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Equal Kisses: A Lesson in Averaging

Duration: 40 - 50 minutes

Students will be able to apply the rules of averaging to determine how to evenly distribute a bag of Hershey's Kisses.

Materials: (number of items can vary with class size)
2 1lb. bags of Hershey's Kisses 
sandwich bags (one for each student)
lunch bags (one for each group)

Key Questions:
" How is averaging applied to our lives?"
" What are the steps in averaging?"

NOTE: When distributing the candy, try to avoid quantities that would lead to fractions/decimals.

1.  Divide the class into groups of 4-6 students.

2.  Each group is given a bag containing smaller, individual bags of Kisses for each student.  The individual bags should have varying amount of Kisses.

3.  Distribute the individual bags to students in the group.

4.  Explain that each student must count the number of Hershey's Kisses in their bag.

5.  Groups will total the amount of Hershey's Kisses in their group.

6.  By applying the rules of averaging, each group divides total amount of Hershey's
     Kisses, by the number of students in the group.

7.  Distribute them equally to the group.

8.  Combine the candy from all of the groups.  Tally the quantity and apply the rules of averaging.

9. Distribute the candy according to the results.

Assessment:  Class will discuss the concept of averaging and share examples of averaging in daily activities.

Language Arts: 3.1, 3.12
Math: 4.1.2, 4.1.10, 4.2.2, 4.2.5, 4.3.7, 4.3.10, 4.6.1, 4.7.5, 4.12.1
Science: 5.1.1, 5.2.8, 5.5.10

M&M Mapping: A Lesson in Graphing

Duration:  40 - 50 minutes

Objective:  Students will be able to create a graph and explain its content.

Materials: (number of items can vary with class size)
1.7 oz. bags of M & M's (a bag for each child)
Graph Paper

Key Question: 
"Which color is found most frequently in a package of M&M's?"
"Why is graphing information important and useful?"

1. Divide class into small groups of 4-6 students.

2. Distribute a bag of M&M's to each child. 

3. Each student should predict total number of M & M 's and predict the most common and least common colors of M&M's in their bag.

4. Each student must count the number of M&M's in their bag and tally each color.

5. Each group must combine their individual data to determine the frequency of the colors of M&M's.

6. Each group must submit their information to create a circle or bar graph depicting the class totals of the M&M colors in the packages.

Assessment: Each student must take their personal data and create a graph depicting their findings.

1.  Enter class data on a spreadsheet.  Show student how to create circle and bar graphs with a spreadsheet program.

2. Students will write a letter to Mars Candy Co. to inquire if it is random, or do they intentionally make more of one color?  Also in the letter, the students could request their favorite color be represented more frequently in each package.

Language Arts: 3.1.7, 3.2.7, 3.3.3, 3.5.8
Math: 4.1.3, 4.1.12, 4.2.2, 4.4.1, 4.4.3, 4.5.5, 4.11.2, 4.11.7, 4.12.5, 4.12.9, 4.13.8, 4.16.4
Science: 5.2.9, 5.4.1, 5.5.4

Fraction Soup: A Lesson in Halves

Duration: 60 minutes for lesson, with additional time for follow-up needed
Note to teachers : prepare the recipe at home with all the ingredients and bring to class, if you are unable to cook at school.

Objective: Students will apply their knowledge of fractions, estimation, recording data, observations, percentages and graphing. 

Materials:  (feeds 15 people)
2 large carrots
1 medium onion
2 celery stalks
1 large green pepper
2 large potatoes
2 large tomatoes
crock pot
1 paring knife
1 cutting board
1 liter measuring set (or 1 liter empty plastic soda bottle)
6 beef bouillon cubes
5 liters of water
5 ml of salt
1 scale

Key Questions:
“Why is fraction soup good for you?”
“Why does cooking depend on fractions?”

Record all information on fraction soup worksheet.  Make sure that the portion created by cutting the vegetables are related to fractions.

1. Estimate the mass of each vegetable and record.

2. Weigh each vegetable and record actual amount.

3. Cut each vegetable into fractional parts according to the recipe on the student worksheet (e.g. Cut the potatoes in 2 parts and try to make them as equal as possible, and continue cutting until you get 16 parts). 

4. Estimate the mass of one fractional part of each vegetable and record.

5. Weigh each fractional vegetable part and record actual amount.

6. Count the total parts of each vegetable and record.

7. Wash all the vegetable parts and drain in a colander.

8. Put the vegetables into the crock pot, add 5 liters of water, 5 ml of salt and 6 beef bouillon cubes.

9. Cook for 30 minutes on medium setting.

10. Present the soup to the students and serve.

11. Before eating, each student counts how many parts of each vegetable they find in their soup and record.

12. Complete all worksheets.

1.  Record these answers in your food journal.

2. In student journal, have the students respond to the following questions, “What other recipes might contain fractions? "Why is fraction soup good for you?" 

3. Cut out recipe and place into your journal.

Extension:  Have the students compare a daily food intake entry from their journals to a serving of Fraction Soup.  Which one represents a more balanced meal?

Cross Content Workplace Readiness: 5.4, 5.7.
Mathematics: 4.6.11, 4.6.12, 4.6.14,  4.8.8, 4.8.9, 4.9.7, 4.9.10, 4.10.7, 4.10.8, 4.10.9, 4.10.10, 4.11.7, 4.12.9, 4.12.11, 4.13.6.
Science: 5.27, 5.2.8, 5.2.9, 5.5.5, 5.5.6, 5.5.7, 5.5.8, 5.5.9.

This project has been developed by teachers from Public Schools No. 8 and 18 in Pateson, New Jersey in conjunction with CIESE at Stevens Institute of Technology, Bank Street College, and Saint Peter's College with support through an Eisenhower Professional Development Program that is administered by the New Jersey State Department of Education.

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