The Neuman Systems Model provides a conceptual framework that is used in the nursing profession. It is considered a wellness model and the focus is the wellness retention and optimal client/client system attainment and maintenance. The systems in the model consist of the client, the environment, health and nursing.
The clients are viewed as a system that is wholitically and multidimensionally. Illustrating five interacting variables amongst the client; physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual in a harmonious way.
The environment are the internal and external factors that affect the client system. The three components of the environment are: Internal environment, external environment, and created environment.
Health is represented as wellness where the energy flow is continuous between the client system and the environment. A client health is represented with various changing levels with a normal range that is increasing or decreasing throughout one's life span in relation to environment.
Nursing is concerned for the client system system and maintaining the stability of the client through accurate assessments of the effects and possible effects of environmental stressors and assisting the client to promote change, therefore, optimal wellness can be achieved. Adjustment can possibly assisted through, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.
Reference: Neuman, B. (1989). The Neuman System Model (second edition). Appleton-Lange, Norwalk, CT.
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