VOL. VIII. MAY, 1836. No. 4.










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Conducted by

















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Featured subject in this document : Biography of Jonathan Edwards, D.D. ( The Younger)





JONATHAN EDWARDS, D. D., the second president of Union college, Schenectady, was born at Northampton, Mass., on the 26th day of May, 0. S., 1745. He was the second son and the ninth child of the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, of Northampton, and afterwards president of the New Jersey college, and of Mrs. Sarah Edwards, daughter of the Rev. James Pierrepont, [commonly written Pierpont,] of New Haven, Conn. In his infancy and early childhood, he was afflicted with an inflammatory weakness in his eyes, which almost entirely prevented his learning to read until a much later period than is common for children in New England. At length, by the repeated application of various remedies, the inflammation in some degree abated, and he was enabled to apply himself moderately to the rudiments of knowledge. He was also subjected to the inconveniences resulting from the unhappy contest between his father and the church and society of Northampton, which terminated in the dismission of Mr. Edwards. The family removed to Stockbridge in 1651, when this son was six years old. The circumstances of his situation at Stockbridge, are thus detailed by himself, in the Preface to his Observations on the Language of the Muhhekaneew Indians, 17S8. "When I was but six years of age, my father removed with his family to Stockbridge, which, at that time, was inhabited by Indians almost solely ; as there were in the town but twelve families of whites or Anglo-Americans, and perhaps one hundred and fifty families of Indians. The Indians being the nearest neighbors, I constantly associated with them; their boys were my daily schoolmates and playfellows. Out of my father’s house, I seldom heard any language spoken besides the Indian. By these means, I acquired the knowledge of that language, and a great facility in speaking it. It became more familiar to me than my mother tongue. I knew the names of some things in Indian, which I did not know in English; even all my thoughts ran in Indian; and though the true pronunciation of the language is extremely difficult to all but themselves, they acknowledged that I had acquired it perfectly; which, as they said, never had been acquired before by any Anglo-American. On account of this acquisition, as well as on account of my skill in their language in general, I received from them many compliments applauding my superior wisdom. This skill in their language I have in a good measure retained to this day."


As his father intended him for a missionary among the aborigines, he sent him in October, I755, when he was but ten years of age, with the Rev. Gideon Hawley,

[Footnote: This excellent missionary was a native of Connecticut, and graduated at Yale college in 1749. He commenced his missionary labors in 1752, at Stockbridge. In September, he made an excursion to Schoharie in the country of the Mohawk Indians, and after his return to Stockbridge, he opened his school again at the beginning of winter, under the patronage of Mr. Edwards. Here he was the instructor of the children of a number of Mohawk, Oneida, and Tuscarora families, and preached to them on the Sabbath. It being determined by the Commissioners for Indian affairs in Boston, to establish a mission in the country of the Iroquois, or Indians of the Six Nations, he engaged in the plan. In Mar, 1753, accompanied by Timothy Woodbridge, a gentleman who possessed great influence with the Indians, he set out on his journey, and on the fourth of June reached the place of their destination, Onohoghgwage, or Oughquauga, where he was favorably received by the Indians. July 31, 1754, Mr. Hawley was ordained at Boston, and soon returned to his station, where he remained till May, 1756, when the French war obliged him to withdraw. April 10, 1758, he wan installed pastor of the Indian church at Marshpee, Mass. He died Oct. 3, 1807, aged 80 years. He was a very successful missionary, and greatly beloved by the Indians. He published in the Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iii. 188—193, iv. 50—67, biographical and topographical anecdotes respecting Sandwich and Marshpee, and a letter giving a narrative of his journey to Oughquauga.]

to Oughlquauga, on the Susquehannah river, to learn the language of the Onieda Indians. In the Preface from which we have quoted above, he says, ‘‘ In my tenth year, my father sent me among the Six Nations, with a design that I should learn their language, and thus become qualified to become a missionary among them. But on account of the war with France, which then existed, I continued among them but about six months.

[ Footnote: Erroneously stated in Dwight’s Life of Edwards, to have been twelve months, p. 542, and in the Conn. Evang. Mag. vol. ii. p. 378, to have been four mouths. ]

Therefore the knowledge which I acquired of that language was but imperfect." The Indians were so much pleased with his attainments, and his amiable disposition, that, when they thought their settlement exposed to inroads from the French, they took him upon their shoulders, and carried him many miles through the wilderness, to a place which they deemed secure.

In the month of February, 1760, when he had almost completed his fifteenth year, he commenced the study of the Latin language, at a grammar-school, in Princeton, New Jersey. In September, 1761, he was admitted a member of the college of New Jersey, in the same town. In September, 1765, he received the degree of bachelor of arts.

[ Footnote: His class consisted of thirty-one members. Among them were John Bacon, afterwards a distinguished civilian in Massachusetts; Joel Benedict, D. D.; Jacob Rush, LL. D.; Ebenezer Pemberton, LL. D.; Theodorick Romeyn, D. D.; David Ramsay, M. D., the historian of the revolution. The class was the largest which had at that time graduated at the college. The college tutors were Jacob Ker, Samuel Blair, and James Thompson.]

In the year 1763, and while he was in college, at a time of general attention to religion in Princeton, Mr. Edwards obtained a hope of his reconciliation to God through Christ. This was during the presidency, and under the impressive preaching of Dr. Finley.

[ Footnote: Dr. Finley died in Philadelphia, July 17,1766, in the 51st year of his age. He emphatically died in the Lord. "My very soul," He said, "thirsts for eternal rest. I see the eternal love and goodness of God. I see the fullness of the Mediator. I see the love of Jesus. 0, to be dissolvend, and to be with him; I long to be clothed with the complete righteousness of Christ. A Christian’s death is the best part of his existence."]

The following dedication of himself to the service of God, which was made by him at that time, was found among his papers after his death.

"Nassau Hall, [College of New, Jersey,] Sept. 17, 1763.

"I, Jonathan Edwards, student of the college in New Jersey, on this 17th day of September, 1763, being the day before the first time I proposed to draw near to the Lord’s table, after much thought and due consideration, as well as prayer to Almighty God, for his assistance, resolved in the grace of God to enter into an express act of self-dedication to the service of God; as being a thing highly reasonable in its own nature, and that might be of eminent service to keep me steady in my Christian course, to rouse me out of sloth and indolence, and uphold me in the day of temptation."



"Eternal and ever-blessed God I desire with the deepest humiliation and abasement of soul, to come in the name and for the sake of Jesus Christ, and present myself before thee, sensible of my infinite unworthiness to appear before thee, especially on such an occasion as this, to enter into a covenant with thee. But notwithstanding my sins have made such a separation between thee and my soul, I beseech thee, through Christ thy Son, to vouchsafe thy presence with me and acceptance of the best sacrifice which I can make."

"I do, 0 Lord, in hopes of thy assisting grace, solemnly make an entire and perpetual surrender of all that I am and have unto thee, being determined in thy strength to renounce all former lords who have had dominion over me, every lust of the eye, of the flesh and of the mind, and to live entirely devoted to thee and thy service. To thee do I consecrate the powers of my mind, with whatever improvements thou hast already or shalt be pleased hereafter to grant me in the literary way; purposing if it be thy good pleasure to pursue my studies assiduously, that I may be better prepared to act in any sphere of life in which thou shalt place me. I do also solemnly dedicate all my possessions, my time, my influence over others, to be all used for thy glory. To thy direction I resign myself and all that I have, trusting all future contingencies in thy hands, and may thy will in all things and not mine be done. Use me, 0 Lord, as an instrument of thy service I beseech thee, number me among thy people I may be clothed with the righteousness of thy Son; ever impart to me through him all needful supplies of thy purifying and cheering Spirit! I beseech thee, 0 Lord, that thou wouldst enable me to live according to this my vow, constantly avoiding all sin; and when I shall come to die, in that solemn and awful hour, may I remember this my covenant, and do thou, 0 Lord, remember it too, and give my departing spirit an abundant admittance into the realms of bliss ! And if when I am laid in the dust, any surviving friend should meet with this memorial, may it he a means of good to him, and do thou admit him to partake of the blessings of thy covenant of grace, through Jesus the great Mediator, to whom with thee, 0 Father, and thy Holy Spirit, be everlasting praises ascribed, by saints and angels



Soon after leaving college, he entered on the study of divinity under the instruction of the Rev. Joseph Bellamy, D. D., of Bethlem, Conn.

[Footnote: * Dr. Bellamy was the intimate friend and correspondent of Dr. Edwards’s father, and accorded mainly with him in theological sentiments. See Trumsbull’s Connecticut, ii. 159.]

Oct. 21st, 1766, he was licensed to preach the gospel by the Litchfield Association of Congregational Ministers, in Connecticut. The following year he spent in preaching as a candidate for the ministry, but in what towns it is not now known.

In 1767, he was appointed to the office of tutor, in the college of New Jersey, which he accepted. Here he remained two years.

[Footnote: The first year was the interval between the death of Pres. Finley and the accession of Pres.. Witherspoon. The first professor in this college was Mr. Blair, who was appointed professor of divinity and moral philosophy. The fellow tutors of Mr. Edwards, were Ebenezer Pemberton and Joseph Periam. Rev. Dr. John Woodhull, of Monmouth, N. .1,, (grad. 1766,) speaks of Mr. Periam as "an excellent tutor." ]

Some months after his election, he was chosen professor of languages and logic. At the same time, Mr. Blair and Dr. Hugh Williamson were appointed professors. Mr. Blair alone saw fit to accept the appointment. The Rev. Dr. Andrew Yates, formerly a professor in Union college, now of Chittenango, N. Y., in a letter to the writer of this article, says; " The name of Jonathan



Edwards was associated with great literary and religious attainments, in the estimation of those who in his day had been connected with the college of New Jersey, either as students or as managers of the interests of that college. His diligence and proficiency while a pupil in the institution, and his industry and fidelity when called to take a part in the labors of instruction and government, secured to him the esteem and affection of his contempoaries.

During his residence in Princeton, he was invited to preach in the society of White Haven, in the town of New Haven, Conn. On the 5th day of January, 1769, he was ordained to the pastoral charge of that church and society, where he continued until May, 1795.

[Footnote: His predecessor in the ministry, was the Rev. Samuel Bird, who officiated from 1751 to 1768. ]

"For several years previous to his dismission," remarks a writer in the Connecticut Evangelical Magazine, (understood to be the son of Dr. Edwards, J. W. Edwards, Esq., of Hartford,) "an uneasiness had subsisted in the society, arising from different religious opinions which sprung up, and were adopted by some of the leading, and most influential men among his parishioners. Those sentiments which originated the uneasiness, were of a nature opposite to the sentiments of Mr. Edwards, and of the church and society at the time of his ordination. This diversity of opinion, may justly be considered as the principal cause of the separation between Dr. Edwards and his people ; though others of inferior moment, and taking their rise from this principal one, had their influence. The ostensible cause, however, assigned by the society, was their inability to support a minister. In the month of May, 1795, he was dismissed by an ecclesiastical council, at the mutual request of the pastor and the society."

In January, 1796, he was re-settled in the ministry in the town of Colebrook, Litchfleld county, Conn., where he continued to preach to a very affectionate people till called to the presidency of Union college, in June, 1799. In this town he intended to have spent the remainder of his days. A. change of audience enabled him, in some measure, to relax from the task of a weekly preparation for the Sabbath, and furnished him with more time to pursue his favorite study of theology. To this the retired situation of Co!ebrook greatly contributed.

"The views of truth held by Dr. Edwards," remarks Dr. Yates, "were strictly Calvinistic; and as held by him, they were pre-eminent for their correct, extensive, and well-digested principles—and for their strictness and consistency. In his conversation and preaching, his exhibition of truth was destitute of ornament. He obviously sought nothing but truth itself undisguised, and he presented it to the mind luminously and with great simplicity. Though he always regarded the opinions of his fellow men with due respect, yet he investigated for himself, and yielded ultimately and implicitly to none but the Father of spirits, speaking in his written word. In his opinions, he had great decision and firmness, because they were deliberately formed, after patient and thorough investigation. The unyielding tenacity with which he held and defended what in his opinion was revealed truth, might have left the impression of obstinacy on the minds of errorists and superficial judges; but candid and observing men would always discover in his writings sufficient cause for unyielding firmness; so clear, comprehensive and unanswerable were his exhibitions of truth. Whatever he undertook to do, he did thoroughly and perspicuouly."

A reviewer of his Observations on the Language of the Muhhekaneew


Indians, in the American Review and Literary Journal for 1801, remarks, "Few men were more fitted, or more disposed to be useful than Dr. Edwards. Endowed with an active and penetrating mind, he consecrated his powers to the promotion of human happiness. And in taking a retrospect of his character and deportment, it is difficult to say whether he was most distinguished for his talents, his learning, his piety, or that unassuming modesty which is not always a concomitant of genius and erudition. As pastor of a church, though from a defective elocution he was by no means ranked among the most popular preachers, yet, in his pulpit performances, he never failed to discover that good sense, acuteness, and unaffected piety, which interest and instruct the more enlightened classes of hearers."

While a minister in Connecticut, he superintended the theological studies of a number of young men. They were guided by a clear and well-digested system of religious truth. Some of them afterwards attained the highest standing in their Master’s service.

In 1795, Union college, in the town of Schenectady, State of New York, was established. The first president was the Rev. John Blair Smith, D. D., son of the Rev. Robert Smith, D. D., a Presbyterian minister in Pequea, Pa., and principal of the classical and theological academy in that place.*

[ Footnote: Mr. Smith was born June 12,1756. While a member of the academy at Pequea, be became deeply interested in the subject of religion, in 1773. he graduated at the college of New Jersey. He then pursued his theological studies with his brother, Rev. Samuel Stanhope Smith, D. D).,at that time president of Hampden Sidney college, Va. In 1779, he was settled over a church in Virginia, and, at the same time, succeeded his brother as principal of the seminary. He was installed over the 3d Presbyterian church in Philadelphia, in December, 1791. He presided over Union college from 1795 to June 1799, when he returned to his former charge in Philadelphia. He died in joyful hope of eternal life, August 22, 1799, aged 43. He was eminently honored in the work of the ministry. ]

In relation to the manner in which he discharged his duties as president of a college, we are happy to quote from the communication of Dr. Yates, already referred to, who was an eye-witness; being at that time connected himself with Union college.

"In the State of Connecticut, where he was settled in the sacred ministry, his extensive reading and investigations of truth, his critical studies and comprehensive mind, gave him a prominent standing among the first divines in the science of theology. Such eminence could not well escape the notice of Dr. John B. Smith, who had been called to the presidency of Union college at Schenectady, was about to resign that office and redeem a pledge he had left with the people of his pastoral charge in Philadelphia, that if his health did not improve as president of college, and he should feel it his duty to return to the more desirable occupation of a pastor, he would on their application return, and who was looking for a gentleman whom he could recommend as a successor to himself in the office which he was about to vacate. The Rev. Dr. Theodorick Romeyn,, also, who had been a classmate of Dr. Edwards at Princeton, and had great respect for his fellow student both as a scholar and a divine, with an ardent desire to promote, in the best way, the prosperity of a college, for which he had long and earnestly labored, both in laying its foundation and raising its character, readily and warmly advocated in the Board of trustees his call according to the recommendation of Dr. Smith. The call was made with great unanimity and high expectations. It was presented to him while pastor of the church of Christ in Colebrook, Conn. His acceptance, and his arrival in Schenectady in the month of July, A. D. 1799, were celebrated by the students and citizens with unusual expressions of’ joy.

"The presidency of Dr. Edwards was short. He held the office only two




years. He was scarcely harnessed for a full and vigorous discharge of the responsible duties of his station, when the arrow of death put an end to his labors, bereaved the college of her president, and disappointed the fond hopes of her friends. He died in the enjoyment of high esteem and great respect from the people generally, not only in Schenectady, but in Albany, in Troy, and in all the extent of his acquaintance in that vicinity, he had the confidence and affection of learned men, and the warmest friendship of those who were admitted to the greater intimacies of friends and counsellors. His loss was severely felt in the city of Schenectady, and spread a gloom over the institution which had been under his care. Although the period of his labors was short, affording hardly an opportunity to enter on the duties of his office, still less for the development of his qualifications for the calling he had consented to undertake yet enough appeared of his intellectual and religious character, and of his ability to teach and to preside over the interests of the college, to gratify the trustees with reasonable evidence of their happy selection, and to promise his pupils the most valuable opportunities for solid and extensive mental improvement.

"The intellectual character of Dr. Edwards was distinguished for accurate discrimination and great comprehension. This was so well understood and acknowledged in the circle of his literary, especially his theological intercourse, that when he had studied a subject and professed to comprehend it, his exposition of it w as eagerly read, and that rather with a desire to know and receive his opinion, than to question or even suspiciously examine its correctness. He had a strong predilection for the philosophy of mind and for metaphysics generally. This branch of education in the course adopted in Union college, belonged to the president’s department, and though he had only a second class for instruction in it, the critical notes he had made and given to his pupils, and his observations during recitation furnished rich treasures of knowledge. The notes were highly esteemed by the students for the assistance and encouragement they afforded, and though necessarily imperfect, because they were made only occasionally and on detached parts of the science, they were retained for some time on account of their value. The science of mathematics seemed to be peculiarly suited to his taste, and with the elementary parts of which he had become familiar in early life. Whether, for the sake of mental discipline, agreeably to the practice of some professional gentlemen, the doctor had familiarized himself with the elements of mathematics by frequent reviews of them, the writer of this article does not know ; but his familiarity with them, and his well disciplined mind, render it probable that he had thus practised. In the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, he was rather a critical scholar than a man of taste and refinement. His knowledge of these was the result of intellectual effort, more than of that reading which is prompted by a cherished fondness for fine writing: it was fitted for the investigation of truth and for thought, more than for indulgence of the imagination. The attention of Dr. Edwards was directed to the course of education with great solicitude to have it thorough in its plan and fair in its conduct. On this principle he insisted much that the works of an author on any subject should be read entire if possible, and that all examinations should be conducted so as to furnish a fair exhibition of the proficiency or academic standing of the scholar. Intelligence simply, the extension of his knowledge, the increase of his own usefulness in the communication of information to others for their benefit and the promotion of his personal comfort and happiness while thus employed,



seemed to have influenced him in every effort he made, both mental and physical. He was a scholar who had laboriously and successfully made himself such for purposes of the highest usefulness.

"In the management of college, his discipline was mild and affectionately parental, and his requirements reasonable. Such a character for government in president Edwards, was unexpected to some who professed to know his disposition, and had formed their opinions of him in this respect. It was therefore the more noticed. There was an apparent austerity and reserve in his manner, which, no doubt, arose from the retirement of study and from habits of close thought, and would leave such impression after a slight acquaintance but in his domestic intercourse and with his intimate friends, while conscientiously strict and prompt in his duties, and while he acted with decision, he was mild and affectionate. The same spirit characterized his government of the college. It was probably conducted with greater mildness and affection than would have been exercised, had not the prevailing expectations of some intimated the danger of his erring on the side of severity. His pupils, like a well regulated family under faithful discipline, were respectfully attached to him.

"In all his conduct and conversation, he maintained a conscientious and unyielding reverence for God, for his Holy Word, and for his sacred institutions. His habits formed by early education and those contracted by the love of science, the results of close thought, fitted him for intercourse with minds rather than modes, with thoughts rather than with words unmeaning. On this account, he sometimes appeared unsocial and reserved; but on topics of conversation which were interesting, and on suitable occasions, he was communicative and ready. His uniform consistency of character as a servant of the Lord Jesus Christ, in all his intercourse with men, commanded, from every class, great respect and confidence. His light shone. His example was healthful in all things. His influence was felt and increasing daily, every where. In the circle into which he was introduced by his relation to Union college, he found customs which to him were not only new, but palpably and confessedly wrong, even in the view of those who tolerated them. Respecting these, his opinion was expressed with great kindness and prudence, but with decision, when occasions called for it. He relied more on the influence of example than on any thing besides.

[ The custom of furnishing cake and wine on funeral occasions was going into disuse, but had not yet wholly ceased. Dr. Edwards gave directions that the expense of such preparations should be estimated, and that the amount be given to the poor, instead of observing such custom at his funeral.]

His sympathies for the suffering were strong, and on suitable occasions were excited to a high degree. Such an occasion, with its influence on the doctor’s feelings, was witnessed at a communion season in the Dutch Reformed church in Schenectady. In that city were many Africans. Some had been liberated, others were in bondage. Of these, a considerable number made a credible profession of religion, and were consistent in their deportment. They usually approached the Lord’s table together after the other members had enjoyed that privilege. Their appearance to Dr. Edwards was novel, and attracted his attention; but to a man who had appeared among the first in our country to expose the crime and cruelty of enslaving our fellow men, who had borne testimony against it in public, in print and conversation, and who felt tenderly in their behalf, the spectacle excited feelings which found no relief except in tears. For the welfare of the community around him, as well as for the college over which he presided, he felt great solicitude, and in various ways of contrivance and ministerial labor, endeavored to fill up the few days he


was suffered to be with them until he was taken away. He left behind him in his efforts to do good, a memorial of his desires to be useful, and an evidence of what he would have done, had God seen fit to continue his life."

Dr. Edwards died on the first of August, 1801. His labors were interrupted about the middle of July by an intermittent fever, unattended with any very alarming symptoms. But about eight days before his decease, nervous symptoms appeared, and indicated his approaching dissolution. The progress of the disease, from this date, was very rapid, and he experienced its debilitating effects so much, that within three days, he was almost entirely deprived of his speech, of the free use of his limbs, and at intervals of his reason. Through the effects of his disorder, he was avoidably prevented from manifesting his religious feelings for the five last days of his life. In the early stages of his sickness, however, he expressed his entire resignation to the will of God.

The year after Dr. Edwards was settled in the ministry at White haven, he was married to Miss Mary Porter, daughter of the Hon. Eleazar and Mrs. Sarah Porter, of Hadley, Mass. By her he had four children, three of whom survived their father.

[Footnote: Hon. Jonathan W. Edwards, mayor of Hartford, now dead, who married Elizabeth Tryon; Mary, who married Mr. Hoit of Schenectady, and Jerusha, who married Rev. Calvin Chapin, D. D., of Stepney, Wethersfield, Conn. ]

Mrs. Edwards was drowned in June, 1792. As Dr. Edwards and his wife were riding in a chaise, in the northeastern part of New Haven, and at some distance from home, the doctor was called away to attend to some necessary business. As Mrs. Edwards was returning, she allowed the horse to drink at a watering place in a small river, with the depth of which she was wholly unacquainted. The horse suddenly fell, and threw her from the chaise into the river, where she was drowned. The second wife of Dr. Edwards was Miss Mercy Sabin, daughter of Mr. Hezekiah Sabin of New Haven.

"As a brother, Dr. Edwards merited and received tile respect and affection of all his brothers and sisters, He was a son worthy of his parents. As a husband and father, he was kind, faithful and affectionate. Being blessed with good health, he generally rose early, and immediately began his regular routine of business and duty, which he observed through life with great uniformity, and from which he was not easily diverted. He considered his immediate duty to his Creator as requiring his first attention, and then his relative and social duties. All his business, as far as possible, was systematized, and performed with entire regularity."

When a child, he was singularly dutiful and conscientious. About the eighteenth year of his age, he began a diary of his religious life, but, for unknown reasons, relinquished it, after a few months. From this diary, he appears early to have determined constantly to strive against sin and temptation, to live in a manner becoming his holy profession, and to devote himself wholly to the service of God. By nature, he was of an ardent, irritable disposition, of which he appears to have been early conscious. Whilst he was very young, he formed a resolution uniformly to resist this propensity with unabating watchfulness. This he entered upon as an important business of his life, as what must be accomplished, however arduous and difficult. Such success, through the blessing of God, attended his exertions in this respect, as enabled him to gain an unusual command over his passions, and to pass through a life, attended by many trying circumstances, with uncommon equanimity. His fortitude under trials was great—a fortitude not founded in stoical insensibility, but in an unwavering trust in God.



The following coincidences between his life and that of his father have been mentioned. "They had the same name; were liberally educated; were distinguished scholars; were tutors in the seminaries in which they were educated; were preachers; were settled in congregations, in which their maternal grandfathers were also settled before them ; were dismissed on account of their religious opinions; were settled again in retired situations; were elected to the presidency of a college, and within a short time after they were inaugurated, died the one in the 56th and the other in the 57th year of his age. To this may be added, that in person, mind, and life, they were remarkably alike."

Dr. Edwards’s works were the following

1. " The Salvation of all Men strictly examined, and the Endless Punishment of those who die impenitent, argued and defended, against the reasonings of Dr. Chauncey, in his book entitled the Salvation of all Men." 1 vol. Svo. Several editions of this volume have been published; one with an appendix by the Rev. Dr. Emmons, of Franklin, Mass. A writer in the American Review says, " his ‘treatise on the Doctrine of Universal Salvation, particularly designed to refute the arguments of Dr. Chauncey on that subject; and his publication on the Human Will, intended to explain and support the opinions of his venerable father, as contained in his celebrated work on the Will, will do lasting honor to his memory, both as a divine and philosopher."

2. " A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity," written during his residence at Colebrook. A writer in the New York Theological Magazine remarks, "From the high reputation of Dr. Edwards, as an indefatigable student and close reasoner on subjects of an abstruse and metaphysical nature, I was led to enter on the perusal of this book with uncommon avidity. My curiosity was heightened by the frequent intimations I had received, that Dr. West’s

[ Footnote: Rev. Dr. Samuel West of New Bedford, Ms., whose Essays on Liberty and Necessity were published in 1793 and 1795. He died September 24, 1807. Dr. XVeot left a reply to Dr. Edwards almost complete. ]

performances were viewed by his friends as an unanswerable vindication of the Arminian scheme of self-determination and contingence, in opposition to the scheme of moral necessity as maintained by president Edwards. The perusal I finished without the least disappointment. Few productions, I believe, on subjects of this nature, contain, in so small a compass, more instruction or less superfluous matter. The distinctions made are clear, and the arguments cogent. Not only the outworks, but the strong hold of Dr. West seems to me to be utterly demolished." The dissertation is divided into eight chapters.

  1. Natural and Moral Necessity and Inability.
  2. 2. Liberty.
  3. 3. Self-determination.
  4. Motives and their Influence.
  5. Whether Volition be an Effect and have a Cause?
  6. Foreknowledge, and the Certainty and Necessity implied in it.
  7. Objections considered.
  8. The objection considered, that moral necessity implies that God is the author of sin.

3. "Observations on the Language of the Muhhekaneew Indians, in which the extent of that language in North America is shown; its genius is grammatically traced ; some of its peculiarities, and some instances of analogy between that and the Hebrew pointed out. Communicated to the Connecticut Society of Arts and Sciences, and published at the request of the Society." This was first published in the year 1788 ; then in the 5th volume of Carey’s American Museum, and finally in volume x., second series, of the Collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society. The Hon. John Pickering remarks of this treatise as follows, "The work has


been for some time well known in Europe, where it has undoubtedly contributed to the diffusion of more just ideas, than once prevailed, respecting the structure of the Indian languages, and has served to correct some of the errors into which learned men hind been led by placing too implicit confidence in the accounts of hasty travellers and blundering interpreters. In the Mithridates, that immortal monument of philological research, professor Vater refers to it for the information he has given upon the Mohegan language, and he has published large extracts from it. To a perfect familiarity with the Muhhekaneew dialect, Dr. Edwards united a stock of grammatical and other learning, which well qualified him for the task of reducing an unwritten language to the rules of grammar."

4. "Brief Observations on the Doctrine of Universal Salvation."

5. The following sermons ;—three sermons on the atonement; a sermon at the ordination of Rev. Timothy Dwight, at Greenlield, Ct., 1783; of Rev. Dan Bradley, Hamden, 1792; of Rev. Edward D. Griffin, New Hartford, 1795; on the injustice and impolicy of the slave-trade, 1791, which has been frequently republished; human depravity the source of infidelity, a sermon in the 2d volume of the American Preacher ; marriage of a wife’s sister, considered in the anniversary concio ad clerum in the chapel of Yale college, 1792; on the death of Roger Sherman, 1793; at the election, 1794; on a future state of existence and the immortality of the soul; and a farewell sermon to the people of Colebrook.

6. A large number of articles in the New York Theological Magazine, with the signature I. and 0. The following are the titles to some articles from his pen in volumes ii. and iii. of the Magazine. On the innocent suffering for the guilty; on the light of nature; free agency and absolute decree reconciled ; in opposition to the idea that the Jews will return to their own land in the millennium; on the election of election ; moral agency; on the attempt to prove the moral perfections of God from the light of nature; on free discussion; on self-love; observations on Seneca’s morals; on deistic objections; of sinning not after the similitude of Adam’s transgression ; of the soul in the intermediate state ; short comments on new texts; what is the foundation of moral obligation? on the suffering of the innocent; concerning the warrant of the sinner to believe in Christ; suicide.

7. He edited from the MSS. of his father, the History of the Work of Redemption, two volumes of sermons, and two volumes of observations on important theological subjects. In Dwight’s Life of President Edwards, pp. 613—624, is a statement by Dr. Edwards, of the "improvements in theology, made by president Edwards, and those who have followed his course of thought."