Mac computers (which are made by Apple) use an operating system (OS) called Mac OS.
Mac OSs version 1 was invented in 1984 by Apple. Then came versions 2, 3, 4, etc., up through version 9. Version 10 is different: its based on Unix and written in Roman numerals: Mac OS X (which is supposed to be pronounced Mac oh ess ten, though Apple will be pleased if you accidentally pronounce it Mac, oh, is sex!).
Mac OS X has gone through several versions:
This chapter explains how to use OS X version 10.2 (Jaguar). Other OS X versions are similar. If your Mac is so old that its operating system is less than OS X (and therefore less than version 10), phone me at 603-666-6644 to get an older version of this book.
This chapter explains how to use the cheapest modern Mac, which is called an education Mac (eMac). Its wonderful and costs just $799! Other Macs (such as the iMac, the iBook, the Power Mac, and the PowerBook) are similar; theyre just slightly fancier and cost more.
The eMac comes in a big white cardboard box. To warn you that its an educational joyride, the box is decorated with education symbols from biology (a freaky flower), astronomy (a freaky Saturn), and chemistry (a freaky molecule).
Open the box and peek inside. You see clear plastic bags. They contain the system unit (the computers main circuitry with a built-in 17-inch monitor), keyboard, mouse, 2 speaker covers, power cord, phone cord, CD-ROM disks, a blank CD-R disk, instructions, and 2 decals (which you can put on your window, to brag to your neighbors that you bought a Mac). Most of those items are a gorgeous white in clear-ice plastic, which Apple calls Snow White because she was the gorgeous gal who ate an apple from an icy queen and got carried away by princely charm!
Each bag is self-sealing (like a Zip-Lock bag but better), so you can pry each bag open gently, without using a scissors.
Open the bags. (To handle the heaviest bag, which contains the system unit, tilt the box.) For the mouse and keyboard, remove the plastic caps protecting their cords.
Put the system unit on your desk. The computers front has the word eMac on it. Position the system unit so you can see the word eMac when youre sitting in your chair. That way, youll be facing the eMacs screen.
Plug one end of the power cord into your wall and the other end into the system units right-hand side (toward the rear). Make sure both ends of the power cord are plugged in tightly.
Plug the keyboards cord into the system units right-hand side. (The cord can fit into three slots there; choose the frontmost slot. If the cord seems to not fit easily, flip the cord 180 degrees.)
Find the mouse. (It looks like a used bar of soap and says Mouse underneath.) Plug the mouses cable into the keyboards side.
On the system units front, each bottom corner has a silver circular disk. Those disks are the speakers. To protect them from damage by children and pets, cover them with the speaker covers (plastic disks full of small holes, like Swiss cheese).
Congratulations! Youve installed the computer! Now you can say on your résumé that youre a computer expert experienced at installing advanced computer equipment. Go put that Apple decal on your window!
Look at the computers right-hand side. Near the power cord, you see a white circular button. (That button shows a picture of a circle interrupted by a vertical line sticking up from it.) Thats the power button. Press it.
The computer will make an overture to you: youll hear a musical chord. (If you dont hear anything, you probably didnt press the power button hard enough: press it harder.)
On the screen, youll seen an Apple. About a minute later, youll see Mac OS X.
Practice moving the mouse
Make sure the mouse is positioned properly, so it lies flat on the desk, and you see the eaten apple on it, and the apple doesnt look upside-down or twisted. Practice moving the mouse across the desk. As you move the mouse, an arrow moves on the screen.
While moving the mouse, dont twist it: make sure the apple on it stays right-side up.
If the computer is in the USA and hasnt been used before, heres what happens:
Examine the screen
Eventually, you see little pictures, called icons. For example, the screens top left corner will show the Apple icon (a blue apple thats partly eaten); the screens bottom right corner will show the trash icon (picture of a trash can). Those icons mean the Finder (the fundamental part of the Macs operating system) is ready.
At the screens top right corner, you also see the day of the week (such as Tue) and the time, like this:
Try this experiment: click that time. (To click it, move the mouse until its on-screen arrows tip is in the times middle, then tap the mouse with your finger, near the mouses cord.) If you do that successfully, youll see the date underneath, such as:
The date appears just temporarily: when you click the time again (or click anywhere on the screen), the date disappears.
A gray bar stretches across the screens top, from the top left corner (the Apple icon) to the top right corner (the time). Thats called the menu bar.
Icons stretch across the screens bottom, from the bottom left corner to the bottom right corner (the trash). Those icons are called the dock.
Close any window
If your screens middle shows a window (a big white box), do this (which will make the window disappear):
Try this experiment: click the Apple icon (at the screens top left corner). You see this Apple menu:
About This Mac
On the Apple menu, if you click About This Mac, the computer will show you a window (rectangle) that tells you about your Mac.
For example, on my Mac, the window says this:
Thats what my Mac says. What does your Mac say? Is your Mac better than mine? If so, Im jealous!
When you finish reading the message about your Mac, close the messages window (by clicking the red circle in the windows top left corner).
When youre done using the Mac, choose Shut Down from the Apple menu. (To do that, click the Apple icon, so the Apple menu appears, then click Shut Down).
The computer will ask, Are you sure you want to shut down your computer now? The computer will also show two buttons, marked Cancel and Shut Down. To confirm that you really want to shut down your computer now, click the Shut Down button. That makes the Mac shut itself off.
While shutting itself off, the Mac tidies up the files on the hard disk and then turns off its own power.
The screen goes black. The white power light (which is next to the bottom right speaker) goes off.
To make your computer easy to use, adjust the System Preferences. To do that, say System Preferences by using one of these methods:
You see the System Preferences window.
In that window, click Displays. You see these 5 choices for screen resolution:
The computer typically refuses to let you choose 640 ´ 480 (and shows its refusal by writing that choice in gray instead of black). Choose one of the others instead. Apples factory sets the eMac for 1024 ´ 768, but the eMac will be easier to use if you choose 1280 ´ 960 instead, since that lets you see the most dots on the screen so you can see more writing at once. A lot of Mac software assumes youve chosen 1280 ´ 960, so you should typically click 1280 ´ 960, which will make your software easier to use. Exception: if your eyesight is poor (or youre showing the computer to a big audience sitting far away or your eyes are very annoyed by a slight flicker), youll have to stay with a lower resolution.
If youre sharing the computer with your friends, get their permission before changing the resolution.
When you finish adjusting, click the System Preferences thats next to the Apple icon (at the screens top left), then click Quit System Preferences.
If youll be gone from the Mac for a few minutes (to go to the bathroom or grab a snack), you can make the screen be completely black during your absence, so the screen will consume less electricity and neighbors wont peek at your work. To do that, choose Sleep from the Apple menu (or press the POWER button on the computers right side).
Then the screen will go black (and the white power light will pulsate instead of being solidly on), until you return and awaken the computer by pressing the RETURN key (or pressing any other key on the keyboard or clicking the mouse or pressing the POWER button).
Automatic sleep If you dont touch the keyboard or mouse awhile, the computer will notice youre inactive, so the computer will assume youve walked away. After 5 minutes of inactivity, the computer will put the screen to sleep (so it turns black until you move the mouse); after 10 minutes of inactivity, the computer will put the rest of the system unit to sleep (so the power light pulsates until you press a key or click the mouse or press the POWER button).
If you dont like the numbers 5 minutes and 10 minutes, change them by doing this:
To find out whats on your computers hard disk (HD), double-click the Macintosh HD icon (which is at the screens top right corner, just below the time). Heres how to double-click the icon:
Then youll see the Macintosh HD window. In that window, youll see icons for 8 folders.
Double-click the Applications folder for OS X. You see the Applications window, which tries to show these 32 icons:
At first, you see just some of those icons because the window is too small to show them all. To see more of the icons, make the window bigger, by clicking the windows zoom button (the green circle near the windows top left corner). If you click the zoom button again, the window will become small again. Each time you click the zoom button, the window switches from small to big or back to small again. But even if the window is big, its still not big enough to show you all 32 icons at once: you see just the top few rows of icons. To see the bottom rows instead, choose from these methods:
To do calculations, double-click the Calculator icon (which is in the Applications window, near the top right corner).
Youll see a window that looks and acts like a pocket calculator. For example, heres how to compute 42+5:
Instead of using the mouse, you can do that calculation a different way, by using the keyboard. On the keyboards right-hand side, you see the numeric keypad, which looks just like the on-screen calculator. On that numeric keypad, tap the 4 key, then the 2 key, then the + key, then 5, then either = or ENTER. The on-screen calculator will show 47.
Try fancier calculations! Use these symbols:
If you make a mistake, you can click the C button (by using the mouse) or press the CLEAR key (on the keyboard). That resets the calculator to 0, so you can start over.
The on-screen calculator has an Advanced button. If you click that button, youll see a calculator thats more advanced and has extra buttons, such as these:
If you click the 7 button and then say squared (by pressing the x² button), the computer will multiply 7 by itself and say 49 (which is called 7 squared). If you click the 7 button and then say cubed (by pressing the x³ button), the computer will do 7 times 7 times 7 and say 343 (which is called 7 cubed). If you click the 7 button and then say factorial (by pressing the x! button), the computer will multiply together all the numbers up to 7 (1 times 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 times 6 times 7) and say 5040 (which is called 7 factorial).
If you say pi (by pressing the p button), the computer will say 3.141592654.
After making the calculator be advanced, you can make it become basic again by clicking the Basic button.
When you finish using the calculator, click the word Calculator thats next to the Apple icon (at the screens top left), then click Quit Calculator.
Heres how to do word processing simply.
In the Applications window, find the TextEdit icon. That icon is toward the right, near the bottom. If you dont see it in the Applications window, make the Applications window bigger (by clicking the zoom button, which is the green circle) or scroll down.
Double-click that icon. Then type whatever sentences you wish to make up. For example, try typing a memo to your friends, or a story, or a poem. Be creative! Whatever you type is called a document.
How to type
These tricks will help you type.
Capitals To capitalize a letter of the alphabet, type that letter while holding down the SHIFT key.
Above the E key, you see a key that says 4 and also says $. If you press that key, youll normally be typing 4. If you want to type $ instead, tap that key while holding down the SHIFT key. Heres the rule: if a key has two symbols on it, and you want to type the top symbol, tap the key while holding down the SHIFT key.
To capitalize a whole passage, tap the CAPS LOCK key (so its green light starts glowing), then type the passage. The computer will automatically capitalize the passage as you type it. When you finish typing the passage, tap the CAPS LOCK key again: that tells the computer to turn off the keys light and stop capitalizing.
DELETE key If you make a mistake, press the DELETE key. That makes the computer erase the last character you typed. To erase the last two characters you typed, press the DELETE key twice.
Word wrap If youre typing near the windows right edge, and you type a word thats too long to fit in the window, the computer will automatically move the word to the line below. Moving the word to the line below is called word wrap.
RETURN key When you finish a paragraph, press the RETURN key. That makes the computer move to the line below so you can start typing the next paragraph. If you want to double-space between the paragraphs, press the RETURN key twice.
TAB key If you want to indent a line (such as the first line of a paragraph), begin the line by pressing the TAB key, which makes the computer indent.
Nudge a phrase To move a phrase toward the right, press the TAB key several times before typing the phrase. To move a phrase down, press the RETURN key several times before typing the phrase.
Red dots While youre typing, the computer automatically examines each word you type. The computer puts red dots under any word thats not in the computers dictionary.
If you see red dots under a word, you misspelled it or you forgot to put a space between words, or you know more words than the computer. So if you see red dots under a word, look carefully at that word to make sure its really what you want.
Scroll through documents
If your document contains too many lines to fit in the window, the window will show just part of the document. To see the rest of the document, drag the scroller (the tall blue bubble at the windows right edge) up or down, or press the PAGE UP key or PAGE DOWN key.
To insert extra characters anywhere in your document, click where you want the extra characters to appear (by moving the mouses pointer there then tapping the mouse with your finger, near the mouses cord). Then type the extra characters.
For example, suppose you typed the word fat and want to change it to fault. Click between the a and the t, then type ul.
As you type the extra characters, the screens other characters move out of the way, to make room for the extra characters.
While youre inserting the extra characters, you can erase nearby mistakes by pressing the DELETE key or the DEL key.
Split a paragraph
Heres how to split a long paragraph in half, to form two short paragraphs.
Decide which word should begin the second short paragraph. Click the left edge of that words first letter.
Press the DELETE (to erase the space before that word), then press the RETURN key. Now youve split the long paragraph in two!
If you want to double-space between the two short paragraphs, press the RETURN key again. If you want to indent the second paragraph, press the TAB key.
After typing two paragraphs, heres how to combine them, to form a single paragraph thats longer.
Click at the end of the first paragraph. Press the DEL key several times, to delete unwanted RETURNs and TABs. Now youve combined the two paragraphs into one!
Then press the SPACE bar (to insert a space between the two sentences).
To move to different parts of your document, you can use your mouse. To move faster, press the arrow keys instead:
Suppose the document contains a phrase you mistyped. Heres how to edit the phrase.
First, make the phrase be blue, by using any of these methods:
Making the phrase be blue is called selecting the phrase.
Then say what to do to the phrase. For example, if you want to erase the phrase, press the DELETE key. If you want to replace the phrase instead, just type whatever words you want the phrase to become. If you want to move the phrase instead, choose Cut from the Edit menu (by clicking Edit, which is at the screens top, then Cut), then click where you want the phrase to be, then choose Paste from the Edit menu.
Notice that the Cut command makes sense only if youve selected some text (by turning that text blue).
If you dont select any text if no phrase is blue the computer refuses to let you say Cut. In that situation, when you pull down the Edit menu, youll notice that the word Cut appears on the menu very faintly: the word Cut is dimmed; its grayed instead of being written in sharp black.
Heres the rule: when a word on a menu is dimmed,
the computer refuses to let you choose that word. The usual reason for the refusal is that you havent selected a phrase (or icon or other part of the screen).
If you mess up the entire document and want to erase it all
(so you can start over again, fresh, from scratch), choose
Select All from the Edit menu, then press the DELETE key.
Near the windows top left corner, you see these alignment buttons:
While typing a line, you can click one of those alignment buttons.
Clicking the Center button makes the line be centered,
Clicking the Align Right button makes the line be at the windows right edge,
Clicking the Align Left button makes the line be at the windows left edge,
Clicking one of those buttons affects not just the line youre typing but also all other lines in the same paragraph.
Clicking the Justify button makes the paragraph be justified, so the paragraphs bottom line is at the windows left edge, and each of the paragraphs other lines is at both edges (by inserting extra space between the words),
When you click one of those alignment buttons, youre activating it, and it turns gray. That button deactivates when you click a different alignment button instead.
When you start typing a new document, the computer assumes you want the document to be aligned left, so the computer activates the Align Left button. If you want a different alignment, click a different alignment button instead.
Clicking one of those alignment buttons affects the entire paragraph youre typing. (The paragraphs you typed earlier remain unaffected.)
To change the alignment of a paragraph you typed earlier, click in the paragraphs middle then click the alignment button you wish.
When you start typing a new paragraph, the computer gives that paragraph the same alignment as the paragraph above, unless you say differently (by clicking one of the alignment buttons).
Heres how to type a centered title:
To copy the document onto the hard disk, choose Save from the File menu.
Then invent a name for your document. For example, you can invent a short name such as
or a long name such as:
The name can be as long as you wish. It shouldnt contain a period, a colon, or a slash, but it can contain any other characters you wish. At the end of the name, press the RETURN key. That makes the computer copy the document onto the hard disk.
Afterwards, if you change your mind and want to do more editing, go ahead! Edit the document some more. When you finish that editing, save it by choosing Save from the File menu again.
When you finish working on a document, click the
close button (the red circle at the windows top left corner).
(The computer might ask, Do you want to save changes to this document before closing? If you reply by clicking Dont Save, the computer wont copy your latest changes to the disk. If you click Save instead, the computer will chat with you, just as if you chose Save from the File menu.)
The document disappears from the screen, but youre still in the middle of using TextEdit. To prove youre still in the middle of using TextEdit, notice that at the screens top left corner, you still see TextEdit next to the Apple icon on the menu bar.
Then choose one of these activities:
Final two steps When you finish using the computer, remember to take these two steps:
Next to the SPACE bar, you see a key that has an apple on it. That key has many names. Its called the APPLE key, but its also called the CLOVERLEAF key (because it also has a cloverleaf on it), the SQUIGGLE key (because its cloverleaf looks like a squiggle), and the COMMAND key (because it helps you command the computer).
Actually, your keyboard also has two command keys: one is left of the SPACE bar; the other is to the right of the SPACE bar. Use either one.
Try holding down a COMMAND key; and while you hold down that key, tap one of these keys:
Here are the details.
Underline To underline a phrase (like this), you can use two methods:
Bold To make a phrase be bold (like this), you can use two methods:
Italic To make a phrase be italicized (like this), you can use two methods:
Enlarge Heres how to enlarge a phrase (like this):
Shrink Heres how to shrink a phrase (like this):
Zap If you make a mistake (such as accidentally deleting a phrase, or accidentally making a phrase look ugly), immediately hold down the COMMAND key; and while you keep holding down that key, tap the Z key. That makes the computer undo your last activity, so your document returns to the way it looked before you made your boo-boo. To undo your last two activities, do that tapping twice.
Time savers To accomplish the most popular activities, beginners choose from the File, Edit, or TextEdit menus (by using the mouse). Experts save time by avoiding such mousing around: while holding down the COMMAND key, they just tap the A, S, N, O, Q, W, X, V, or C key, as shown in the chart.
Normally, the characters you type appear black on a white background. Heres how to make them a different color, such as red.
Drag across the phrase you want to color (so the phrases background becomes blue). While holding down the COMMAND and SHIFT keys, tap the C key. You see the Colors window. (If the window isnt tall yet, enlarge it by clicking its resize button, which is left of the word Colors.)
You should see a big color wheel, which is a circle full of colors. (If you dont see a big color wheel yet, make it appear by clicking the small color wheel at the windows top left corner.)
Click the color you want instead of black; for example, click red. Then the phrase will turn red. Next to the color wheel, you see a tower (vertical bar) showing many shades of red (from light red to dark red); click your favorite shade. Then the phrase will turn that shade (and so will the color circle).
To color a different phrase, drag across it, then choose a color for it by clicking the color wheel and the shade tower. (If the colors in the color wheel are too dark to see clearly, brighten them by clicking the shade towers top.)
When you finish using the Colors window, close it (by clicking its close button).
The Mac has a voice! Heres how to make your Macs voice read your entire document out loud:
Try it! Youll enjoy the sound of the Macs voice, especially if youre blind or lonely.
The voice assumes your document is written in English. (If your document is written is some other language, such as Spanish, the voice will mispronounce some of the words.)
To speak well, the Mac analyzes each sentences punctuation and grammar. For example, at the end of a sentence, a period makes the voices pitch drop, but a question mark makes the voices pitch rise.
How do you pronounce the word read? In sentences such as I will read it and I can read it, the Mac will correctly pronounce the word as reed. In the sentence I have read it, the Mac will correctly pronounce the word as red.
The Mac understands political titles: it knows that Pres. should be pronounced President, Gov. should be pronounced Governor, Sen. should be pronounced Senator, and Rep. should be pronounced Representative.
The Mac isnt shy: if you type dirty words, the Mac will say them.
Notice that the Mac operating system can speak, but Microsoft Windows cannot. Thats one reason why Mac lovers say Microsoft Windows is dumb.
Different voices The Mac is bisexual: it can speak in male and female voices. In fact, it can speak in 22 different voices! The Mac assumes you want it to speak in Victorias voice. Heres how to switch to a different voice.
Say System Preferences (by choosing System Preferences from the Apple menu or by clicking the System Preferences icon, which is in the dock). Double-click the Speech icon (which looks like a microphone). Click Default Voice.
Click one of these 22 voices:
Click Play to hear a sample of that voice. Whichever voice you choose will affect all future speaking, until you switch to a different voice instead.
Long melodies For a fun time, create a composition that contains just the word la about 40 times (separated by spaces but no punctuation), then choose one of the singing voices.
Sharing? If youre sharing the computer with friends, return to Victoria (or whatever other voice your group agrees on) before you leave the computer.
Your Mac is an amazing pet: it can perform tricks!
Before 1980, music came on records or tapes. Nowadays, music comes on a compact disc (CD).
If youve gone to a music store and bought a CD containing music, you can shove that disk into your Mac, which will play the CD as background music, while you continue your work. Heres how.
Press the EJECT key (which is at the keyboards top right corner and says ). That makes the Mac open its mouth and stick out its tongue: more precisely, it makes the Mac open its CD door (which is below the screen) and stick out its CD tray.
Put the CD onto the Macs tongue (the CD tray), as follows:
Press the EJECT key again. That makes the Mac retract its tongue, close its mouth, and taste your CD.
If the computer says iTunes Setup Assistant (because nobody has played music on your Mac yet), do this:
You see the iTunes window. Click Audio CD (which is at the Windows left edge). You see a list of songs (tracks) that are on the CD. (If the list is too long to fit in the window, make the window taller by dragging its bottom-right corner down.)
Which songs? If you want to hear all the songs on the CD, just click the play button (the at the windows top left corner).
If you want to hop to a particular song, double-click its number. The computer will start playing that song and the songs after it.
If you hate some songs and want the computer to skip them, remove their check marks (by clicking them).
Volume To adjust the volume, you can use three methods:
Interruption To pause the music, click the pause button (the II at the windows top left corner, where the play button used to be). To resume playing, click that spot again.
To start the current song over again, click . To skip ahead to the next song, click . To skip to a faraway song, double-click its number.
Visual Near the windows bottom right corner, you see the Visual button (which has starburst or snowflake on it). If you click it, youll see an animated abstract cartoon that thumps to the musics beat.
While youre watching the cartoon, try pressing COMMAND with F. (That means: while holding down the APPLE key, tap the F key.) That makes the cartoon change size, so it consumes the full screen or become small again, so it fits in the iTunes window.
When you finish admiring the cartoon and it fits in the iTunes window, you can cancel the cartoon by pressing the Visual button again.
Finish When you finish listening to the CD, do this:
When you finish using iTunes, say quit (by pressing COMMAND with Q).
If your eMac came with an CD to upgrade iTunes, iPhoto, iMove, and iDVD, heres how to install the upgrade:
Before 1990, movies came on film or videotape. Nowadays, movies often come on a digital versatile disk (DVD).
If youve gone to a video store and bought a DVD containing a movie, you can shove that disk into your Mac, which will play the movie (if your Mac contains a DVD drive, which all modern Macs do).
Press the EJECT key (which is at the keyboards top right corner and says ). That makes the Mac open its mouth and stick out its tongue.
Put the DVD onto the Macs tongue (the tray), as follows:
Press the EJECT key again. That makes the Mac retract its tongue, close its mouth, and taste your DVD.
(If the computer says Drive Region Code, because nobody has played movies on your Mac yet, click Set Drive Region then OK.)
Controls Click (which is near the screens bottom left corner). The DVD will start running.
Follow the instructions on the screen. (Youll probably see an intro, then the movies title, then click Play movie.)
As you watch the movie, you can use the controls near the screens bottom left corner. You can click II to pause the movie (and make the screen show the current frame), n to stop the movie temporarily (and make the screen be blank), to resume playing, | to skip ahead to the next scene, | to hop back to the beginning of the current scene.
You can raise the volume by dragging the slider toward the right. Lower the volume by dragging to the left.
Press the Esc key (at the keyboards top left corner) to make the controls disappear. Press the Esc key again to make the controls reappear.
While the movie plays, pressing the SPACE bar makes the computer pause (as if you clicked II). Pressing the SPACE bar again makes the computer resume playing (as if you clicked ).
Window size Press COMMAND with 1 to make the movie fit in a small window, COMMAND with 2 for a medium window, COMMAND with 3 for a big window.
Press COMMAND with zero to make the movie consume the whole screen. To return to a window again, press COMMAND with 1 (for small window), 2 (for medium window), 3 (for big window), or 0 (for previous window size).
Menu While the movie is in a window, the screens top shows the menu bar. (While the movie is full-screen, you can make the menu bar appear by moving the mouse pointer to the screens top.)
While the movie is playing, try this experiment: click Controls on the menu bar. Youll see the Controls menu. On that menu, you can choose Fast Forward, Rewind, Mute, Stop, Play and other choices.
Finish When you finish watching the movie, quit the DVD Player program (by pressing COMMAND with Q). The movie will stop running.
Press the keyboards EJECT key. The Mac will stick out its tongue. Remove the DVD. (If you want to listen to a different DVD instead, put it on the Macs tongue.) Press the EJECT key again to make the Mac put its tongue back in its mouth.
Manipulate the desktop
When you turn the Mac on, the screen shows you the desktop, which is the blue area on which you see the hard disk icon. The hard disk icon might be opened, to show you whats on the disk.
Try this experiment.
Use TextEdit to create some documents. Save them. Then quit running TextEdit and close any open window.
Double-click the Macintosh HD icon (which is near the screens top right corner). Then double-click the Users icon, then the icon that has your name on it, then the Documents icon. You see the Documents window. In it you see the documents you created and saved! Each document has its own icon.
Now Im going to explain how to manipulate the icons. If youre a beginner, experiment with just the icons that stand for junky documents (such as Stupidest Memo of 1999); if you fiddle with files that are more serious, you might be sorry!
Rename If you want to change an icons name, click the name (which is below the icon) and then type a different name instead.
Back & forward To go back and see the previous window, click Back (which is near the windows top left corner) or the Back button (which is above the word Back). When you finish looking at that previous window, resume looking at the newer window by clicking Forward.
Double-click Each thing on the disk is called an item. The Mac can handle three kinds of items: folders (such as the Applications folder), application programs (such as TextEdit), and documents (such as Stupidest Memo of 1999).
If you double-click an icon, heres what happens:
Trash If you want to erase a document (or any other item), drag its icon to the trash can (which is at the screens bottom right corner). Youll hear a thump as the icon hits the trash can, and youll see crumpled paper in the trash can. If you want to erase several documents, drag their icons to the trash can.
If you want to peek at whats in the trash, click the trash icon. Youll see the Trash window; in it are the items youve put in the trash. (If you change your mind and wish you hadnt trashed an item, drag that item back into the Documents folder.) When you finish peeking in the trash, close the Trash window.
Later, if youre sure you dont want those items anymore, choose Empty Trash from the Finder menu, then click OK. That makes the computer empty the trash, so you dont see any crumpled paper in the trash can and the Trash window contains nothing.
Dock At the screens bottom, you see a box called the dock. In the dock, at the docks right edge, you see the trash can.
The dock is divided into two parts, separated by a vertical line:
The dock lets you access its items easily, since the dock is always visible on the screen, and since items in the dock activate immediately when you click them (you dont have to double-click them).
To make an application program (such as TextEdit) easier to access, drag its icon to the docks left part. To make a folder (such as the applications folder) or document (such as Stupidest Memo of 1999) easier to access, drag its icon to the docks right-hand part: drag to the blank spot thats between the vertical line and the trash can.
After youve dragged an icon to the dock, the icon is in two places: its in the dock but also remains in its original location.
The icon will stay in the dock permanently. Even if you shut down the Mac and turn off the Macs power, the icon will stay in the dock: youll see its still there when you turn the Mac back on.
To remove an icon from the dock, drag the icon out of the dock (by dragging the icon slightly up). Once the icon is out of the dock, it disappears in a puff of smoke (and you even hear the smoke blow in your face).
Though the docks icon vanishes, the icons other copy persists in its original folder. You have not erased the document or folder or application program: you erased just the docks copy of the icon.
Duplicate Heres how to make a duplicate copy of an item:
That creates a new icon. For example, if the original icon was called Joe, the new icon is called Joe copy. If the original icon was called Stupidest memo of 1999, the new icon is called Stupidest memo of 1999 copy.
Drag the new icon wherever you wish. Rename it however you wish.
If you accidentally wreck the original icon, the new icon will still be there.
Copy to a CD-R or CD-RW Heres how to copy an item to a blank CD-R or CD-RW disk.
Press the EJECT key. Grab a blank CD-R disk (such as the one that came with your eMac) or CD-RW disk and put it onto the tray. Press the EJECT key again, so the Mac tastes the disk.
The Mac will say, You inserted a blank CD.
Invent a name for the CD (such as Joans memos); type the name. Then click OK.
At the screens right side, you see the CDs icon. To copy an item onto the CD, drag the items icon to the CDs icon. Drag as many items as you wish to the CDs icon.
Double-click the CDs icon. Youll see the CDs window. The items should be in that window. When you see the items there, finalize the process by doing this:
Once the CD has been burned, you cant copy any more items to the CD.
Heres how to remove the CD:
In the future, whenever you want to use the CD, do this:
Erase a CD-RW Heres how to erase a CD-RW disk so you can reuse it.
Make sure the CD-RW disk is in the Mac. Close all windows and quit all programs.
Double-click the Macintosh HD icon then Applications then Utilities (which is at the Applications windows bottom left corner after you scroll down) then Disk Utility.
You see the Disk Utility window. Click Erase (at the windows top), then 904.00 KB PHILIPS (which is the CD-RW drive), then the Erase at the windows bottom right corner then the Erase next to Cancel.
The computer will say Please Wait Erasing Disc. When that message goes away, close the Disk Utility window.
The computer will say You inserted a blank CD. Follow the rest of the procedure for how to Copy to a CD-R or CD-RW.
In the middle of typing a document, try this experiment.
While holding down the OPTION key, try tapping another key. Here are examples of what you get:
Keycaps For more examples of what the OPTION key can do, double-click the Macintosh HD icon then Applications then Utilities (which is at the Applications windows bottom left corner after you scroll down) then Keycaps.
You see a picture of the keyboard. Whatever you type will appear above the keyboards picture.
Hold down the OPTION key to see how the keyboards picture changes. For example, when you hold down the OPTION key, the a key becomes the å key. When you hold down the OPTION and SHIFT keys, the a key becomes the Å key.
When you finish using Keycaps, click its close button.