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Fundamental Patterns of Knowing in Nursing

Barbara A. Carper, RN, EdD, is the author of the four fundamental concepts of "Ways of Knowing" that are most valued in the discipline of nursing.

"Nursing depends on the scientific knowledge of human behavior in health and in illness, the esthetic perception of significant human experiences, a personal understanding of the unique individuality of the self, and the capacity to make choices within concrete situations involving particular moral judgments."Barbara A. Carper, 1978
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Reference: Kenny, J.W.(1999). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice (2nd ed.), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.