The type of weather a place usually has over a long period of time is called its climate. Climate depends on several things. One of these is latitude, or how far north or south of the Equator a place is. Another is its closeness to the sea. Places near the sea often have milder climates than places far inland.
The world has five main bands of climate. Lands around the Equator have tropical, rainy climates. Deserts have dry climates. Places midway between the Poles and the Equator have temperate climates. Places near the Poles have damp, cold climates and the Poles themselves have very cold climates.