Fundamental Patterns of Knowing in Nursing
Barbara A. Carper, RN, EdD, is the author of the four fundamental concepts of "Ways of Knowing" that are most valued in the discipline of nursing.
"Nursing depends on the scientific knowledge of human behavior in health
and in illness, the esthetic perception of significant human experiences, a personal
understanding of the unique individuality of the self, and the capacity to make
choices within concrete situations involving particular moral judgments."Barbara A. Carper, 1978
Reference: Kenny, J.W.(1999). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice (2nd ed.), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.