses topics and makes decisions with rational behavior. "We feeling"
Evaluates and summarizes the group experience and explores the positive and negative feelings about the experience.
Latent content- content that is not discussed and occurs on a feeling level
Manifest content- Spoken words
Manifest and latent content should be congruent if not the communication pattern of the group will be affected.