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Foreign cultures

The U.S. culture tries to dominate the world. That’s why other countries call it the vulture culture.

Here’s an old riddle:

What do you call somebody who speaks many languages? “Multilingual”

What do you call somebody who speaks two languages? “Bilingual”

What do you call somebody who speaks just one language? “American”

According to the Internet, the United Nations conducted a worldwide survey whose only question was:

Please give your honest opinion about the solution to the food shortage in the rest of the world.

The survey failed because nobody understood the question.

In Africa,                   they didn’t know what “food” meant.

In Eastern Europe,    they didn’t know what “honest” meant.

In Western Europe,   they didn’t know what “shortage” meant.

In China,                   they didn’t know what “opinion” meant.

In the Middle East,    they didn’t know what “solution” meant.

In Australia,              they didn’t know what “please” meant.

And in the U.S.,        they didn’t know what “the rest of the world” meant.

Back in the 1500’s, the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was Charles V. He was truly international: he grew up in France (and Belgium), but his mother was Spanish, his father was German, and when he became emperor his territory included Italy. Here’s how he explained the difference between French, Spanish, German, and Italian:

I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men, and German to my horse.

A T-shirt in the British Virgin Islands says:

Heaven is where the police are British, the cooks are French, the mechanics German, the lovers Italian, and it’s all organized by the Swiss.

Hell is where the chefs are British, the mechanics are French, the lovers Swiss, the police German, and it’s all organized by the Italians.

Here’s how the captain of a sinking cruise ship convinces the passengers to jump overboard:

He tells the English it would be “unsporting” of them not to jump.

He tells the French it would be the “smart” thing to do.

He tells the Germans it’s an “order.”

He tells the Italians that jumping overboard is “forbidden.”

The world keeps changing. Here’s an expanded version of statements by Charles Barkley and Chris Rock:

You know the world is crazy when the best rapper’s a white guy, the best golfer’s a black guy, the NBA’s tallest famous player is Chinese, the Swiss hold America’s Cup, France is accusing the U.S. of arrogance, Germany doesn’t want to go to war, and the 3 most powerful men in America are named “Bush,” “Dick,” and “Colon.”

Americans often forget where the rest of the world is. For example, Americans forget these facts:

Europe is as far north as Canada, though warmed by the Gulf Stream. For example, Venice (in warm Italy) is farther north than Halifax (in Canada’s Nova Scotia).

South America is east of the United States. For example, if you go straight south from Florida’s Key West, which South American country do you hit? The answer is: none! You’re west of all of South America!

The shortest way to fly from the United States to Europe (or Northern Africa or Asia) is to fly north, across or near the North Pole. For example, the shortest way to fly from Miami (in Florida) to Casablanca (in Africa’s Morocco) is to fly near Maine. The state closest to Africa is Maine, not Florida. To see that clearly, buy a globe; don’t trust traditional maps, which distort distances.

Those facts are from the geography chapter of Peter Winkler’s Mathematical Puzzles.

And now, from DOSJOKL (the Department of Stupid Jokes Only Kids Love), here’s a geography riddle:

Why won’t you starve in the Sahara desert?


Because of the sandwiches there.

(Read that out loud.)



Canadians love telling this tale:

On the sixth day of creating the universe, God turned to the angel Gabriel and said, “Today I’m going to create a land called Canada, full of outstanding natural beauty: majestic mountains with mountain goats & eagles, sparkling lakes bountiful with bass & trout, forests full of elk & moose, high cliffs overlooking sandy beaches with abundant sea life, and rivers stocked with salmon. I’ll make the land rich in oil to make prosperous the inhabitants, called Canadians, who’ll be known as the friendliest people on earth.”

“But Lord,” asked Gabriel, “don’t you think you’re being too generous to these Canadians?”

“Not really,” replied God. “Just wait and see the neighbors I’m going to give them.”

Yes, Canadians have trouble dealing with their southern neighbor!

Pierre Trudeau (who was Canada’s prime minister) said:

Canada’s main exports are hockey players and cold fronts.

Our main import is acid rain.

Will Ferguson said:

The great themes of Canadian history are these: keeping the Americans out, keeping the French in, and trying to get the Natives to somehow disappear.

Laurence J. Peter (who invented the Peter Principle) said:

I must spend so much time explaining to Americans that I’m not English and to Englishmen that I’m not American that I have little time left to be Canadian.

Mike Myers said:

Canada is the essence of not being (not being English, not American) and a subtle flavor: we’re more like celery.

Andy Barrie said:

We’ll explain to you the appeal of curling if you explain to us the appeal of the National Rifle Association.



The Germans view the world differently from Americans.


Germans have a different view of cockroaches. The German word for “cockroach” is Küchenshabe, which means “kitchen scraper.” Whenever a German woman looks at a cockroach, she considers the cockroach to be a cute little robot that sweeps her kitchen. She doesn’t scream; instead, she says “Thank you!”

Mark Twain hated German

German grammar and literary style seem weird — especially to Americans such as Mark Twain. In 1880, Mark Twain critiqued German grammar in “The Awful German Language,” included in his essay collection called A Tramp Abroad.

German’s most amazing feature is the order in which Germans put their words.

Instead of saying “when you eat tuna,” Germans say, “when you tuna eat” — because Germans put the verb (“eat”) at the end of the clause, whenever you have a subordinate clause (a clause that begins with a word such as “when” or “if”).

Germans love to invent long adjectives. Instead of saying “the man who loves dogs,” Germans say “the dog-loving man.”

Germans carry those two rules to an extreme.

Germans move the verb to the subordinate clause’s end,

even if the clause is very long.

Germans create adjectives long enough to contain most of the sentence!

Mark Twain found a German newspaper’s article whose words were in this order:

In the day-before-yesterday-shortly-after-eleven-o’clock night, the in-this-town-standing tavern called “The Wagoner” was down-burnt. When the fire to the on-the-downburninghouse-resting stork’s nest reached, flew the parent storks away. But when the by-the-raging-fire-surrounded nest itself caught fire, straightway plunged the quick-returning mother stork into the flames and died, her wings over her young ones outspread.



Spanish is one of the world’s most popular languages. Give it a look!


Of all the world’s popular languages, Spanish is the easiest to pronounce. Spanish’s rules of pronunciation are simple — if you ignore the exceptions!

Here are the rules and their exceptions.…

Vowels Spanish has just 5 vowel sounds:

a is pronounced like the “a”   in “mama” or “father” or “ah!”

e is pronounced like the “é”   in “café”

i  is pronounced like the “i”   in “machine” or “police” (or the “ee” in “see”)

o is pronounced like the “o”  in “go” or “no” or “oh!”

u is pronounced like the “u”  in “rule” or “flute” (or the “oo” in “moo”)


After “q” or “g”, u is silent, unless it has two dots over it (ü), in which case it’s pronounced like the English “w.”

To practice those vowel sounds and exceptions, say these Spanish words, which you probably know already:

taco, burrito, mosquito, no, la, salsa, olé, padre, madre, mesa, tequila, Santa Fe

When y is at a word’s end, it’s pronounced the same as i.

Consonants Spanish pronounces these consonants about the same way as in English: b, d, f, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, w, and y.

To sound truly Hispanic (instead of having an English accent), use these tricks:

When saying l, make your tongue touch your mouth’s roof just near your teeth (like the “l” in “leaf” or “leak”), not farther back.

When saying k or p or t, don’t put a puff of air afterwards. When saying the t, say it softly and make your tongue touch the teeth (instead of your mouth’s roof).

Say b lazily (without quite closing your lips) if b comes immediately after a vowel sound (even if the vowel is at the end of the previous word). The lazy b sounds roughly like the English “v.”

When you see m at a word’s end, say “n” instead of “m.”

When saying the d, make your tongue touch your teeth (instead of your mouth’s roof). When you see d immediately after a vowel sound (even if the vowel’s at the end of the previous word), make the d sound like the “th” in “then,” softly (so you can barely hear it).

When n comes before p, b, f, v, or m, say “m” instead of “n”. When n comes before g, j, k, or w, say the “ng” in “sing.”

Some regions speak differently:

In northern and central Spain, s is pronounced like the “th” in “thin.”

In the Caribbean, when s comes before another consonant, people are too lazy to say the s: the s is silent or pronounced as an “h.”

In the River Plate area (which is on the Argentina-Uruguay border), y is pronounced like the “sh” in “she” or the “s” in “vision.”

The symbol ñ is pronounced like the “ny” in “canyon”.

These Spanish sounds are the same as others:

Pronounce z the same as the Spanish s.

Pronounce v the same as the Spanish b.

Pronounce the pair ll the same as the Spanish y.

Pronounce c the same as the Spanish k usually; but before e or i, pronounce c the same as the Spanish s. So pronounce cc (which comes before e or i) the same as a Spanish k followed by a Spanish s.

Here’s how to pronounce the other letters:

Don’t pronounce h: it’s silent! So when you see an h, ignore it. Don’t even pause! Exception: pronounce ch like the “ch” in “cheese.”

Pronounce j like the “h” in “hot.” Exception: in northern Spain, it’s pronounced by gargling (like the Scottish “ch” in “loch” or the German “ch” in “ich” and “Bach”). To practice j, say these Spanish words, which you probably know already: jalapeño, Jose.

Pronounce g like the “g” in “go” usually; but before e or i, pronounce g the same as the Spanish j.

Usually pronounce r as between “t” and “d”. Better yet, pronounce r as between the “tt” in “butter” and the “dd” in “ladder”. Better yet, pronounce r as a Brooklyn “th” (because in Brooklyn, “the” is pronounced “duh” or, more precisely, halfway between “duh” and “tuh”). To practice that r, say this Spanish word: para. Exception: pronounce r instead like a long Scottish rolled “r” (trill) when the r is at the word’s beginning or comes after l, n, or s or is written rr.

Pronounce x like “ks” usually. At a word’s beginning or before a consonant, pronounce it like “s”. Exception: pronounce it like “s” in exacto and auxilio. More exceptions: in names invented by Central America natives (such as Xola, Xela, and México), pronounce it like “sh” at a name’s beginning, “h” at other parts of the name.

Stress Stress (emphasize) the next-to-last syllable. Examples:

taco, burrito, mosquito, salsa, padre, madre, mesa, tequila, santa

Exception: if a word ends in a consonant that’s neither n nor s, stress the last syllable. Examples:

español, usted, mujer, favor, azul, pedal, felicidad, actualidad

Further exception: if a vowel has an acute accent (the symbol ´), stress that vowel instead. That accent’s usual purpose is just to tell you which syllable to stress.

Stressing the right syllable is important! For example, papá (which stresses the last syllable) means “dad” but papa (which stresses the next-to-last syllable) means “pope” or “potato,” so don’t call your father “papa!”

Sometimes the acute accent is written just to distinguish two words that would otherwise look the same. For example, de means “of” but means “give”; both words are pronounced the same. Another example: si means “if” but means “yes.”


Vowel pairs When vowels are next to each other, they form a vowel pair. In a vowel pair, pronounce the vowels one-by-one. For example, to pronounce eo, pronounce the e (which sounds like the one in “café”) then pronounce the o (which sounds like the one in “go”).

The vowels i and u are weak. The other vowels (a, e, and o) are strong. Here are the rules:

A vowel pair counts as 2 syllables if both vowels are strong; otherwise, the vowel pair counts as just 1 syllable. Combine that rule with the stress rules above, to decide which syllable to stress.

When two weak vowels are next to each other, put more stress on the second vowel. When a weak vowel is next to a strong vowel, put more stress on the strong vowel.

Try it! Hey, you boring white-guy anglo: the next time you see Spanish (on a sign, ad, or instructions), try pronouncing the Spanish properly! Make your mouth marvelous!

Don’t be embarrassed

To translate the typical English word into Spanish, just add an o or an a. For example, “American” becomes Americano. But be careful:

Bizarro  does not mean “bizarre”; it means “gallant.”

Insano  can mean “insane” but sometimes means just “unhealthy.”

Bravo    can mean “brave” but sometimes means “wild,” “spicy” or “angry.”

If you’re a woman who feels embarrassed, don’t say you’re embarazada, since that means “pregnant.” If you say you’re embarazada, you’ll be very embarrassed!

American companies have made embarrassing blunders when trying to sell to Hispanics:

Hewlett-Packard invited Hispanics to a special demonstration of Hewlett-Packard equipment and gave each attendee a badge, showing the person’s name and the letters “HP,” which stands for “Hewlett-Packard.” Hewlett-Packard didn’t realize that in Spanish, HP is the standard abbreviation for hijo puta, which is short for hijo de puta, which means “son of a prostitute,” which is the Spanish equivalent of the American expression “son of a bitch.” My friend Miguel got insulted when Hewlett-Packard gave him a badge saying, in effect, that Miguel was a “son of a bitch.”

Coca-Cola’s ads, which showed wild teenagers drinking Coke at the beach, annoyed Hispanics, who prefer to drink Coke somberly in the kitchen or the dining room, as if it were iced tea or wine. Coke’s executives finally wised up and switched to Spanish ads showing Hispanics drinking Coke as the perfect complement to a wonderful meal.

Latin American dangers

If you learned Spanish from a classical textbook and then go to Latin America, you’ll be surprised — because some Latin Americans have dirty minds.

For example, consider the Spanish word for “boy.” In Spain, the usual word for “boy” is niño or muchacho; but in El Salvador, the usual word for “boy” is cipote, which means “penis” or “little fucker.”

In Spain, the usual word for “mother” is madre, and the usual word for “father” is padre. Just infants say mamá and papá instead. A popular insult is tu padre, which means “your father — I shit on him!” A Spaniard’s biggest insult is to shit on a father; an American’s biggest insult is to fuck a mother instead.

In Mexico (a country that loves insults!), the tu padre insult has become so popular that the very mention of the word padre is considered offensive. So if you go to Mexico, you must never use the word padre. Instead, Mexicans use the word papá. Yes, polite Mexicans who want to avoid insults spend their entire lives talking like infants: they always say papá and mamá instead of padre and madre.

In Spain, the main word for “seize” or “pick up” is coger. For example, to “pick up the telephone” is coger el teléfono. But if you say coger el teléfono in Mexico or Argentina, everybody will laugh at you — because in those countries, coger is used just for picking up girls and fucking them. If you say you want to coger el teléfono, people will wonder why you want to fuck the telephone. Instead of coger, you must use the other word for “pick up,” which is tomar.

The typical Spanish-English dictionary says bollo means a bun (or muffin or bump) and papaya is a kind of fruit. But the dictionary doesn’t mention that bollo and papaya have obscene connotations in Cuba, where bollo is a woman’s pussy, and papaya is even worse. So if a Cuban woman serves you a muffin, don’t say, “I like your bollo” — unless you know her very well!


Though Spaniards often say olé, the word olé isn’t really Spanish: it’s Arabic. In Arabic, olé means “By God!” Spaniards snatched olé from the Arabs when the Arabs invaded Spain in 711 A.D.



In France, the meals are named as follows:

Meal                        Name in France

breakfast                   petit déjeuner

lunch                         déjeuner

supper                       dîner

after-theater snack     souper

French Canadians, who are always in a rush, serve their meals earlier: they serve lunch (déjeuner) at breakfast time and serve supper (dîner) at lunchtime, like this:

Time                        What you get in French Canada

breakfast                   déjeuner

lunch                         dîner

supper                       souper

To the French Canadian who explained all this to me, I asked, “What do you call the after-theater snack?” He replied, “In French Canada, we don’t go to the theater.”

French kids are like criminals

French has two words for “you.” The formal word is vous; the informal word, tu, is used just when speaking to close friends (such as relatives, colleagues, and God) and lower forms of life (such as children, criminals, and inanimate objects).

Make sure you choose the correct word. For example, one summer I was talking to a French Canadian girl who was 3 years old. Since she was a child, I should have called her “tu,” but I made the mistake of calling her “vous” instead, which was too formal. She was so amused at my formality — at my treating her like a queen — that she curtsied. She also called me a vieille banane, which means “old banana.”

When I asked why I was being called an “old banana,” her mom said I might have heard wrong; maybe the girl was calling me a vieux bonhomme, which means “old gentleman.”

But then we heard the girl call me a vieille banane again, and her mom admitted I was indeed being called an “old banana,” but consoled me by saying that “Old Banana” was just a TV personality whom the girl thought I resembled.

Oh, well. I’ve been called worse!

How Americans changed France

What do the French admire about us Americans? To find out, look at which words the French have borrowed from us.

The French use these American words for types of music:

blues, country, folk, gospel, jazz, pop, rock, slow, soul

The French use these American words for clothing:

boots, fashion-victim, pullover, shoes, tee-shirt, trench-coat

The French say sweat for a sweatshirt. The French say basket for a basketball sneaker or any other sports sneaker.

The French use these American words for food & drink:

bacon, cake, chewing-gum, chips, cocktail, cookie, hotdog, pudding, roast-beef, sandwich, toast, whiskey

The French say lunch for any cold meal, even at dinnertime. The French say corn-flakes for any breakfast cereal dunked in cold milk, even if it contains no corn.

Here are more American words have crept into the French language and are popular in France now:

baby-boom, baby-sitter, best-seller, bike, biker, blazer, body-building, boss, boy-scout, brainstorming, building, camping, compact disk, cockpit, cowboy, cozy, crash, dancing, drugstore, DVD, e-mail, engineering, film, flash, flashback, gangster, high-tech, hippie, hobby, holdup, job, kidnapper, kitchenette, lad, lobby, loser, marketing, music-hall, nightclub, nurse, okay, parking, pickup, pinup, poster, punk, revolver, scan, scanner, script, self-made-man, self-service, sex-appeal, sexy, shopping, slogan, snack-bar, snowboard, sofa, steward, stop, surf, teenager, ticket, top, tuner, up-to-date, wagon, web, weekend

The French say black for any dark-skinned person, say blush for cheek makeup, say break for a coffee break, say chat for Internet chat, say dandy for a fancy-looking person, say gloss for lip gloss, say hit for a success, say jet for jet airplane, say look for appearance, say mail for e-mail, say net for Internet, say roller for roller skates, say sitting for a sit-down protest demonstration in the street, say spot for a spotlight, say starter for a car-ignition starter, say stick for lipstick or a glue stick, say tank for an army tank, say trust for a big international company, say turnover for personnel changes, and say Western for a cowboy movie.

The French put le before most of those words: le best-seller, le boy-scout, le brainstorming, etc. The main exceptions are kitchenette and nurse, which the French consider to both be feminine, so they get la instead of le.

Old French fuddy-duddies who don’t like English intrusions call them Franglais.

More examples of French craziness are in 1001 Pitfalls in French, by Grew & Oliver. I thank Christophe Paysant’s family for helping me keep the list updated.

Bilingual beauties

The ultimate French-American was Maurice Chevalier, who loved to sing in English with a French accent. I wish he would have sung “My Way” — he would have been cute — but Sinatra got that job.

French teachers love the bilingual song popularized by Nat King Cole in the 1950’s:

Darling, je vous aime beaucoup.

Je ne sais pas what to do!

I wish more people would write bilingual songs like that!

French can get confused with English. For example, consider this tale:

One fine winter evening, an American girl had a date with her French lover. When she opened her door to let him in, he burst in and exclaimed, “Je t’adore!” (which means “I adore you!” and practically means “Will you marry me?”)

He eagerly awaited her reply. But since she didn’t know French and thought he said “Shut da door,” she replied: “I don’t feel a draft.”

Moral: if you don’t know French, you’ll miss lovely opportunities!



Speaking Japanese is easy — because the Japanese borrowed many words from us Americans.

3 rules

To speak Japanese, you need to know just 3 rules.

Rule 1: the Japanese don’t like c, l and v The Japanese change c to either k or s (depending on how the c is pronounced in English), change l to r, and change v to b. For example, the English word “vitamin” becomes the Japanese word bitamin.

Let’s translate the English word “gasoline” into Japanese. Since the Japanese hate long words, they abridge it to “gasolin”; then they apply rule 1, which gives gasorin.

Let’s translate “television” into Japanese. Since the Japanese hate long words, they abridge it to “televi”; then they apply rule 1, which gives terebi.

Rule 2: the Japanese avoid putting two consonants next to each other To apply that rule, the Japanese often resort to cleverness.

For example, let’s translate the English word “correspondence” into Japanese. Since the Japanese hate long words, they abridge it to “correspon”; then they apply rule 1, which gives “korrespon.” But according to rule 2, the Japanese don’t like the “rr” and the “sp.” So the Japanese shorten the “rr” to “r,” and shorten the “sp” to “p,” and get korepon.

Rule 2 says to avoid pairs of consonants. The Japanese often break up a pair of consonants by inserting “u” in the middle of the pair. For example, to break up “pr,” the Japanese often insert “u” in the middle and get “pur.” Thus, the English word “pro” (which means “professional”) becomes the Japanese word puro.

Let’s translate “word processor.” The Japanese think it sounds like “ward processor.” Since the Japanese hate long expressions, they abridge it to “wa pro.” To break up the “pr,” they insert “u” in the middle, and get wapuro.

Let’s translate “platform.” The Japanese abridge it to “platfo.” Applying rule 1, they get “pratfo.” According to rule 2, the “pr” and “tf” are unacceptable, so the Japanese change “pr” to “pur” and change “tf” to “t”: they get purato.

Rule 3: the only consonant the Japanese permit at the end of a word is n To avoid ending with a consonant that’s not n, the Japanese add the letter “o” or “u” at the end.

For example, let’s translate the word “gas.” Since “gas” ends in a consonant, which violates rule 3, the Japanese add the letter “u” at the end, and get gasu.

Let’s translate the word “hotel.” Applying rule 1, that becomes “hoter.” Since that ends in a consonant, rule 3 makes the Japanese add the letter “u” at the end, and get hoteru.

Let’s translate “catalog.” Applying rule 1, that becomes “katarog.” Rule 3 makes the Japanese add “u” and get katarogu.

Let’s translate “bell.” Applying rule 1, that becomes “berr.” Applying rule 2, the “rr” is shortened to “r,” giving “ber.” Rule 3 makes the Japanese add “u” and get beru.

Let’s translate “pool,” which is pronounced “pul.” Applying rule 1, that becomes “pur.” Rule 3 makes the Japanese add “u” and get puru.

Let’s translate “building,” which is pronounced “bilding,” and which the Japanese abridge to “bil.” Applying rule 1, that becomes “bir.” Rule 3 makes the Japanese add “u” and get biru.

Let’s translate “apartment.” The Japanese abridge it to “apart.” But rule 2 says the “rt” is unacceptable, so the Japanese abridge it to “t,” giving “apat.” Rule 3 makes the Japanese add “o” and get apato.

Let’s translate “software.” The Japanese abridge it to “soft.” Since the Japanese have difficulty hearing the difference between f and h, they think it sounds like “soht.” But rule 2 says the “ht” is unacceptable, so the Japanese insert “u,” giving “sohut.” Rule 3 makes the Japanese add “o” and get sohuto.

Let’s translate “personal computer.” The Japanese pronounce it “parsonal computer,” and abridge it to “parso com.” According to rule 1, that becomes “parso kom.” Since rule 2 says the “rs” is unacceptable, the Japanese then drop the “r” and get “pasokom.” But that violates rule 3. To satisfy rule 3, the Japanese change the “m” to “n,” and get pasokon.

Here’s what we Americans gave the Japanese:

English          Japanese                                English          Japanese

apple pie         appuru pai                                glass                garasu

basketball        basuketto bōru                         handkerchief   hankachi

beefsteak         bifuteki                                  ice cream         aisu kuriimu

beer                 biiru                                          missile            misairu

cabin               kabin                                         necktie            nekutai

can                  kan                                            postbox           posuto

coat                    kōto                                          raincoat           rein-kōto

coffee                 kōhii                                          sandwich         sandoitchi

deck                dekki                                         spoon                 spūn

democracy      demokurashii                        sports                 spōtsu

demonstration demonsuturēshon                 stocking          sutokkingu

department      depāto                                      table                tēburu

dessert            dezāto                                       tennis court     tenisu kōto

escalator          esukarētā                                  truck               torakku

flashbulb         furasshu barubu                        typewriter        taipuraitā


If you want to impress your friends, say our alphabet — in Japanese! Here’s how the Japanese say it: ei, bii, shii, dei, ii, efu, jii, eichi, ai, jei, kei, eru, emu, enu, oo, pii, kyuu, āru, esu, tei, yuu, bui, dabburu yuu, ekisu, uai, zetto.

Country of yes-men

How would you feel if a stranger walked up to you and said just “Yes!” even though you hadn’t asked a question? That’s how the Japanese feel about us Americans — because when we need to talk with a stranger, we begin by saying “Hi!” which sounds the same as the Japanese word hai, which means yes. Next time you say “Hi” to a visitor from Japan, don’t be surprised if he responds by saying, “I’m sorry — what was the question?”

Japanese like hurly-burly

To make a word plural, the Japanese like to say the word twice, but changing the first letter. For example, the Japanese word for “person” is hito; the Japanese word for “people” is hito-bito.

In that example, h became b. Notice that h is a “quiet” letter; it became b, which is a “noisy” letter. The general rule is: a quiet letter becomes a noisy letter. Here are more examples:

Rule                      Example

h becomes b              “person”  is hito             “people”          is hito-bito

k becomes g           “god”       is kami           “gods”             is kami-gami

t becomes d           “time”      is toki             “sometimes”   is toki-doki

f becomes b           “joint”     is fushi            “every joint”   is fushi-bushi

s becomes z           “that”       is sore             “every”           is sore-zore

sh becomes j          “island”   is shima          “islands”         is shima-jima

ts becomes z          “month”  is tsuki            “every month”    is tsuki-zuki

To have fun, apply those same rules to English. Ask your lover: “Do you want tickle-dickle, hug-bug, kiss-giss, or just shower-jower?”


The most important foreign country is China. Here’s why.…

China is slightly smaller than the U.S. but contains 4 times as many people. There are over 1.2 billion people in China, compared with under .3 billion in the U.S.

There are 6 billion people in the whole world. A quarter of them live in China.

At first glance, China doesn’t look crowded; but it is. The U.S. has just one crowded city (New York); China has several. The U.S. has vast unoccupied areas (forests, deserts, mountains, canyons, and swamps); China’s are smaller.

To prevent further crowding, the Chinese government passed many laws encouraging couples to have just one child.

India is even more crowded: it’s much smaller than China but contains almost as many people (1 billion). India permits couples to have many children, and then do. In the next 25 years, people predict India’s population will increase to 1.4 billion, making it even more populous than China; but for now, China is still the most populous country.

Of all the languages in the world, Mandarin Chinese is the most popular native language. For every person whose native language is English, there are 2½ people whose native language is Mandarin Chinese. (The world’s other popular native language is Hindi, spoken in India; it’s just slightly more popular than English.)

If you travel all over the world, you’ll discover that more schools teach English than Chinese. In all countries, students study English, usually as a foreign language. Even students in China study English! That makes English the most popular foreign language; but Chinese is the most popular native language.

China is modernizing fast. Chinese consumers are rapidly buying Western goods, and Chinese factories are rapidly making goods to sell to the West. The Chinese are very excited about all that international trade in both directions, and the Chinese have been quickly constructing fancy factories, fancy stores, and fancy housing. China’s stock market and real-estate market have both been generating huge profits for investors. China is exciting — a hot marketplace.

The Chinese government’s challenge is to control the bubble so it grows safely without bursting. China’s immediate concern is to slow down construction somewhat (to give the electric utilities a chance to catch up with the increased demand) and to fix the banking system (where half of all loans are never repaid, because they’re given too easily to friends, politicians, and failing government-owned businesses).

After the Soviet Union disintegrated, China was left as the only big country worrying the U.S. (Of course, the U.S. worries about smaller countries too, such as North Korea and battlers in the Middle East.) China is worrisome because:


China’s the biggest country without freedom of speech.

China’s the biggest country whose government continually tells lies. (It even lies about the weather & temperature, to prevent government employees from requesting time off when it’s too hot to work.)

China is the U.S.’s biggest trading partner. It has the biggest effect on U.S. jobs: without cheap goods from China, Wal-Mart would be dead.

Goods from China have cost little because the Chinese government kept an artificial exchange rate of about 8 yuan per dollar, even though most economists say a fairer rate would be 5 yuan per dollar. Other countries have asked China to change the exchange rate, and China’s promised to do so by the 2008 Olympics. So far, China has let the exchange rate dip to 6½ yuan per dollar, so a yuan costs about 15¢. When China eventually lets the exchange rate fall to 5 yuan per dollar, the whole world’s trade could be thrown out of kilter, unless China handles the change carefully.

China’s borders touch many countries that the U.S. worries about. Though most Chinese people yellow-skinned, some are white (near Russia’s border) and some are brown (near India’s border). Like the U.S., China has many minorities, which celebrate their own cultures, though not as freely as in the U.S. (since the Chinese government frowns on religions and anything threatening the Chinese Communist Party).


If you want a challenge, try learning Chinese! It’s tricky!

In China, most signs are written just in Chinese characters, but a few signs also show writing in pinyin, which uses Roman characters (to help Westerners and young Chinese kids who haven’t learned all the Chinese characters yet).

To understand Chinese, your first step is to learn how to pronounce pinyin. Here’s how.

Consonants In pinyin, these 15 consonants are pronounced about the same way as in English: b, p, d, t, k, m, n, l, r, f, s, h, j, w, and y. Here are 3 other easy consonants: pronounce g like the one in “go,” sh like the one in “she,” and ch like the one in “cheese.”

Unfortunately, these 5 consonants are pronounced quite differently from English:

q     is pronounced like the “ch” in “cheese”

x     is pronounced like the “sh” in “she”

c     is pronounced like the “ts”  in “nuts”

z     is pronounced like the “dz” in “gadzooks”

zh   is pronounced like the “j”   in “jump”

To sound truly Chinese (instead of having an American accent), use these tricks.…

To say y and w, open your mouth more than in English, so the y sounds almost like the ee in “see,” and the w sounds almost like the “oo” in “moo.”

For h, g, and k, arch the back of your tongue toward your mouth’s roof (so h sounds like the Scottish “ch” in “loch” or the German “ch” in “ich” and “Bach”).

For r, roll your tongue in the middle of your mouth.

For j, q, and x, draw your mouth’s corners as far back as possible, so you look like you’re grinning: q looks like you’re taking a photo and saying “cheese”; x sounds like a kettle ready to whistle, halfway between “sh” and “s”. Grin for those single letters (j, q, and x) but not for double letters (zh, ch, and sh). Beijing’s local dialect adds a “ur” sound after the double letters: so just in Beijing, zh is pronounced like the “jur” in “jury,” ch is pronounced like the “chur” in “church,” and sh is pronounced like “sure.” That’s why people in Beijing sound like they’re growling and muttering: they frequently add “ur-r-r-r-r!”

Vowels In pinyin, most vowels are pronounced the same way as in French. So before studying Chinese, it’s helpful to study French! That’s why the French speak Chinese better than other Westerners.

Since you probably don’t know French yet, here are examples in English:

a is pronounced like the “a”   in “mama” or “papa” or “father” or “far”

e is pronounced like the “e”   in “her” or “term” (or the “e” in French “le”)

i  is pronounced like the “i”   in “machine” or “police” (or the “ee” in “see”)

o is pronounced like the “o”  in “or” (or the “aw” in “awful”)

u is pronounced like the “u”  in “rule” or “flute” (or the “oo” in “moo”)

ü is pronounced like the “ü”  in German “über”  (or the “u” in French “tu” or somewhat like the “eu” in English “pneumonia”); to make that sound, purse your lips like you’re going to whistle, but then say “ee” through them

Here are two exceptions:

when the i sound comes after z, zh, c, ch, s, sh, or r, people pronounce it like the e sound but with the mouth less open, so it almost sounds like “r”

when the ü sound comes after the letter j, q, x, or y, people don’t bother to write the ¨: they write just u; so if you see u after j, q, x, or y, pronounce it as ü

When several vowels are next to each other, pronounce them one-by-one. For example, to pronounce ai, pronounce the a (which sounds like the one in “mama”) then pronounce the i (which sounds like the one in “machine”); you’ll wind up with a diphthong (vowel sequence) that sounds like the “i” in “bite”. Chinese uses these 13 diphthongs:

ai       sounds like the “i” in “bite”

ei       sounds like the “ei” in “veil” (or the “a” in “date”)

ui       sounds like compromise between “we” and “way”

ao   sounds like the “ow” in “cow”

uo   sounds like the “wa” in “war”

ou   sounds like the “o” in “go”

iu       sounds like the “yo” in “yo-yo”

ia       sounds like the “ya” in “yard”

iao  sounds like the “eow” in “meow”

ua   sounds like the “ua” in “suave”

uai  sounds like the “wi” in “swipe”

ie       sounds like the “ie” in “sierra” (or the “ye” in “yes”)

üe   sounds like the “eu” in “pneumonia” followed by “air”

In Chinese, the typical syllable consists of one consonant sound, then one vowel sound (or a diphthong), then, optionally, a special ending (n or ng or r). Any special ending affects the sound of the vowel before it:

er   sounds like the “er” in “her,” but with your mouth slightly more open, so it almost sounds like the word “are”

an   sounds like the English word “an” (and the “an” in “fan”), but pronounce the “n” very softly and briefly, so you hear not much more than the “a” in “an”

ian  sounds like “yen,” but pronounce the “n” very softly and briefly

en   sounds like the “un” in “under”

in       sounds like the English words “in” and “inn”

un   sounds like the “ewin” in the word “chewin’” (slang for “chewing”)

ün   sounds like the French word “une”

ang sounds like the “ong” in “gong”

eng sounds like the “ung” in “hung”

ing  sounds like the “ing” in “ring”

ong sounds like the English electrical word “ohm” (and the meditation word “Om”) but with “ng” instead of “m”; it also sounds like the word “going” but without the “g” and “i”

For example, here’s how to pronounce Chinese family names (in Mandarin):

The Chinese family name Li          is pronounced “lee.”

The Chinese family name Tang is pronounced “tong.”

The Chinese family name Wang   is pronounced “wong.”

The Chinese family name Yang is pronounced “yong.”

The Chinese family name Zhang   is pronounced “jong.”

The Chinese family name Chen is pronounced “chun.”

The Chinese family name Cheng  is pronounced “chung.”

The Chinese family name Song is pronounced “so” then “ng.”

Tones In pinyin, you can put 4 accents above a vowel. The accents are called tones. The tones can make a difference:

ma is a Chinese word that means “huh” and marks the end of a question

is a Chinese word that means “mother”

is a Chinese word that means “hemp” or “numb” or “pock-marked”

is a Chinese word that means “horse”

is a Chinese word that means “scold” or “swear”

Here’s how to pronounce them:

Pronounce plain ma briefly, like a grunt. That’s called toneless or tone 0.

Pronounce as a long, high note, as if you were an Italian singer (like Pavarotti) singing a high note of an opera or a popular song. While you sing it, hold your pitch steady, going neither up the scale nor down it. Sing it for about half a second (while you count “one, one thou…”). It’s the tone American doctors use when they tell you to open your mouth and say “ah.” That’s called the first tone or high tone or flat tone.

Pronounce so it rises from “medium pitch” to “high pitch,” like a singer sliding up the scale. To pronounce it easily, raise your eyebrows while saying it. Make its length be rather short. It’s the same tone Americans use when they ask “what?” It’s called the second tone or rising tone.

Pronounce so it dips from “medium-low pitch” to “low pitch” then rises to “medium-high pitch.” Make the pitch swoop down, like an eagle catching its prey, then swoop back up. To pronounce it easily, drop your chin onto your neck and then raise it again. It takes a long time to finish the performance. It’s called the third tone or dipping tone or low tone.

Pronounce so it falls from “high pitch” to “low pitch,” like a singer sliding down the scale. Do it fast, so its length is very short. Start loud but quickly fade, as if you’re a singer who has a heart attack: let out a quick high-pitched yelp, then wither (with your voice) to the floor. To pronounce it easily, stomp your foot gently while saying it. It’s the tone Americans use when they yell “Hah!” or “No!” or a command (such as “Stop!”) It’s called the fourth tone or falling tone.

When a Chinese person speaks to you, tones 1 and 3 are easy to recognize, since they’re long: tone 1 stays high; tone 3 dips. If you hear a syllable that’s short, it’s either tone 0 (which is quiet), tone 4 (which is forceful and accented), or tone 2 (which rises).

To practice the tones, try saying this sentence:

Má mā mà mă ma?

It means “Pock-marked mother scold horse, huh?” which means “Does the pock-marked mother scold the horse?”

For “mother,” the Chinese can say mā but more commonly say māma. (The first syllable is the first tone; the second syllable is toneless. The word sounds like an American baby yelling for his mother: “Mama!”) You can put it in that sentence:

Má māma mà mă ma?

A syllable is toneless if it’s a repetition, such as the ma at the end of māma. Here’s another example of repetition: the Chinese word for “father” or “papa” is bàba. For brothers & sisters, the Chinese care about their ages:

“Older brother” is gēge,  but “younger brother” is dìdi.

“Older sister” is jiĕjie,    but “younger sister” is mèimei.

So a syllable is toneless if it’s a repetition — or if it’s a particle (a grammar element, such as the ma that means “huh?”).

When ordering food, be careful:

tāng means soup, but táng means sugar

yán means salt, but yān means tobacco

Many family names use the second tone (Táng, Wáng, Yáng, Chén, and Chéng), but these family names use different tones: Zhāng, Lĭ, and Sòng.

Laziness about tones Saying the 3rd tone requires a lot of time & effort: you’re supposed to dip your voice down, then bring it back up. The Chinese do that full procedure just if the 3rd tone comes before a long pause (such as at the end of a sentence). Otherwise, the Chinese rush by taking these shortcuts:

How to pronounce the 3rd tone (if the next tone is tone 0, 1, 2, or 4): dip the voice down but don’t bother bringing it back up.

How to pronounce the 3rd tone (if the next tone is 3rd also): bring the voice up but don’t bother dipping down first, so instead it sounds like just a 2nd tone (rising tone). Here’s a famous example.… The Chinese don’t have a word for “hello.” Instead of saying “hello,” they greet each other by saying “you look great,” which is usually abridged to “you good.” Since the word for “you” is and the word for “good” is hăo, that would make “you good” be nĭ hăo. But Chinese people are too lazy to dip twice in a row — the Chinese never double-dip — so they switch the first word to a rising tone and say this: ní hăo. Here’s another example.… If you’re chatting about health or feelings and want to say “I’m okay too,” the Chinese form is “I also good,” which would be wŏ yě hăo; but since that would require 3 dips in a row, the Chinese change the first 2 of them to rising and say this: wó yé hăo.

Students and Westerners study tones (to pronounce well), but writing them is tedious, so most sign writers don’t bother writing tones on signs — and I won’t bother writing tones in later parts of this book.

When the Chinese write tones above ü, they sometimes don’t bother writing the dots above the u.

Don’t worry: if you say wrong tones, Chinese listeners can usually guess what you mean. For example, they can guess whether you’re trying to ask for your mother () or a horse (). It’s more important to pronounce correctly consonants and vowels: if you botch those, your listeners will be totally confused.

Wade-Giles Mao’s government started using pinyin in 1958, to communicate with kids and Westerners. But many Westerners kept trying to use an older Romanization system, called Wade-Giles, until the 1980’s. Now we all use pinyin (because it more accurately indicates Chinese pronunciation), but some of you old fogies might still remember the Wade-Giles spellings:

Pinyin, used now                      Wade-Giles, outdated

Bĕijīng            (the capital city)        Peking

Guăngzhōu     (a big city)                 Canton

Chóngqìng      (a big city)                 Chungking

Sìchuān       (a province)              Szechuan

Dào                 (a religion)                Tao

Máo Zédōng   (a famous leader)      Mao Tse-tung

Lĭ Bái              (a famous poet)         Li Po

Láo Zĭ             (a famous writer)      Lao Tzu

Characters Instead of being in pinyin, most signs are in traditional Chinese characters. Each character is a picture, one syllable.

Some characters are simple:

The character for the number “1” is a horizontal line. (The pinyin for “1” is yī.)

The character for the number “2” is two horizontal lines, stacked so they look like an equal sign, except the bottom line is slightly longer. (Pinyin: èr.)

The character for the number “3” is three horizontal lines, stacked, with the bottom line longest and the middle line shortest. (Pinyin: sān.)

The character for the number “ten” is a plus sign. (Pinyin: shí.)

The character for the word “man” (or “person”) looks like a stick figure of a man, but with no head, no arms, and no feet, so you see just a pair of legs (without feet) and a torso, and the whole thing is just two strokes: one stroke is the “torso becoming the left leg”, the other stroke is the right leg. (Pinyin: rén.)

The character for the word “big” is the same as for the word “man” but with outstretched arms added. The “outstretched arms” are just a horizontal line. (Pinyin: .)

Other characters are more complex, containing many keystrokes.

In 1956, Mao’s government simplified the most complex characters. The simplified characters are used on the Chinese mainland but not on the island of Taiwan, which still uses the older, fancier characters.

In Chinese characters, sentences are usually written from left to right (like English), but they can also be written from right to left (which is more traditional) or from top to bottom (vertically, which is even more traditional). Chinese books are usually written from front to back (like English), but they can also be written from back to front (which is more traditional). So when you pick up a Chinese book or newspaper, you must spend a few seconds trying to figure out which direction makes the most sense to read it.

Using numbers Here are the fundamental numbers:

        0 líng      (pronounced “ling”)

        1          (pronounced “yee” or “ee”)

        2 èr         (pronounced “er”)

        3 sān       (pronounced “san”)

        4           (pronounced “suh”)

        5        (pronounced “woo”)

        6 liù        (pronounced like the name “Leo”)

        7          (pronounced “chee”)

        8         (sounds like a sheep: “bah”)

        9 jiŭ        (pronounced like the name “Joe”)

      10 shí        (pronounced like the word “she”)

    100 yìbăi    (pronounced “yee buy” or “ee buy”)

  1000 yìqiān  (pronounced “yee chee an” or “ee chee an”)

10000 yìwàn  (pronounced “yee wan” or “ee wan”)

Chinese numbers sound more pleasant and simpler than English ones. For example, 3 in Chinese is sān, which sounds more pleasant and simpler than the English “three”; 7 in Chinese is qī (pronounced “chee”), which sounds more pleasant and simpler than the English “seven.”

To pronounce English, you must learn that 11 is pronounced “eleven,” not “one one”; 30 is pronounced “thirty,” not “threety”. Chinese has no such pecularities. In Chinese, the number after “ten” is called “ten one” (shí yī). Then come “ten two” (shí èr) then “ten three” (shí sān) and so on, up to “ten nine” (shí jiŭ) Then come “two-ten” (èrshí), “two-ten one” (èrshí yī), “two-ten two” (èrshí èr), and so on. One hundred is yìbăi; two hundred is èrbăi; 235 is “two-hundred three-ten five” (èrbăi sānshí wŭ).

If a number’s next-to-final digit is zero, say “zero” (líng). For example, if you want to say 205, don’t say just “two-hundred five”: say “two-hundred zero five” (èrbăi líng wŭ). If you forget to say the “zero” and say just “two-hundred five” (èrbăi wŭ), your listener will assume you mean the slang for 250.

For the digit 2, the Chinese use èr or liăng. Choose èr when you’re counting (1, 2, 3, etc.) and for 20 (èrshí) and 200 (èrbăi); choose liăng instead for 2000 (liăngqiān), 20000 (liăngwàn), and when the number modifies a noun (“2 people”).

In Chinese you don’t have to learn the names of the 12 months, since they have no names: the Chinese just say “#1 month” (yī yuè), “#2 month” (èr yuè), etc.

You don’t have to learn the names of the 7 days of the week, because they have no names either (except Sunday): the Chinese just say “week’s #1” for Monday (zhōu yī), “week’s #2” for Tuesday (zhōu èr), etc. For Sunday, say “week’s sun” (zhōu rì).

For the word “week,” instead of saying zhōu (which literally means “circumference”), some Chinese folks substitute a more ancient word, xīngqī (which literally means “star period”).

Important stuff first In Chinese, you talk about important stuff before talking about details. For example, when giving a date, you say the year then the month then the date. When giving a person’s name, you say the person’s family (which is usually one syllable, such as Chén) then the cute name the mother gave that person (which is usually two syllables, such as Mínglì). For example, China’s most famous leader was Máo Zédōng: his family’s name was Máo, his given name was Zédōng.

Grammar & style In English, to make a word plural you must typically add “s,” but some words are irregular: the plural of “mouse” is “mice.” The Chinese don’t bother pluralizing: in Chinese, the word for “restaurant” is the same as the word for “restaurants.” So in Chinese, instead of saying “I own 5 restaurants,” you say “I own 5 of restaurant.” The only exception is for groups of people: the plural of “friend” is “friend group”; the plural of “student” is “student group”; the plural of “child” is “child group.” (The Chinese word for “group” is men.)

In English, you have to say “the” or “a” or “some” before most nouns. There are no Chinese words for “the” or “a” or “some.” So in Chinese, instead of saying “I see the car” or “I see a car”, you say just “I see car.” If you want to emphasize that you see just “a” car, not many cars, you can say “I see one of car”: the Chinese say “one” () instead of “a”.

In English, you must learn how to conjugate verbs: “I eat,” “he eats”, “I ate”, “I have eaten,” “I am eating,” “I will eat.” The Chinese never conjugate; they say “I eat,” “he eat,” “I yesterday eat,” “I tomorrow eat.”

To say just “I ate” without bothering to specify which day, a Chinese person says “I eat already.” That’s easy to say, since the Chinese word for “already” is short: le. So to turn any present sentence into a past-tense sentence, just add le at the end.

If you’re telling a story, don’t bother putting le at the end of each sentence: just tell the story in the present tense. (“I yesterday eat. Then I drink. Then I sleep.”)

Here’s another popular shortcut: instead of saying “I will buy an apple,” the Chinese just nod and say “buy apple”: the “I” and “will” are unspoken and understood.

In English, you must worry about whether to say “he,” “she,” or “it” — and hope you’re not accused of being sexist! In Chinese, you don’t have to worry, because “he,” “she,” and “it” are all pronounced the same: .

To ask a question in English, you must change the word order: “He is going to Shanghai” becomes “Is he going to Shanghai?” In Chinese, you create a question more simply, by just putting “huh?” at the end of the sentence: “He go Shanghai” becomes “He go Shanghai huh?” The Chinese word for “huh?” is ma. It serves the same purpose as the Canadian “eh?” (Canadians say, “He’s going to Shanghai, eh?”)

A more emphatic Chinese way to ask a question is to say the verb twice, with “not” in between, like this: “He go, not go, Shanghai?” (The Chinese word for “not” is .)

Chinese has no word for “yes” or “no.” To reply to the question “You go Shanghai huh?” just repeat the verb: say “go” (while nodding your head) or “not go” (while shaking your head). To reply to the question “He is American huh?” just repeat the verb: say “is” (shì) or “not is,” which would be bù shì; but the Chinese don’t like to say “” before a verb having the 4th tone, so the Chinese change “” to “” in that situation and say “bú shì.” Since “bú shì” sounds like “bullshit,” American tourists think Chinese people often talk about bullshit.

When Chinese people are lazy, they don’t bother saying the verb after : they say just , which means “not” and acts as “no.”

American tourists think Chinese people are like ghosts, who always say “boo!”

Though you make the typical Chinese verb negative by putting (or ) before it, here’s a big exception: to make the verb “have” (yŏu) be negative, say méi instead of , like this: méi yŏu (which means “not have” or “haven’t”). For example, if somebody asks whether you have something (or whether you have ever done something), reply by saying “have” (yŏu) or “haven’t” (méi yŏu). Chinese people often say they “haven’t” done something; they often say méi yŏu. Since “méi yŏu” sounds like “mayo” (which is American slang for “mayonnaise”), American tourists think Chinese people often talk about mayonnaise.

Another way to indicate yes is to say “correct” (which in Chinese is duì). So Chinese often reply to questions by saying shì (“is” or “yes”), bú shì (“not is” or “no”), (“not” or “no”), yŏu (“have”), méi yŏu (“not have” or “haven’t”), and duì (“certainly”).

The Chinese say “please” (qĭng) and “thank you” (xièxie) less than Americans. If you use them too much, you’ll be laughed at for being as hopelessly formal as a British butler. Instead of saying a formal “thank you,” Chinese people prefer to be more thoughtful and emotional. When treated to a meal, a Chinese person shows appreciation by saying it was delicious (“good eat extremely,” hăo chī jíle); when done a favor, a Chinese person apologizes for having put the generous person to so much trouble (“trouble you already,” máfan nĭ le).

Names for countries China considers itself to be the center of the universe, so it calls itself the “center country” (Zōngguó). Since the Chinese word for “person” is rén, a Chinese person is called a “center-country person” (Zōngguó rén). The Chinese language (with its written characters) is called “center writing” (Zōngwen).

To a Chinese ear, “England” sounds like Yīngguó (“flower country”), so that’s what the Chinese call England. A British person is called a Yīngguó rén (“flower-country person”); the English language is called Yīngwen (“flower writing”).

To a Chinese ear, “America” sounds like “Mayka” (if you ignore the unaccented syllables), so the Chinese call the U.S. Mĕiguó (“beautiful country”); an American person is called a Mĕiguó rén (“beautiful-country person”). To say “I am an American,” say wŏ shì Mĕiguó rén (“I is beautiful-country person”).

Vocabulary To speak Chinese well, you must learn many Chinese words. Here are the most popular words and phrases for beginners and tourists. For each phrase, I give the English, then the Chinglish (Chinese way of handling the English), then the actual Chinese pinyin:


“I” or “me”                                             I                         wŏ

“we” or “us”                                           I-group               wŏmen

“you” (one person)                                 you                     nĭ

“y’all”                                                     you-group              nĭmen

“it” or “he” or “she” or “him” or “her”   it                         tā

“they”                                                     it-group              tāmen


“good” or “okay”                                    good                   hăo

“very good”                                            very good           hĕn hăo


“hello” or “good to see you” (one person)     you good            nĭ hăo

“hello y’all” or “good to see y’all”          you-group good  nĭmen hăo

“good-bye” or “till we meet again”          again meet          zài jiàn

“love”                                                     love                    ài

“I love you”                                            I love you           wŏ ài nĭ

“do you love me?”                                  you love I huh?  nĭ ài wo ma

“how are you feeling?” or “how are you?” you good huh?   nĭ hăo ma

“I’m feeling fine”                                    I very good         wŏ hĕn hăo

“and how about you?” or “you too?”      you likewise?     nĭ ne

“is” or “am” or “are” or “yes, I am”        is                        shì

“want”                                                     want                   yào

“I want…”                                               I want                    wŏ yào

“I’d like…”                                             I think want        wŏ xiăng yào

“please…” or “I’d like to invite you to…”  invite                  qĭng

“thank you”                                            thank-thank        xièxie

“my name is…” or “I’m called…”          I call                   wŏ jiào


“not” or “no, I’m not”                             not                     

“bad”                                                      not good             bù hăo

“don’t want”                                           not want             bú yào

“you’re welcome” or “no need to thank”    not thank            bù xiè


“have” or “has”                                       have                   yŏu

“haven’t” or “I haven’t done that”          not-have             méi yŏu


“’s”                                                         ’s                        de

“Wang’s”                                                 Wang’s                Wáng de

“my”                                                       I’s                       wŏde

“your”                                                     you’s                  nĭde

“its” or “his” or “her”                             it’s                      tāde


“big”                                                       big                     

“small” or “little” or “young”                  little                    xiăo


“mother” or “mama” or “mom”              mama                 māma

“father” or “papa” or “dad”                     papa                   bàba

“friend” or “dear friend to have”             friend-have         péngyou

“mister” or “husband” or “family head” first-born            xiānsheng

“Mr. Wang”                                             Wang first-born  Wáng xiānsheng

“wife” or “better half”                             too-too               tàitai

“Mr. Wang’s wife” or “Mrs. Wang”          Wang too-too      Wáng tàitai


“eat”                                                        eat                      chī

“beef”                                                     cow meat            niú ròu

“pork”                                                     pig meat              zhū ròu

“lamb”                                                    sheep meat         yáng ròu

“chicken”                                                chicken               jī

“turkey”                                                  fire chicken        huŏ jī

“duck”                                                    duck                   yā

“fish”                                                      fish                    

“salmon”                                                 3-writing fish      sānwén yú

“shrimp”                                                 shrimp                xiā

“lobster”                                                 dragon shrimp    lóng xiā

“soup”                                                    soup                   tāng


“coffee”                                                      coffee                    kāfēi

“tea”                                                        tea                      chá

“milk”                                                     cow milk            niú năi

“water”                                                    water                  shŭi

“soda” or “carbonated water”                  vapor water        qì shŭi

“cola”                                                      cola                        kĕ

“alcoholic drink”                                     alcohol               jiŭ

“wine”                                                     grape alcohol      pútáo jiŭ

“beer”                                                     beer alcohol        pí jiŭ

Dialects I’ve been explaining mainland China’s official pronunciation, called Mandarin, which is especially popular in the capital city (Beijing) and places nearby. But many far-away regions of China have their own dialects.

For example, Cantonese is the dialect spoken in Guangzhou (which used to be called Canton) and places nearby (such as Hong Kong and Macau). Cantonese write the same Chinese characters as Mandarin, but the pronunciation is so different that Cantonese people can’t understand Mandarin speakers — and Mandarin people can’t understand Cantonese speakers — unless they take courses. (Now the Chinese government requires all students to learn Mandarin.)

How different is Mandarin pronunciation from Cantonese? Very! For example, while Mandarin has 5 tones (high, rising, falling, dipping, and plain), Cantonese is supposed to have 7 (low, medium, high, low-rising-to-medium, medium-rising-to-high, high-falling-to-medium, and medium-falling-to-low).

Many Cantonese speakers are too lazy to do high-falling-to-medium; they replace it with a simple high instead, so they speak just 6 tones instead of 7. Other Cantonese speakers talk extra-musically: they produce 9 tones or even more.

The consonant and vowel sounds are different, too. For example, In Mandarin, the word for “I” or “me” is wŏ, but in Cantonese it’s ngo. In Mandarin, the word for “not” is , but in Cantonese it’s just the sound m. In Mandarin, each syllable ends with a vowel or n, ng, or r; in Cantonese, each syllable ends with a vowel or n, ng, m, k, p, or t (or a silent h that just means to use low tones).

Since Mandarin is so different from Cantonese, people in Hong Kong complain that Mandarin TV broadcasts to Hong Kong are as hopeless as “the chicken talking to the duck.” To add to the confusion, Cantonese speakers have developed many local slang expressions and local characters that Mandarin folks don’t understand.

In the United States, Chinese restaurant menus show “Cantonese pinyin” names for the dishes. In China, most people speak Mandarin instead; they won’t understand if you ask for food by Cantonese names such as “Lo mein,” “Moo shi,” and “Chow foon.”

Chinglish Chinese grammar is much simpler than English, since Chinese has no plurals, no verb conjugations, no “the,” and no “she”.

When Chinese try to speak English, they often get confused by English grammar and vocabulary and therefore speak Chinese-confused English, called Chinglish.

In China, many signs are written in Chinglish. When you see a sign written in Chinglish, you can have fun guessing what it means. My friends and I saw these examples:

Sign, written in Chinglish              What the sign means

Prohibition From Greenbelt Keep off the lawn

No Climbon                Don’t climb on rocks

Do Not Clamber            Do not climb the rocks

No Naked Light            No cigarettes or other exposed flames

Mind Crotch               Low ceiling: duck your head

Fuck Class Do Not Disturb  Exercise class: do not disturb

Wine, Coffee, Cock         We serve wine, coffee, and cocktails

Breakfart                  Breakfast

Sucker (Non-Hot Drink)     Straws for cold drinks

Street Of Noshery          Outdoor food court

Finely Decoration City     Fine interior-design superstore

Ratbow Hotel               Rainbow Hotel

Boardinghouse Sales        Condominium-apartment sales

Erection Engineering Co.  Construction-engineering company

Receives The Silver        Cashier

Hand Grenade                Fire extinguisher

High Grade Puke            High-quality poker cards

Pubic Toilet               Public toilet

Genitl Emen                Gentlemen’s restroom

Deformed Man               Handicapped-accessible men’s room

Children Free To Pay       Children free from paying

Question Authority         If you have questions, ask the guard

Be Care Of Safe           Be careful, for your safety

Carefully Fall To The River  Beware of falling in the river

Prevent Any Contingency    Be careful not to have an accident

Take Care of Your Slip  Be careful: slippery

Flyover Ramp               Expressway entrance

Planesketch Map           Aerial view

Scared Land                 Sacred land

We Struggle For Success    We strive for success

We saw this sign —

For restrooms, go back toward your behind

which means:

Restrooms are behind you.

We saw this sign —

Help Oneself Terminating Machine

which means “ATM.”

We saw this sign —

To tak notice of safe, the slippery are very crafty

which means:

Take notice, for your safety: slippery stairs require you to be very careful.

At a temple, signs said:

Avoid conflagration

Avoid making confused noise when chanting

Please don’t be crowded

They mean:

Put out your matches and cigarettes

Be quiet while monks chant

Don’t crowd or shove

To have fun, read those Chinglish signs to your friends and see whether they can guess what the signs mean.

This Chinglish sign is written clearly but too candidly:

Hospital for Anus and Intestine Disease

So are these signs in a Gynecology & Obstetrics Department:

Cunt Examination

Fetal Heart Custody

So are these lawn signs:

Green grass dreading your feet

Show mercy to the slender grass

Don’t bother the resting little grass

So is this sign trying to say “automatic-flush toilets”:

This WC is free of washing

Please leave off after pissing or shitting

So is the comment on an ice-cream wrapper:

Kiss me, tease me, lick me, bite me,

let me melted to your heart.

From the pure chocolate taste,

for your pure heart!

When writing Chinese characters, the Chinese don’t put spaces between their words, and they don’t understand why Americans bother, so the Chinese insert spaces into English carelessly. For example, one of China’s biggest banks has a huge sign saying:


Many Chinese signs make the mistake of putting a space before ’s, like this:

This  is  Li  Bai  ’s  home

Modern Chinese is written left-to-right (like English), but classic Chinese was written right-to-left (like Hebrew). Chinese signs can be written in either direction. Some Chinese
sign-makers forget that English can’t be written right-to-left. For example, look at this sign:

   thcaY         taobrotoM

thgiarts.oG    aera gnimmiwS

It means:

Motorboats, yachts, swimming area: go straight

Signs by big international corporations usually have correct English. Chinglish errors occur mostly on signs written by the Chinese government and its state-owned companies, which have poorly paid employees who visited the West never or just briefly. You can find more examples of Chinglish signs at (click “Photoblog”) and (which includes botched English from China and other Asian countries).

China tried to fix those signs, so tourists wouldn’t make fun of China during the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. For details about that effort, read Mei Fong’s article on The Wall Street Journal’s front page (on February 5, 2007).

Piracy In China, most CD’s containing music or computer programs are illegal copies. At first glance, the copies look genuine, but when you stare at them more closely you’ll see English words misspelled.

For example, the jacket of a pirated Michael Jackson CD says it includes these songs: “You are not along,” “Shake your boby,” “Sckeam,” and “Fam.” (It means “You are not alone,” “Shake your body,” “Scream,” and “Jam.”)


The world’s first humans began in Africa 14 million years ago, where they were black. Some of those migrated north to the Middle East, where they turned lighter. Then some migrated farther north to Europe (where they turned white), while others migrated to India and then China (where they turned yellow) and then to Alaska and the rest of the Americas (where they turned red).

Xia dynasty At first, China’s inhabitants were just a bunch of disorganized hunters and farmers (starting half a million years ago), but in 2200 B.C. a kingdom was finally established. The king’s family name was Xia. His kingdom, called the Xia dynasty, was ruled by him and later by his descendents.

Shang dynasty In 1750 B.C., a rebel leader overthrew the Xia dynasty. His family name was Shang. He started the Shang dynasty. During the Shang dynasty, the Chinese people became excellent at working in bronze, and they also began to write more (often by carving characters into pig bones).

During the Shang dynasty, whenever a king would die, he’d be buried with his possessions and more than 100 slaves, who were thrown in his burial pit while they were alive or after being beheaded. (Later dynasties were kinder and threw in terra cotta statues of slaves instead of real people.)

During the Shang dynasty, whenever an important building was finished, the building would be consecrated by sacrificing some humans. Unlike other dynasties, the Shang dynasty used this strange rule: whenever a king died, the next king would be the dead king’s brother (not son); and if there were no more brothers left, the kingship would pass to dead king’s cousin (the king’s mother’s oldest nephew).

Zhou dynasty The last Shang king, who was ridiculously mean, was overthrown in 1100 B.C. by a chieftain from the frontier tribe called Zhou. That chieftain began the Zhou dynasty. It was more normal than the Shang dynasty: it used father-to-son succession and it avoided human sacrifice. In 771 B.C., the Zhou dynasty’s capital was sacked by barbarians, and king was killed. The king’s relatives fled to the east, where they set up a new capital and continued the Zhou dynasty.

During the Zhou dynasty, 3 conflicting philosophies arose:

Confucianism (invented by Confucius in 500 B.C. and written down by his optimistic student Mencius) said you should be kind, especially to your ancestors and government, and you should treat your king like a god. That philosophy later became this: a king rules because God wants him to (so you should obey him) — but if the king gets overthrown it’s because God no longer considers him worthy enough to be king.

Legalism (invented by Confucius’s cynical student Xun-zi) said that to survive you need to be tough, ruthless, and trust nobody (and if you run a government you should create a secret police, encourage your citizens to rat on each other, foster an atmosphere of fear, bury your enemies alive, and burn all their books).

Daoism (which began with Lao-zi’s book “Dao de Jing”) said you should be weirdly mysterious & mystical and invent puzzles & paradoxes. Daoism later led to Zen Buddhism.

Even today, Chinese people are confused about which of those 3 philosophies to follow — whether to be kind, tough, or mysterious — and many heartaches are caused by modern Chinese governments who switch erratically among those 3 philosophies.

Toward the end of the Zhou dynasty, the Zhou controlled just the eastern part of China and was fighting other states in battles that grew gigantic, with 500,000 soldiers on each side.

Qin dynasty In 221 B.C., the western frontier state called Qin finished winning against all rivals (mainly because Qin had lots of iron to make iron weapons). That began the Qin dynasty. (The English name “China” means “Qin’s country.”)

The Qin’s king, Qin Shihuangdi, called himself an “emperor” (a title previously used just for mythological gods). He followed the advice of Legalists: he was tough, killed (or banished) all Confucian scholars who disagreed with the Legalists, burned Confucian books (and most other books too, keeping just books about medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, and divination), and had a policy of executing generals who showed up late for maneuvers. He created the Great Wall by combining together little walls that the warring states had created for themselves (though his version of the Great Wall was still made of just packed earth; later dynasties turned it into brick). To control what had become a big country, he divided it into 36 provinces, each headed by an official who had to report directly to him.

That emperor died in 210 B.C.

Han dynasty Shortly after Qin Shihangdi’s death, a soldier bringing in draftees was getting delayed by rain. He feared getting executed for tardiness along with his draftees, so the whole group of them decided to revolt. Those revolutionaries got executed, but the turmoil they fomented led to new leadership in 206 B.C.: the Han dynasty, which is considered China’s best dynasty. (Most people in modern China proudly claim they are “Han Chinese.”) During the Han dynasty, China gained many improvements:

Paper was invented (made from rags or bark), so people started writing characters by using ink brushes instead of carving. Government was based on Confucianism (friendly respect) rather than Legalism (meanness). Local officials were selected by civil-service exams instead of heredity. The Imperial University was created, to teach Confucian classics and prepare students for civil-service exams. Engineers invented irrigation methods, sundials, water clocks, and seismographs (earthquake detectors). China expanded westward and created The Old Silk Road, on which ambassadors and traders traveled to the Greek empire to sell silk. The trading brought to China new ideas, such as Buddhism from India.

The Han dynasty ruled until 220 A.D. — except for a brief interruption by a reformer named Wang Mang. (He had worked in the royal palace and was appointed “emperor” by the Han household from 8 A.D. until his death in 25 A.D.)

In 220 A.D., the Han dynasty fell apart. Here’s why:

People were migrating from the Yellow River (which is in the north) to the Yangzi River (which is in the south), especially because barbarian tribes were raiding the north. The Han dynasty had trouble managing the change.

Civil servants became corrupt. They sided with landlords in oppressing the peasants, who finally revolted.

350 years of confusion After the Han dynasty fell, China got 350 years of fighting and confusion, during which the Han people kept moving south, while barbarians kept moving into China from the north and assimilated themselves into the northern population. Also during that period, Buddhism (which had come from India) became more popular and started including features from Daoism.

Post-Han dynasties Finally, China got major dynasties:

The Sui dynasty (589-618) unified China again. This dynasty was based in the north (and therefore partly barbarian).

The Tang dynasty (618-907) was almost as good as the Han. It was based in the north (and so partly barbarian). During the Tang dynasty, block printing was invented, which helped spread the written word to the masses.

The Song dynasty (960-1279) was almost as good as the Han and the Tang. During the Song dynasty, use of the printing press spread, and better ways were invented to grow and harvest rice. (One of the tricks was to use a fast-growing kind of rice from Vietnam.) Before the Song dynasty, Chinese people had just two ways to get rich & famous (be in the government or own land), but during the Song dynasty a third rich-and-famous class was formed: merchants.

Unfortunately, the Song rice system worked so well that future dynasties saw no need to improve it further, no need to do more research, no need to industrialize, and China’s progress started to fall behind Europe’s.

The Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) was established by Mongolian barbarian horsemen who attacked from the north. The Yuan dynasty was actually a puppet government controlled by the Mongolian Supreme Leader, Kublai Khan (Genghis Khan’s grandson). The Mongolians were kind enough to leave Chinese culture intact and not destroy it.

Two Italian brothers, Niccolo & Matteo Polo, were the first Europeans to travel across Asia, where they met Kublai Khan in China, who gave them a letter to take back to the Pope, saying China wanted the Pope to send teachers. On their second trip to China, they took a letter from the Pope (along with two missionaries who chickened out before reaching China), and they also took along Niccolo’s son, Marco Polo, who impressed Kublai Khan and became Kublai Khan’s advisor and a governor of big provinces. After 20 years in China, Marco Polo returned to Italy and wrote a book telling Europeans how great China was.

Unfortunately, the paragraph you’ve just read might be full of lies and exaggerations, since our only source of info about the Polo family is Marco Polo’s book, which historians don’t completely believe, because:

The Chinese have no records of any “Marco Polo,” even though the Chinese keep careful records and he claimed to be governor.

Some of his book’s Chinese events seem awfully similar to events in French romance novels written earlier by his editor.

It’s strange that in such a long travelogue he never mentioned Chinese characters, chopsticks, tea, or the Great Wall, though apologists have theories about why he might want to skip those topics.

Regardless of its truthfulness, his book had a big effect on Europe: it made Europeans curious about China.

But land travel from Europe to China became endangered by bandits in-between, so Europeans started searching for a way to reach China by sea. (Later, that searching made Columbus accidentally discover America.)

The Ming dynasty (1368-1644) was started by a rebellious army officer (who was Han Chinese and had previously been a peasant and a Buddhist monk), so it was a true Chinese empire (that threw the Mongolian leaders out). Life during the Ming dynasty was peaceful — except that when that first Ming emperor discovered his prime minister was plotting against him, he beheaded the prime minister and the prime minister’s family and 40,000 other people too.

The Qing dynasty (1644-1911) was run by Manchurian barbarians who attacked from the North, so it was disliked.

During the Qing dynasty, China was approached by Westerners (the Portuguese then the Spanish, British, French, Germans, Russians, and Americans), who wanted to buy Chinese tea, silk, and porcelain. But the Qing dynasty didn’t want to buy much from Westerners in return, so trade was stifled.

British traders solved the problem by encouraging people in the Chinese city of Guangzhou to buy raw cotton and opium that the British shipped from British-controlled India. Opium was illegal in China, but the British got it in by using Chinese smugglers and corrupt officials.

The Qing dynasty sent a commissioner to Guangzhou to stop the illegal opium traffic. He detained all foreigners and destroyed 20,000 chests of British opium. The British retaliated by starting the Opium War in 1839. China was surprised at the strength of the British navy and lost the war in 1842 to Britain, which won many concessions from China, including the entire island of Hong Kong, plus tax breaks and freedom from having to obey any Chinese laws. That made the Chinese more curious about Western thought, so Chinese scholars started studying Western thinking.

After several more revolts, famines, and foreign takeovers of China’s puppets (the French took over South Vietnam and Cambodia, the British took over Burma and Kowloon, the Russians took over Turkestan, and the Japanese took over Taiwan and Korea), the Qing dynasty finally was overthrown by dissidents in 1911. It was the last dynasty!

Republics In 1912, a republic was formed, whose presidents would be chosen by legislatures instead of by heredity. The first president was Dr. Sun Yat-sen (“Sun Yixian” in pinyin), who was born in China but grew up in Hawaii and had also been a physician in Hong Kong and lived in Japan & the United States and raised donations from Chinese people around the world. Nearly everybody liked him, and he’s called “The Father of Modern China.”.

But a military leader, Yuan Shikai, wanted to be president too. To prevent civil war, Dr. Sun agreed to step down and let Yuan Shikai be the leader.

But Yuan Shikai turned out to be a despot. He changed the constitution to give himself more power. Dr. Sun’s friend, Song Jiaoren, created a political party (called the Nationalists or National People’s Party or Guomindang or Kuomintang or KMT), which campaigned against Yuan Shikai and won most of the seats in the legislature. Yuan Shikai responded by having Song Jiaoren and several pro-KMT generals all be assassinated. Then 7 provinces rebelled against Yuan Shikai, but he suppressed the rebellion. Scared, the legislature agreed to confirm Yuan Shikai as president. Then he outlawed the KMT and removed all its members from the legislature. Then he suspended the whole legislature and forced onto China a new constitution that made him president for life. Then he decided to become a monarch. Then everybody revolted against him, but before they could lynch him he died of natural causes in 1916.

Then China broke apart: regional warlords fought each other. In 1919, Dr. Sun reestablished the KMT, and in 1921 the KMT controlled southern China, but warlords still controlled northern China (and Beijing). Dr. Sun tried to get help from Western countries, but they ignored him, so he turned to the Soviet Union, which agreed to help his KMT but also help a smaller party, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The Soviet Union started trying to convince those two parties to merge.

In 1923, Dr. Sun’s lieutenant, Chiang Kai-shek (“Jiang Jieshi” in pinyin), went to Moscow for military training. When he returned to China, he set up a military academy in China.

In 1925, Dr. Sun died of cancer. Then Chiang Kai-shek started battling the northern warlords and became the KMT’s leader. In 1926, he conquered half of China.

But after thwarting a kidnapping attempt against him, he got nervous about Communists, dismissed his Soviet advisors, and prevented Communists from holding any KMT leadership positions. Then he declared Communist membership to be a crime punishable by death, and he started killing the Communists. One Communist who managed to escape the carnage was Mao Zedong (who’d been a peasant, student, librarian, and poet). He and other communists fled west. At that point, China had 3 capitals: Beijing (in the north, controlled by warlords), Nanjing (in the southeast, controlled by the KMT), and Wuhan (in the central south, controlled by the Communists). In 1928, the KMT conquered Beijing. In 1934, the KMT tried to conquer to Communists also, but the Communists escaped by fleeing to the west then north then east, traveling a total of about 6,000 miles, which took about a year, mainly under Mao Zedong’s leadership; that’s called “The Long March.” During all that, the Communists developed a reputation for being nice (especially to peasants), while the KMT were considered mean.

Meanwhile, the Japanese started invading China (Manchuria in 1931, Shanghai in 1932, and the rest of China in 1937). Eventually, the Japanese killed 20 million Chinese people (and raped many Chinese women).

Chiang Kai-shek still wanted to concentrate on fighting the Communists, but his KMT associates finally convinced him to fight the Japanese instead. The Communists fought the Japanese also.

At the end of World War 2, the Japanese lost, and so did the KMT: the Communist Party emerged the winner for the hearts, minds, and bodies of the Chinese. Chiang Kai-shek and his KMT fled to the island of Taiwan, where he became Taiwan’s leader. (Under KMT leadership, Taiwan gradually improved. Now Taiwan’s a good, democratic country, full of freedom. It’s modern and financially successful. It’s particularly strong at manufacturing computers and other electronic devices.)

On October 1, 1949, the Communist leader (Mao Zedong) stood in Beijing and proclaimed that the mainland was now under Communist control and called the People’s Republic of China (PRC). It was indeed a republic, except that just members of the Communist Party could run for office.

The PRC’s leaders divided into two groups: the leftists versus the rightists:

What leftists wanted           What rightists wanted

be nicer to the peasants (farmers) be nicer to the merchants and intellectuals

be socialist: share the wealth         be capitalist: create your own wealth

be nicer to the Soviet Union          be nicer to the U.S. and Europeans

force people to share burdens          gently nudge people to improve

Mao tended to be a leftist (because of his peasant background), and his wife was even more leftist. The leftists tried many extreme experiments, such as these:

During the Great Leap Forward in 1958, peasants were forced to work together in gigantic communes. The average commune held 5,000 families, 20,000 people, all sharing a field, a dining hall, a nursery, classrooms, and a furnace to make pig iron (for turning into steel). There were 23,500 of those communes.

People were forced to work in factories making steel.

Trees were burned to create farms and fuel for making steel.

During the Cultural Revolution, which began in 1966, kids & teachers were kicked out of high schools and universities and forced to work on farms instead. From 1968 to 1972, no high schools or universities were allowed to accept any new students; the only remaining students were ones who’d entered in earlier years.

Some of those policies had disastrous results. For example, China is now short of trees, so China has bad air, full of dust and pollution. China’s commune experiment was unsuccessful and caused a famine that killed 30 million Chinese people. (Hey, that’s a lot of deaths: 10,000 times as many as were killed in the September 11th attacks that Americans got so upset about. To see anything happen on a really big scale, you gotta go to China!)

The leftists decided that big projects should be run by socialists, not technologists. They said “Better Red than Expert.” As a result, many projects failed, and many factories produced goods that had poor quality.

Mao died in 1976.

In 1978, a rightist named Deng Xiaoping gained control. Many state-run businesses were privatized. (Unfortunately, some of those businesses then went bankrupt and stopped paying the pensions that were due to retirees, who suddenly became destitute.)

Deng let technologists and capitalists run projects, regardless of ideology. He said:

It doesn’t matter if the cat is black or white. What matters is how well it catches mice.

He also said it’s okay to let some people get rich. He even said:

To get rich is glorious.

Deng died in 1997. After him came his protégé, Jiang Zemin, then the current leader, Hu Jintao, who’ve both continued Deng’s rightist policies.

Now Chinese citizens are allowed to criticize the Chinese government — but permissible criticism is limited to attacking screw-ups (corrupt bribed officials, inefficiency, and inertia), not the Communist system itself.

China’s new worry is that China’s economic boom hasn’t benefited the peasants yet, and the income gap between China’s rich and China’s poor has widened. For example, half of the Chinese people are poor peasants who don’t have any electricity yet, not even for light bulbs, while many of China’s rich buy air conditioners and cars. In cities, rich people live in condos in new high rises constructed by companies whose rich investors haven’t yet paid the migrant laborers who actually shouldered the work. Those migrants are dirt poor, still waiting for the pay they were promised but never received. In some cities, the electric and water companies haven’t been beefed up enough yet to handle all the new factories and high-rise apartments, so people suffer from rationing and brownouts. Half of all bank loans aren’t repaid on time. In March 2004, Hu Jintao gave a speech in which he promised to solve those problems by changing the tax rates (to favor the poor) and handing out fewer private construction permits, until the infrastructure has time to catch up. He also promised to make factories obey China’s minimum-wage law, which most companies have ignored, and that’s why China’s goods have been so cheap!

Frontline In the U.S., public television’s Frontline showed a documentary film about how life in China changed dramatically, with some folks becoming lucky capitalists and others becoming ill beggars. The documentary tracked the lives of several people from different walks of life, in different parts of China, from 1998 (when the Chinese government decided to become more capitalist) to 2002. The documentary had surprisingly sad endings:

A mayor who was handsome, powerful, effective, and beloved by his town (in the 1998 part of the documentary) wound up in jail (where he supposedly “died suddenly from cancer”) because of a corruption scandal.

A peasant woman shown with an untreated goiter was “not allowed to be filmed” afterwards — because the government said “her problem reflects badly on her village.”

Retirees protest because their employers, state-run companies, have gone bankrupt and don’t pay pensions anymore, leaving the retirees destitute.

In a factory, a woman manager is forced to take a huge salary cut and lower position (cleaning all toilets!) to avoid being downsized and lose her pension potential.

A peasant kid leaves his farm, to go to refrigerator-repair school in Beijing, but the school makes him do slave labor tearing down brick walls instead.

Constitution Since China is supposed to be a “republic,” it needed a constitution. China’s constitution is a bizarre mix of leftist and rightist thinking.

The Communist Party is the only party mentioned in the constitution, and the constitution’s Article 1 calls China a “democratic dictatorship.” Here’s the full text of Article 1 (in its final version, as revised in 1982):

Article 1. The People’s Republic of China is a socialist state under the people’s democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants. The socialist system is the basic system of the People’s Republic of China. Sabotage of the socialist system by any organization or individual is prohibited.

Article 34 says you’re guaranteed the right to vote — unless the government doesn’t want you to:

Article 34. All PRC citizens who’ve reached age 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of nationality, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status, or length of residence, except persons deprived of political rights according to law.

Article 36 gives you freedom of religion — unless your religion causes protests or seems physically or mentally “unhealthy” or is controlled by a foreigner, such as the Pope:

Article 36. PRC citizens enjoy freedom of religious belief. No state organ, public organization, or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may the discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion. The state protects normal religious activities. No one may make use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens, or interfere with the state’s education system. Religious bodies and religious affairs aren’t subject to any foreign domination.

Article 40 protects your privacy — except when the government wishes to censor you:

Article 40. The freedom & privacy of PRC citizens’ correspondence are protected by law. No organization or individual may, on any ground, infringe on the freedom & privacy of citizens’ correspondence except in cases where, to meet the needs of state security or of investigation into criminal offenses, public security or procuratorial organs are allowed to censor correspondence in accordance with procedures prescribed by law.

So long As you can see, Chinese history is quite long. Chinese centralized government (the first dynasty) began in 2200 B.C., which was about 4200 years ago. By contrast, U.S. centralized government (declared by the Declaration of Independence) began in 1776, which was about 230 years ago. That makes “China” nearly 20 times as old as the “United States”! Compared to age-old China, the U.S. is just a baby country, too young to have any serious history yet.

A Chinese friend attended a party in the U.S. and heard a guest say she was getting a Ph.D. in U.S. history. He laughed and said, “How can you get a Ph.D. in U.S. history? The U.S. has no history!”

Chinese people love to watch, on Chinese TV, dramas about Chinese history, especially the intrigues of the emperors and the women who lived with them. They’re much more fascinating than U.S. battles between cowboys and Indians (whoops, I mean “Native Americans”).

What to read For a funny romp through Chinese history, read “Condensed China” at:

Then grab more details by reading “History of China” at:

The full Chinese constitution has 138 articles plus 13 amendments. You can read them (except the 10 new amendments added in 2004) on the Internet in English at:

My trip to China

I’ve always been curious about Chinese language and culture. When I lived in Boston, I loved to visit Boston’s Chinatown. I even joined some Chinese clubs. Six years ago, I married a Chinese immigrant, whose nickname is “Donna.” In a section of this book called “Donna’s comments,” you can read her comments about China, the United States, and me.

Though I married Donna, I never had a chance to visit China or her relatives — until this year. What a treat! Visiting China was eye-opening fun!

I told Donna I wanted to meet her relatives and also see how Chinese people live, rather than just hit tourist spots. So she let me visit Chinese homes, take walks with her friends, and go shopping with them for everyday needs.

China is too huge to be seen completely, and my time was limited to 2 weeks (so I could return to New Hampshire and resume answering the endless phone calls about life and computers). I had to adopt this strict schedule: in January 2004, I flew into the capital (Beijing), then quickly flew to Chengdu (a beautiful city in Sichuan province), then got driven to her home town, Jiangyou (2 hours north of Chengdu), where I spent 9 days (with side trips to nearby towns), Then I retraced my steps back to Chengdu (where I lingered 2 days), Beijing (2 more days), and the U.S., so the whole experience lasted 15 days (including transportation).

Beijing’s become quite westernized. The first time I saw it, it looked like an American city (Washington D.C. or the Queens part of New York City), except its signs were in Chinese.

Chengdu has more Asian character but is also partly westernized. Jiangyou is much smaller and hasn’t been westernized as much yet, so I found it the most fascinating, the most “authentic,” the most memorable.

Here are my comments. Most are about Jiangyou, but some apply to the other cities too.…

China’s 3 moods

China is dominated by 3 moods: a rush to westernize, a willingness to bend, and quiet.

Rush to westernize For many centuries, China was isolated from western culture. Now China is rushing to catch up. China is rushing to grab ideas, languages, appliances, cars, language, music, software, the Internet, consumer goods, brands, lifestyles, ideas, and everything else, from the U.S. and Europe (with some help from Japan). But while rushing to do all that, the Chinese take short cuts, which result in poor workmanship and lack of finesse. My summary of China in 2004 is this:

China has always been very beautiful.

China is now also very modern — and everything almost works.

Willingness to bend To understand China, look at its trees. Many of China’s trees have branches that bend wildly, unlike American and German trees, whose branches are boringly straight. China’s culture is inspired by Chinese trees: the culture bends.

For example, Chinese characters have strokes that bend: there are no simple, straight strokes. Traditional Chinese buildings have roofs that are slanted (pitched), but they bend slightly up at the edges and bend up even more at the corners, to form dramatic curves. Chinese people love to bend the rules: they interpret every rule and law “flexibly.”

If a person creates anything exactly straight or acts properly straight-arrow, the Chinese would consider that person too Germanically rigid, an uncultured goose-stepping Nazi asshole, though Western technology keeps trying to impose that requirement.

Quiet Chinese people tend to act quietly, mysteriously.

The love of mystery comes from Daoism. The need to act quietly — tactfully — stems from many centuries of fearing the wrath of Chinese government leaders and officials: if you open your mouth, you might get beheaded, figuratively or literally. Even now, the Chinese government accepts no criticism of its system. Since Chinese households have traditionally been large (including grandparents, grandkids, and other relatives) and close-knit — and since friendships are also tightly woven and are needed to get job references — speaking your mind can get you booed by many generations of people and the whole town and make you become a worthless person.

So Chinese kids still learn this rule: you’d better shut up!

How to travel

Traveling to and through China is an adventure.

Get your visa If you’re an American who wants to visit China, you must get an American passport (from the U.S. government) and a Chinese visa (from the Chinese government).

Be careful what you say on your visa application! On mine, I made the mistake of saying my occupation was “publisher and author of computer books.” I should have left out the word “author,” since the Chinese government doesn’t trust “authors.” The Chinese consulate phoned my wife and grilled her about me, with questions such as:

What cities are you two going to? Where’s that city? It’s not in Tibet? What does Russ write? Does he write just computer books? Are you sure he doesn’t write about anything else?

They’re paranoid about foreign journalists interviewing real Chinese citizens, especially in Tibet!

Donna said I was just a dumb computer guy (which was true at that time). The consulate said that was okay. But I might not be allowed to return to China in the future.

After America’s September 11th tragedy, the U.S. government got meaner about foreigners visiting the U.S., so the Chinese government got meaner about Americans visiting China: the visa fee has been raised, and you’re not allowed to get your visa by mail — you must personally walk into the Chinese consulate (or bribe a friend or travel agent to walk in for you).

Beijing-airport tax Whenever you want to fly out of Beijing airport (to the U.S. or other countries or other Chinese cities), you must get a ticket but then, afterwards, stand in a special separate line to pay an airport-construction departure tax.

If your travel agent forgot to mention the airport-construction departure tax, or you were duped into thinking your ticket includes all taxes, tough luck! No ticket sold in the U.S. or China or anywhere else ever includes that airport-construction departure tax: you must go stand in the tax line and make sure you haven’t spent all your money already — or you won’t get home!

Warning: the tax is very high and depends on where you’re going.

7 road vehicles Chinese cities (such as Beijing, Chengdu, and Jiangyou) all have modern streets, like U.S. cities.

In Jiangyou, you commonly see 7 kinds of vehicles: bicycles, tricycles, motorcycles, taxis, cars, vans, and buses. (Trucks and trains are rare.)

The typical bicycle has a just a tiny basket in front. It doesn’t hold much.

Tricycles come in two forms.

Simple form: the rider sits near the front wheel; vegetables sit in a cart suspended over the back wheels. The contraption acts as a human-powered pickup truck.

Fancy form: the driver sits near the front wheel, but a buggy is suspended over the back wheels. The typical buggy holds two paying passengers (just one if the buggy is slim). The contraption acts as a human-powered taxi. The driver spends his whole day pedaling, looking for passengers and hauling them. He needs strong legs! Like a convertible car, the buggy has a roof to put up during rain; the roof protects the passengers but not the poor driver. You could call the whole thing a “rickshaw,” though that term was used mainly in the old days for a more primitive contraption that had just two wheels and forced the driver to walk. The proper term for this 3-wheeled human-pedaled taxicab is a pedicab or trishaw. This “tricycle taxi” is slower than a real taxi but popular because it’s cheap and can squeeze into side streets too narrow for 4-wheeled beasts. In Chengdu (which is more advanced than Jiangyou), tricycles have motorcycle engines, so drivers don’t need strong legs! In another town, Luoyang, tricycles are prohibited because they look too primitive for modern town like Luoyang!

Most motorcycles resemble the ones in the U.S. and Japan.

Taxis, cars, and vans are slightly smaller than the ones in the U.S., because most Chinese people are short and thin and have less money. (If you’re 6 feet tall, you’ll need to duck.) 10 years ago, most of China’s cars were made by Volkswagen, and many of them are still on the streets, but newer vehicles have a wide variety of brands, especially Changan (which is Chinese), Citroen (which is French), and Buick (which is American). Minivans are too expensive for normal use: they’re used mainly by government-employee car pools. Cars and minivans cost more in China than in the U.S.; for example, a minivan in China costs $60,000. (Most other goods cost slightly less in China than in the U.S.)

In Jiangyou, the buses have no doors. Instead, the bus’s doorway has strips of clear plastic hanging down from the ceiling; to enter the bus, you push the plastic strips aside. Most stores are the same way: no doors, just plastic strips to push aside. That’s because Jiangyou is in Sichuan province, which is always warm. (You’ll find more doors in Beijing, which is farther north.)

Besides the bicycles, tricycles, motorcycles, taxis, cars, vans, and buses, the streets also contain pedestrians.

How to drive Here’s how to drive a car, Jiangyou style:

If your car’s about to hit a pedestrian, don’t bother stopping: cars have the right of way over pedestrians, because cars are bigger. It’s the pedestrian’s responsibility to get out of the way. Crosswalks (which are striped and called zebra lines) just mean pedestrians should walk there, not elsewhere; they don’t mean cars must stop there. If you think a pedestrian doesn’t see you, tap your horn once or twice lightly, quickly, politely, to warn the pedestrian courteously.

You should drive on road’s right-hand side, usually. But if traffic’s heavy there, go drive on the road’s left side instead, until the oncoming traffic threatens to hit you. That’s true even on an expressway: if the right lanes move slowly, go drive on the highway’s other side awhile.

If you’re driving faster than the car to your right (who’s in a slower lane), put your left blinker on, even though you’re not changing lanes. In this situation, the left blinker doesn’t mean you’re changing lanes; it means “I’m passing you.” You should also honk politely, once or twice, or flash your lights. The blinker, honking, and flashing all mean: “Stay out of my way, I’m going faster than you, be careful!” Instead of pondering, just follow this simple rule: whenever you’re driving in the fastest lane, leave your left blinker on the whole time (even if you’re in that lane many minutes); and whenever you see a slow-lane car you’re passing, honk or flash.

When driving on city streets, beep once or twice at any car or pedestrian that you think might come closer, to make sure you’re noticed and not hit. Since city streets are busy, keep one hand by your horn at all times: you should beep (or double-beep) about once every 10 seconds, under normal traffic conditions.


Drive as if you were in a ski slalom: zoom around the cones, other cars, pedestrians, bicyclists, tricyclists, etc., but always politely, with polite little beeps. If you hear strange rumbles, don’t worry: it’s just your half-broken car or the half-broken street. “Driving” means “swerving while rumbling and politely beeping.” It’s fun! Just keep your eyes open and signal the other adventurers, so nobody gets hurt. It’s like being in an amusement park’s “bumper cart,” except you’re not allowed to touch the other players — but it’s fine fun to come within 4 inches of each other: it happens all the time.

Since Chinese drivers don’t leave much distance between themselves and other cars, crashes are common. When driving on the expressway from Chengdu to Jiangyou, I saw a 40-car pileup: the highway suddenly turned into a junkyard full of dented trucks, buses, minivans, BMW’s, and all other vehicles imaginable. Very impressive!

To encourage drivers to stay farther apart, expressways have signs showing what “50 meters apart” looks like and what “100 meters apart” looks like. But drivers ignore them.

Intersections Though Chinese drivers don’t take traffic lanes and distances seriously, they respect traffic lights. As in the U.S., red means “stop” and green means “go.” In the U.S., the red light is always above the green, but in cities such as Jiangyou the lights are mounted randomly: sometimes red above green, sometimes green above red, sometimes red left of green, sometimes green left of red. That confuses the colorblind. It also confuses tourists from America, since in America “red left of green” means “don’t go in the left lane but you can go in the right lane.” Traffic lights are usually polite: they show a countdown of how many seconds remain before the light changes.

That’s how traffic lights work, but they’re rare. Most small intersections have no lights. Most big intersections have rotaries instead. The typical rotary is huge (2 blocks wide), with a center that’s a grassy park full of strolling pedestrians (plus the elderly doing aerobic martial-arts exercises), who get into the park by playing a game of chicken with the cars. At night, the park’s grass looks so green that you’ll wonder how the Chinese got such amazing fertilizer, until you look more closely and see the trick: the grass is lit by floodlights that are tinted green.

Careless drivers At night, many cars turn on just dim parking lights or don’t turn on any lights at all. Seatbelts are usually ignored — even on expressways, where they’re theoretically required.

Expressways The typical expressway has 3 lanes in each direction. They’re labeled in Chinglish. For example, on the expressway from Chengdu to Jiangyou, the left lane is called the “overtaking lane”; the middle lane is called the “main lane”; the right lane, which is for breakdowns and other slowed traffic, is called the “parking lane.”

Atop the expressway’s tollbooths, you see a giant surprise: a huge, surprising billboard ad that’s hundreds of feet wide, so it stretches over all the lanes and all booths. Wow! U.S. highway departments would raise lots of money (and complaints) if they’d do the same and turn U.S. tollbooth roofs into billboards.

Ask for directions When you try to find your way through small cities (such as Jiangyou), you discover there are no available maps and no numbers on buildings. Sorry, guys: you must “act like a woman” and continually ask for directions from knowledgeable local folks (handsome policemen, taxi drivers, tricyclists, and neighbors).


Rural peasants often live in shacks. City folks usually live in apartments (rented apartments or condo apartments). In Jiangyou, for example, many huge condo complexes are being built fast; each complex holds thousands of people.

Cheap luxury Housing is cheap. For example, my wife (Donna) bought a brand new 3-bedroom condo apartment in Jiangyou for just $12,000. That price includes just bare cement walls and floors; she added $10,000 for appliances, furniture, and décor (with help from her brothers in choosing and installing it), making a total of $22,000. The result is drop-dead gorgeous, the kind of place that would cost a million dollars if it were in Manhattan on Park Avenue.

Her daughter (Mimi) bought an even more gorgeous condo apartment, also new, in a fancier city (Chengdu) for $20,000, plus $10,000 for appliances, furniture and décor (including the fee to the interior designer). That apartment has just 2 bedrooms, but the décor and location are superb.

Exteriors Most of China’s beauty is hidden: the insides of apartments can be gorgeous, but the outsides are drab. Many apartment buildings are just raw cement; others have the cement covered by a tile façade.

(Wood is rarely used in Chinese construction, since most trees were destroyed and burned during the “Great Leap Forward.” Brick is rare also.)

Some buildings have gigantic ornaments mounted on their roofs to make the buildings look taller, more impressive, and classy.

Stairs The typical apartment building is 7 stories high but has no elevator. If you live on the top floor, you need strong legs! One reason why Chinese people are thin is that they get lots of exercise running up and down stairs. (A few apartment buildings have elevators, but those buildings cost too much.)

Even in the nicest apartment buildings, the stairwells are disappointing. The stairs are just cement slabs, covered with dust instead of carpets, and the stairwell’s walls are gashed by people moving furniture in and out.

To save electricity, the stairwell lights are usually off. They’re supposed to turn themselves on when noise is detected, but they’re not sensitive enough, so they tend to stay off until you stomp hard on the stairs. As a result, you’ll see a lot of Chinese people stomping and hollering in stairwells at night, just to get the darn lights to turn on. That’s another example of how things in China “almost work.”

One reason why the stairwells are a mess is that nobody’s responsible for making them better. Condo dwellers pay almost no monthly maintenance fee, so almost no common-area maintenance gets done.

Ceilings Americans like to decorate apartment walls, but the Chinese prefer to decorate apartment ceilings instead.

For example, in Donna’s Jiangyou apartment, the living-room ceiling has edges hiding dozens of recessed colored lights. They’re turned on mainly to celebrate holidays and amuse visitors. Many restaurants use those same kinds of lights.

Many restaurants also hang red paper Chinese lanterns from the ceiling, since red is the Chinese color for happiness. (Americans seeing red think of cherries or blood, but the Chinese think of cheer instead.)

Walls Chinese wall decorations are plain: just a few photos or simple art.

Floors For flooring, you’ll see beautiful woods, tiles, and throw rugs, but no wall-to-wall carpeting.

Dirty shoes Since the stairwells and streets are so dusty, the Chinese typically take off their shoes when entering homes or apartments. The homeowner tries to lend everybody slippers.

If a big crowd of visitors enters the home, there might not be enough slippers to fit everybody, so people try this alternative: when they enter the home, they put blue plastic bags over their shoes, then walk in the bagged shoes. The bags act as galoshes but look ugly, like Wal-Mart shopping bags. To a toddler looking up at the crowd, the people look like gigantic carrots sprouting from shopping bags that are hopping across the floor.

Where’s the toilet? If you’re an American visiting a typical Chinese home, your biggest culture shock will be when you visit the bathroom: there’s no toilet to sit on. Instead, there’s just a hole in the floor: you piss or shit in the hole (while squatting), then push a flush button on the wall.

The hole’s made of porcelain and includes a long shitting area (so you can’t miss). It looks like a urinal that fell over and sunk into the floor.

Since you must squat rather than sit, the typical Chinese bathroom contains no magazines to read.

Just the most westernized homes (such as Donna’s and Mimi’s) have sitting toilets. They require you to flush twice (press the left button and also the right button).

Where’s the bathtub? The typical Chinese home has no bathtub. When you take a shower, there’s no tub and little or no curtain, so the whole bathroom floor gets wet. That’s why the typical Chinese bathroom floor has a gigantic grated drain hole, plus a mop to help you push water into that hole.

In Donna’s apartment, which is luxurious, the bathroom actually includes a shower stall, with a sliding door and its own drain! That stall is quite fancy, with water squirting you from the stall’s sides, the stall’s roof, and the stall’s hand-held hose. Whee — it’s fun! The stall looks like a Jacuzzi that was tilted on its side to stand upright. It even includes a ledge to rest your foot on while the foot is washed. Like most other things in China, when that shower stall was first installed it failed — the hot water turned cold after about 10 seconds — but her brothers grabbed their wrenches and fixed the plumbing themselves, rather than go through the trouble of yelling at the “professional” plumbers they’d hired to construct the bathroom.

Hot water In China, hot water can be temperamental because the typical home has no hot-water tank.

Instead, the apartment’s hot-water heater is tankless, gas-fired, and hides in the kitchen. When you turn on a hot-water faucet anywhere in the apartment, the heater senses the drop in water pressure and turns itself on, instantly heating the water passing through the heater’s pipe.

If two people try using hot water at the same time, the heater is usually inadequate.

Hot air To heat the air in winter, Beijing (which is cold) uses American-style piped heat.

Sichuan (which is warm like Atlanta) uses big electric space heaters instead, which are stashed in corners or mounted on walls. In the summer, those space heaters act as air conditioners: they have secret pipes to the outside, to the blow heat out.

Windows Many apartments have luxurious big windows (which Americans call “picture windows”).

But like most other things in China, those beautiful windows are made cheaply: just single-pane. They offer little insulation. Especially in Sichuan’s winter, they collect so much dew that they look like somebody dumped a bucket of oil on them: they’re too blurry to see through, until the dew evaporates in the afternoon.

Cheap workmanship Here are other examples of cheap workmanship I’ve seen in new products:

The edges of windows have too much putty residue that wasn’t scraped off.

The edges of bathroom floors have too much caulk.

The towel racks are loose: if you lean on a rack, it will fall off the wall (and you’ll fall on your face).

On drawers, the door handles are mounted upside down (so you must stand on your head to read their brands).

Appliances The Chinese homes I visited in Sichuan typically had a big T.V. screen, a CD player, a DVD player, nice furniture, and a washing machine. But you get no clothes dryer, so you must hang the clothes somewhere (a room, patio, or porch) and wait for them to dry.

There are two kinds of washing machine: the newest kind (called “automatic”) resembles American kinds, but a cheaper kind (called “semi-automatic”) is still popular and works like this:

You see two holes in the top. Put the clothes in the left hole, then turn on that hole’s power. You see jets of water squirt at the clothes (as if the clothes were in a Jacuzzi), as rubber sponges spin against the clothes and lint get collected. But that hole has no spin cycle: when the left hole is done washing the clothes, you must take them out and put them into the right hole, which spins them. While spinning, the water coming out of the clothes is automatically piped back to the left hole, to be used for the next wash. Unfortunately, putting the clothes into the left hole and then the right hole doesn’t wash the clothes well, so families normally rewash the clothes by going through that whole procedure 2 or 3 times.

You get no “dishwasher” machine, but upper-income folks (like Mimi) have the next best thing: a “dish dryer” (which looks like a microwave oven).

Light switches The typical American light switch looks male: it’s a prick that sticks out of the wall. The typical Chinese light switch looks female instead: it’s a rounded button (which you press or rock).

In a Chinese bathroom, the switches are covered by a clear plastic shell that keeps humidity out of the electronics. To access those switches, lift the shell first.

Water Though China’s tap water has improved, the Chinese still don’t trust it, so they boil it before drinking. Then they drink it warm, or wait for it to cool, or make it cool faster by refrigerating it.

Protective ornaments Where the hallway meets the living room, the wall’s protruding corners are covered with dark-wood protective ornaments, so if you accidentally bump into the corner, you’ll be banging those protectors instead of wrecking the wall.

Hotel frugality When we visited Beijing, Donna treated me to a “4-star international hotel.” (It was called “international” because it included a bathtub.) It used two tricks to discourage us from being wasteful:

When we entered our room, the lights stayed on for just half a minute, then suddenly shut off. To make the electricity continue working, we had to put the room “key” (which looked like a credit card) into a special holder. When we left the room and took the key with us, the lights would all shut off again — to make sure no electricity got wasted when the room was unoccupied.

In the bathroom, a sign urged us to reuse the same towels for 2 days, so the staff wouldn’t have to waste water by rewashing them. The sign said: the maid will fold our towels but not clean them (unless we leave them in the bathtub). The sign included this summary: “For a green and clean environment, please use towels second day, else put in bathtub.”

Department stores

China still has many small shops but now also has huge department stores, many stories high, new and chic, full of luxurious high fashion and cosmetics from around the world.

Jiangyou’s main department store has two sneaky tricks for keeping customers in the store:

To go from the street to the departments, you take the Up escalators, which are pleasantly wide and inviting; but the Down escalators are narrow (to discourage you from leaving).

When you try to leave an upper floor by taking a series of Down escalators, you discover the Down escalators aren’t next to each other. At each floor, you must walk through several departments to get from one Down escalator to the next.

Discounts are advertised differently than in the U.S.: instead of a sign saying “30% off,” you’ll see a Chinese sign saying just “7,” which means “you pay 70% of list price.” As you walk through the store, you’ll notice that some racks of clothes say “7,” while others say “6” (meaning you pay 60% of list price) or “5” (meaning you pay 50% of list price).

Though a department store looks like just a huge single store, financially it resembles a mall: each part of each aisle has its own salesperson, who rents space from the store. To buy an item, you must first hand the item to the salesperson, who scribbles a purchase order for you; then you hand the purchase order to a cashier (elsewhere on the floor) with your payment; then the cashier hands you a receipt, which you bring back to the salesperson, who finally hands you the item you bought.


To get food in China, you have several choices.

Supermarkets China’s supermarkets are like department stores: huge, several floors, including imports, with salespeople in every aisle to offer you advice about what to buy. Some supermarkets are even part of department stores.

If you want to buy fruit or fresh vegetables, don’t just bring them to the supermarket’s main checkout counter: instead, bring them first to the produce department desk’s own clerks, which weigh what you bought.

The Chinese government is trying to convince its citizens to drink more milk (for vitamins and calcium) — and so are milk’s marketers. Milk is not refrigerated; instead, you buy stay-fresh cartons (which you can keep at room temperature) or powdered milk (which you mix with water).

China offers many kinds of “milk,” just like the U.S. offers many kinds of “multivitamin pills.” When you walk down the milk aisle in Jiangyou’s supermarket, salespeople accost you and try to find the best kind of milk for you: for example, you can choose “milk for seniors” or “milk for infants.” In China, all stay-fresh cartons and most powdered milk is whole milk, with just slight modifications. Skim milk is available just as a powder and just if you look hard for it among all the other milks.

As in the U.S., China’s supermarkets include bakery and deli sections, which provide meals cheaper than restaurants.

Fast food In big cities (such as Beijing and Chengdu), you can easily find MacDonald’s (look for the arches) and Kentucky Fried Chicken (look for “KFC”). In Beijing, a Japanese fast-food chain competes against American junk by offering dishes based on rice instead of French fries.

In Beijing, the fast food places are so busy that it’s hard to find an empty table, so they hire ushers who look out for empty seats from departing customers and guide you to them.

Several Chinese companies have started their own fast-food chains. Jiangyou’s best (run by Donna’s sister’s friend) serves American fast food (hamburgers, hot dogs, and soft-serve ice cream) along with European pastry and Chinese-European loaves of bread (thick, dark, tasty, and tangy, with a touch of blueberry jam hiding inside). Instead of buying a hot-dog grill (and finding room for it), this place deep-fries the hot dogs, as if they were French fries.

Tables of fine food In a Chinese home, the typical table is a double-decker: it has a glass surface (to put your food and drinks on), with a wooden surface below (to put knickknacks, napkins, and other distractions).

Most tables are rectangular, in homes and restaurants; but restaurant tables for big groups (6 or more) are round, and the glass surface rotates (and is slightly smaller than the wooden part), so the glass surface acts as a lazy Suzan, holding the pots of food that everybody shares.

You don’t say “pass me the turtle soup”; instead, you just rotate the glass until the turtle soup comes to you. Then you get as much of it as you wish into your individual bowl, which is on the wooden surface.

By the way, about that turtle soup: it really has a dead turtle floating in the middle of it. You see the whole turtle, even its head. Chinese people prefer to eat meats and fish with the head still on, to prove that it’s freshly killed. In restaurants, if you want to order fish, you walk over to the fish tank, look at the fish swimming there, point at the fish you want to eat, and say “kill this one.” You’ll receive it, cooked, with the head still on.

In homes and restaurants, the Chinese eat family style: everybody shares the pots of food that have been cooked. There are no serving spoons: instead, everybody grabs his own spoon or chopsticks and digs into the pots, transferring as much as desired to his personal bowl.

Sharing food like that is unsanitary: if one person is ill and goes back for a second helping, everybody else at the table will eat his illness. On the other hand, the food itself is quite healthy: the food eaten in Sichuan contains lots of watery broth and vegetables, with very little saturated fat, and it’s hard to overeat, since the chopsticks and tiny spoons slow you down, though when rushing the Chinese take this shortcut: raise the personal bowl to the mouth, then shovel food from bowl to mouth as fast as possible, using chopsticks to help push it.

The typical American quickly chomps through a hamburger or a Big Mac. But in Sichuan, you’ll slowly manipulate watery noodles with weird things sitting on them; you won’t get fat.

The Chinese stay thin because of their wet diets, chopsticks, stairs, human-powered transportation, and realization that there’s more to life than just staring at TV screens and computer screens.

Guangzhou’s reputation Guangzhou is the pinyin name for “Canton,” the city that invented Cantonese food, and where people are willing to experiment by eating different kinds of animals. Chinese people say:

In Guangzhou, they eat everything that flies, except a plane;

they eat everything that swims, except a boat;

they eat everything with 4 legs, except a table.

No surcharges

In China, you don’t have to tip waiters, taxi drivers, hotel maids, or anybody else. Tipping is never expected.

There’s no general sales tax, either: the price you’re quoted is the price you pay, not a penny more!

That’s why Chinese immigrants to the U.S. don’t tip — and don’t expect to be taxed — until Americans reeducate them.


Most Chinese office workers take a two-hour lunch break, from noon to 2PM. That long lunch is like a Mexican siesta: very practical on a hot day! During lunch, the workers go home if they live nearby.

To take that long break and still finish the day’s work, the workers come in early (8AM) and leave late (6PM). So the day consists of two 4-hour shifts: 8AM to noon, then 2PM to 6PM.

The U.S. has several time zones (Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific) plus Daylight Savings Time. China has none of that silliness: all of China is on the same clock, all year. All China is forced to use Beijing’s clock. Since Beijing is in eastern China, workers in western China must come to work in the dark before sunrise, though after work they enjoy lots of sunshine — like U.S. construction workers.


The Chinese have many ways to amuse themselves.

TV On Chinese TV, the mouths aren’t quite in synch with the sounds. That’s partly because some shows are secretly dubbed (Cantonese actors are dubbed into Mandarin) but also because China’s long-distance satellite-TV system isn’t accurate.

Historical dramas are particularly popular. The typical drama includes lots of talking (among the royalty and occasionally the peasants), interrupted by an occasional kung-fu skirmish. The talk-to-fight ratio reminds me of “The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly” (the famous Clint Eastwood cowboy movie that was mostly talk but interrupted by an occasional fight).

As in the U.S., China TV includes ads. Many of the ads are for health (milk, pills, cosmetics, and toothpaste). The ads show Chinese characters supplemented by some pinyin, English characters, and Internet addresses.

The Chinese leave the TV on, for background sound, when socializing or eating meals. But some TV ads are inappropriate during mealtimes. Reacting to citizen complaints, the government promises that during dinnertime the TV will run fewer ads for feminine-hygiene products.

If you visit China and have a chance to watch TV, turn to channel 9 (CCTV-9). It’s all in English! It’s the international channel, to teach foreigners about China. It’s a pleasant mix of news, views, travelogues, and introductions to Chinese art, culture, language, and regional differences. I wish America had a channel like that to teach foreigners about America!

Chinese New Year Chinese New Year is based on the lunar calendar and comes in late January or early February, depending on the moon’s mood. It’s the country’s biggest holiday, and the whole country gets a week-long vacation, optimistically called Spring Festival (even though it’s really winter), during which the Chinese visit their relatives by fighting to get on overcrowded planes, trains, and buses.

During that week, TV presents the Spring Festival Gala, full of gala spectaculars that are glitzy and mindless. (Go ahead, make up your own American analogy, something like “Lawrence Welk and Britney Spears meet the Ice Capades in Las Vegas for July 4th fireworks, with special effects from Steven Spielberg, George Lucas, and the designers of “Who Wants to Be a Millionaire.”)

Some folks complain that the gala doesn’t devote enough attention to minorities and social issues. In 2004, the gala’s planners tried to loosen things up by including more audience-participation shows.

During Spring Festival, lots of kids and families shoot off fireworks, from rooftops and parks. They’re not the dinky little fireworks that American kids shoot at July 4th; instead, they’re industrial-strength fireworks, many feet tall, the size of surface-to-air missiles, shooting hundreds of feet into the air, with multiple payloads, colors, ba-ba-booming sounds, visible from miles away — the kind that Americans would permit only when shot by professionals protected by a moat and a fire department. On Chinese New Year night, the sounds and sights will make you think you’re in a war zone. Chinese families schlep oil drums to the park, then launch the many rockets hiding inside, by remote control, and just hope no girl walking by at the wrong moment has her guts propelled to heaven.

Mahjong When Chinese folks have nothing else to do, they play mahjong, which is a form of poker. Instead of “hearts, diamonds, clubs, and spades,” the suits are “sticks, circles, and chickens.” Instead of being thin, the cards are thick, so they look like wooden dominoes (or big Scrabble letters).

Mahjong players usually gamble small amounts of money. Elderly people like to spend their days relaxing in teahouses while playing mahjong.

Badminton While waiting for customers, shop assistants sometimes stand outside, on the sidewalk, playing badminton. It’s good exercise for the employees, and it attracts attention to the store. But if you try that in the U.S., some bureaucrat will probably complain that the store doesn’t have a badminton-on-sidewalk permit.

Drum corps When a new store’s been constructed and has its grand opening, the store hires a 100-woman drum corps, which marches back and forth in front of the store, banging their drums. It attracts attention to the store and the whole neighborhood.

Hey, kids, why not start a similar service in the U.S., to attract attention to new businesses? Just make sure you get permits!

Historic sites In the U.S., historic sites are rather boring: you usually enter a building, hear a lecture, and get tired. Chinese historic sites are more fascinating, because they’re surrounded by beautiful parks.

To enter a Chinese historic building, you must hop over a wall that’s nearly a foot high. That wall’s the threshold: it marks the doorway’s bottom. All old houses and buildings had those thresholds instead of American-style “doors,” which weren’t needed since Sichuan usually has pleasantly warm weather, no snowstorms, no rainstorms, and no crime.

In the Northeastern U.S., many places brag that “George Washington slept here.” In Sichuan, many towns brag that
Li Bai lived here.” He was China’s most famous poet. He lived from 701 A.D. to 762 A.D., during the Tang dynasty. He’s called the “drunk poet,” because his poems are full of drunken hallucinations. His most famous poem begins like this:

Have you never seen

Yellow River waters

Flowing down from Heaven,

Rushing toward the sea,

Never to return?

Like most of his poems, it begins by describing China’s natural beauty, but American men notice it’s also a good poem to recite to a urinal.

Another Sichuan attraction is Du Jiang Yan, the world’s first major water project, built in 250 B.C. by the Qin family (who, 29 years afterwards, conquered the rest of China and called themselves the “Qin dynasty.”) The project was hard: to divert water to Chengdu, Qin’s peasants had to build a dam and blow up a mountain, but explosives hadn’t been invented yet, so they broke the mountain’s boulders apart by lighting fires on them, then dousing the fires with cold water, to make the rocks fissure. After 8 years of that, they finally created a mountain pass for their canal to flow through. Now the canal, dam, and reservoir are surrounded by a park with scenic views of mountains and rivers.


Sichuan rarely gets rainstorms but often gets drizzles. The drizzles dampen the streets but aren’t strong enough to wash dirt away, so city streets and sidewalks stay dirty and dusty awhile, until finally attacked by city employees who grab huge brooms (resembling tree branches) and sweep every street and sidewalk in the whole city, by hand.

Since Sichuan is usually warm and balmy, retired folks love to relax by sitting outside (playing mahjong at outdoor cafés) or doing aerobic martial-arts dances in parks.

Beijing is farther north, much colder, and much windier. It’s also less relaxed: there are fewer benches to sit on. In winter, Beijing’s grass turns pale, while Sichuan’s stays green.


In many cities (such as Mianyang in Sichuan province), the bottom 4 feet of each tree trunk are painted white, to discourage bugs from eating the bark.

Hanging roots Especially in downtown Mianyang, you see trees that have strange things hanging down from the branches. Those “strange things” are roots! Yes, roots grow down from the branches and search for the soil. If those extra roots don’t succeed in reaching the soil, they shrivel; otherwise, they grow strong and look like auxiliary trunks.

Painting If you want to become a landscape painter, look at the trees on the hills near Mianyang. The branches bend in strange ways. Especially in winter, the leaves are sparse but come in bunches, which look like powder puffs, so they’re easy to paint: just one dab from a splayed brush will give you a whole puff. New England is best for colors, but China is best for shapes.

Bulges Many trees look pregnant: they have huge bulges around their trunks. If you look at the bulges carefully, you discover they’re bales of hay, tied into balls and hung there by farmers.


When I travel, I’m more interested in the people than their wares.

What the Chinese think of America The Chinese are eager to learn English (because they want to understand American music and movies and earn more money from international trade). They like most Americans, though they think Bush was an idiotic callous jerk to start a war with Iraq.

Though Americans often visit big cities such as Beijing, Americans are rarer in small cities such as Mianyang and Jiangyou. Many kids in those cities have never seen an in-the-flesh American before — though they’ve studied English in school and seen Americans on TV — so they stare at me when I walk down the street or sit in a restaurant. They treat me as if I’m a cross between a Martian and a superstar. A 7-year-old girl kept staring at me while I was eating in a restaurant; finally, when I was leaving, she shyly said “Hello” to me in English. I said “Hello” back to her. That made her day. She beamed.

Dancing The Chinese people are proud of their culture. Donna’s relatives showed me their dancing skills and asked me to show them my American dancing, so I showed them the most advanced American dances I’ve mastered:

the Bunny Hop (a line dance where you hold the hips of the person before you and kick right twice, then left twice, then hop forward-back-forward-forward-forward, while twitching your nose to look like a scared bunny)

the Hokey-Pokey (a circle dance where you learn the English names for body parts by following Simon-says instructions such as “put your ass in,  put your ass out, put your ass in, and you shake it all about”)

All her relatives started freakily copying my Bunny Hop and Hokey-Pokey, and Donna made me teach those dances to all senior citizens in the park, too! So now I, too, can put on my résumé that I’m an “American who corrupted Chinese culture.”

Advice The Chinese love to give advice. In fact, they insist on giving advice, even when you don’t want it.

Americans believe that “people should be free to boogie through life however they wish.” The Chinese believe “everybody should act properly.”

A friend of mine visited China for many months and became part of China’s culture. When she returned to the U.S., her roommates complained her personality had changed: she’d turned into an annoying authoritarian asshole, telling them all how to act. She apologized and returned to the American philosophy of “do whatever you want.”

Donna’s daughter explained to me that in China, each group of people (such as a family) develops a leader who tells everybody else in the group what to do; and if anybody asks why, the leader just says, “That’s a rule.” The leader keeps inventing more rules.

Because of China’s history of repressive governments and mass slaughters, survival’s often meant being warned what to do, before you get in trouble. But now that China’s government is starting to loosen up, maybe someday the Chinese will become as free as Americans.

City reputations Sichuan province’s most famous city is Chengdu, which produces beautiful women. (My wife was born there.) Married men who visit Chengdu often wish they’d married Chengdu women instead! Chinese people say:

When you visit Chengdu,                 you learn you married too early.

When you visit Beijing (the capital), you learn your rank is not high.

When you visit Guangzhou,                 you learn you’re not rich.

More often, Chinese people use advanced grammar to purposely create Daoist mysterious confusion, like this:

Not until you visit Chengdu       do you realize you married too early.

Not until you visit Beijing          do you realize your rank is not high.

Not until you visit Guangzhou   do you realize you’re not rich.

Recently, other Chinese cities have become even richer than Guangzhou.

“Not One Less”

To experience China without leaving the comfort of your American home, rent a movie about China. I recommend Not One Less, which I found at our local video-rental store in New Hampshire.

It’s about a girl who, though just 13 years old, is forced to take a job as an elementary-school teacher in rural impoverished China, then must run to the city to retrieve a student who ran away, then winds up on TV.

The biggest surprise comes at the end, when you discover who the actors are. The characters are all played by themselves: they used their real names and real titles. Even the bureaucrat was played by… a bureaucrat!

You’ll see the schoolkids get lessons in Chinese & math and see how hard it is to discipline an elementary-school class.

The director is famous in China for trying weird experiments. The movie ends with a political message saying millions of schoolkids run away from school to earn money for their families.

The film is subtitled and won an international award in 1999, but I can’t figure out when the story’s supposed to take place, since the schoolkids give a pledge-of-allegiance to Mao, who died in the 1970’s, and my wife doesn’t believe life in rural China is so bad today. Is it?

88 ways to know you’re Chinese

People who are born in the United States but are ethnically Chinese are called American-born Chinese (ABC). People who are born in Canada but are ethnically Chinese are called Canadian-born Chinese (CBC).

Canadian-born Chinese love to pass around an e-mail that reveals “88 ways to know whether you’re Chinese.” Chinese in Canada and the U.S. have gradually improved the list, to make it truer. I’ve organized it into topics.…


  1.  You like to eat chicken feet.

  2.  You suck on fish heads and fish fins.

  3. You prefer shrimp with heads & legs still attached, to show they’re fresh.

  4. You like to eat congee with thousand-year-old eggs.

  5. You’ve eaten a red-bean Popsicle, know what moon cakes are, and acquired a taste for bitter melon.

  6. You boil water then store it in the fridge. You always keep a Thermos of hot water available.

  7. When you’re sick, your parents tell you to boil herbs and stay inside. They also tell you to avoid fried foods or baked goods because they produce “hot air” (yeet hay in Cantonese).

Eating style

  8. You eat all meals in the kitchen, whose table has a vinyl tablecloth on which you spit bones and other food scraps.

  9. Your teacup has a cover. You tap the table when someone pours tea for you.

10. You reuse jam jars as drinking glasses.

11. At the dinner table, you pick your teeth (but cover your mouth).

12. Whenever you take a car ride more than 15 minutes, you carry a stash of dried food: prunes, mango, ginger, beef/pork jerky, and squid.

13. When you visit a home, you bring along oranges (or other produce) as a gift. Your parents refuse any sacks of oranges that guests bring. At Christmas, you give cookies (or fruitcakes, which could be over 5 years old).

Food economy

14. You hate wasting food, since your mom gave lectures about starving kids in Africa. When someone plans to throw away the table’s leftovers, you’ll finish them even if you’re totally full. Your fridge’s “Tupperware” contains three bites of rice or one leftover chicken wing; but you don’t own real Tupperware — just a cupboard full of used but carefully rinsed margarine tubs, takeout containers, and jam jars.

15. You eat every last grain of rice in your bowl but not the last piece of food on the table.

16.  You reuse teabags.

17. Your fridge’s condiments are either Costco sized or come in tiny plastic packets (which you save/steal every time you get takeout or McDonald’s). Ditto paper napkins.


18. You know all the waiters at your favorite Chinese restaurants.

19. You starve yourself before going to all-you-can-eat buffets.

20. Whenever you go to a restaurant, you wipe your plate and utensils before you eat.

21. You fight (literally) over who pays the dinner bill.

22. At restaurants, you rarely tip more than 10%; when you do, you tip Chinese delivery guys/waiters more.

Food preparation

23. You use a wok, own a rice cooker, and wash your rice at least twice before cooking it.

24. Your kitchen’s covered by a sticky film of grease. Your stove’s covered with aluminum foil.

25. You’ve never turned on your dishwasher, which you use as a dish rack.

26.  You beat eggs with chopsticks.

27. You own a meat cleaver and sharpen it.

28. You don’t use measuring cups. You always cook too much.

29. You have stuff in the freezer since the beginning of time.

Dealing with parents

30.  You’ve never kissed your mom or dad.

31.  You’ve never hugged your mom or dad.

32. You never discuss your love life with parents.

33. Your parents are never happy with your grades.

34. If you’re 30, you still live with your parents (and they prefer it that way) — or you’re married and live in the apartment next door or at least in the same neighborhood. If you don’t live at home, your parents always want you to come home. Each time they call, they ask whether you’ve eaten, even if it’s midnight.

35.  You never call your parents just to say “Hi.”


36. At work, you e-mail your Chinese friends, though you’re just 10 feet apart.

37. When you go to a dance party, a wall of guys surrounds the dance floor and tries to look cool.

38. You often say “Aiee Yah!” and “Wah!” You say “Wei” when answering your cell phone.

39. You’ve been on the Love Boat or know someone who has.

40. You love Las Vegas, slot machines, and blackjack.

41. You own an MJ set and possibly have a room set up in the basement. You know “MJ” doesn’t mean Michael Jackson, it’s mahjong!

42. Your parents send money to relatives in China.


43. You’ve worn glasses since the 5th grade.

44. Your unassisted vision is worse than 20/500.

45. You wear contacts to avoid your “Coke-bottle glasses,” which you saved though you’ll never use them again.


46.  You’re less than 5' 8" tall.

47.  You look like you’re 18.

48.  Your hair sticks up when you wake up.

49. You use a face cloth. You take showers at night.

50.  You iron your own shirts.

51.  You always leave your shoes at the door.

52.  Your house is covered with tile.

53. You leave the plastic covers on your remote control — or enclose your remote controls in plastic — to keep greasy fingerprints off.

54.  You twirl your pen around your fingers.

55. If you’re male, you have less body hair than most girls.

56. If you’re male, you clap at something funny. If you’re female, you giggle while placing a hand over your mouth.

57.  You’re always late.

58. Your parents use a clothesline and can launch nasal & throat projectiles.


59.  You drive a Honda or Acura.

60. Your dashboard is covered with hundreds of small toys. A Chinese knickknack hangs from your rearview mirror.

61. You don’t want to wear your seatbelt, because it’s uncomfortable.

62. You drive around looking for the cheapest gas. You drive around for hours looking for the best parking space.


63.  You’ve joined a CD club at least once.

64.  You sing Karaoke.

65.  You play a musical instrument.

66.  You have a piano in your living room.


67. You like Chinese films in their original undubbed versions.

68. You love Chinese martial-arts films, and you’ve learned some form of martial arts. “Shaolin” and “Wutang” actually mean something to you.

69.  Your parents never go to the movies.

Practical skills

70. You majored in something practical, like engineering, medicine, or law.

71. Your dad thinks he can fix everything himself.


72. You don’t mind squeezing 20 people into one motel room.

73. You have a collection of miniature shampoo bottles you took every time you stayed in hotels.

74. You avoid the non-free snacks in hotel rooms.


75.  You love to use coupons.

76. You save grocery bags, tin foil, and tin containers.

77. Your toothpaste tubes are all squeezed paper-thin.

78. You unwrap Christmas gifts very carefully, so you can reuse the paper.

79. You buy Christmas cards only after Christmas, when they’re 50% off.

80. When toilet paper’s on sale, you buy 100 rolls. You store them in your closet (or the bedroom of an adult child who moved out).

81. You feel you’ve gotten a good deal if you didn’t pay tax.

82. You have a drawer full of old pens, most of which don’t write anymore.

83. You always look phone numbers up yourself, since calling information costs at least 50¢. You make long-distance calls only after 9PM.

84. You know someone who can get you a good deal on jewelry, electronics, or computers.

85. You’ll haggle over something that’s not negotiable.

86. You keep most of your money in a savings account.


87. You know this list consists of just 88 reasons because, in Cantonese, “8” is pronounced the same as “good luck.”

88. You see the truth in this message and forward it to all your Chinese friends.