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Ammo--It's just foam.

First, its important to know about the physics of a dart. All Objects fall at the same rate. Since there is no lift produced by a flying dart, the only way to make a dart fly further is to shoot it faster. That's Newton's 2nd law in action.

Darts used to be made of a waxy crusty foam. Then, nerf went back to the bakery and, I believe, copied the recipie for the Supermax darts after they bought them out.. These newer darts are more sturdy, fatter, and lighter.

'Mega Darts'Mega darts
'Mega darts' are the larger darts that fit into most guns. You could say that they are a standard. I've found that the fatter the dart, the farther they fly. I guess it's something with no air escaping behind the dart. These darts pack a punch behind them too. I think the best kind of mega dart you can buy are the yellow ones like in the picture. I they cost me around $4.99 for 10 or something.

'Micro Darts''Micro darts
'Micro darts' are the smaller caliber darts that come with usually smaller guns. They take less force to achieve the same accelleration as a mega dart with more force. That's why these come with either small guns that shoot them moderate distances, or big guns that can rip them across my basement. Muahaha. The micro darts that are red with black tips I think are the best.

'SM Darts'
'SM' stands for 'SuperMax Darts'. These are the short light green darts with the same bore as a Mega dart--but only 2 in. in length. They used to come with supermax guns, but aren't made anymore. They worked well with supermax guns, but better with mega dart guns, because they had the same dart caliber. Guns like the Defender T3 can shoot these with unprecidented accuracy and distance. If you can ever find these, buy them, because the new ones are 2.5 in in length, and don't work as well.

Homemade darts
Homemade darts, also known as Stefans (A guy named stefan made them), are a cheap and effective alternative to normal ammunition. However, the performance of a stefan is directly proportional to the ammount of effort YOU put into making it. 50 stefans in 10 minutes will just not perform as well as ones you spend quality time on. For my ultimante stefans, I spend 3-5 minutes on each one. I believe this is a good sacrifice for superior accuracy and distance.
The secret recepie:

First, you 'gotsta buy your self some caulking rod (5/8" for mega darts, and the smaller one for micros) and some 3/0 fishing weights(optional). Some people just put in 3 BBs. Cut the desired length (2" works well for megas). If you make 3" ones, it's much more important to straighten them. Use a hot glue gun to make a small hole in the top, and insert the weight. Cover this with hot glue, but not too much or you'll weigh the dart down. You can make holes in the back of the dart, this is a must if you will be firing from SM guns, because they shoot the air into the hole. Be sure to make the hole as even as possible, to make the darts fly straighter.

But, for those of you that are interested in the stefan that beats all stefans, I have your fix. Behold, the ultimante stefan:

Ok, so I misspelled ultimate. I'm sure you'll live.

Yes, this baby combines a stefan and a yoink dart without losing the power of the air pocket. Since the straw does not reach the back, this also allows you to cram them in and get better distance. Take 2" of backer rod, and burn a hole in the back. Then, drill out the rest of the center with a straw. Make sure it's perfectly centered. This takes practice. Take 1" of straw, put a bit of glue in, and stick the weight in the front. It should go in far enough to be flush with the straw. You need to be careful of two things: the weight gets hot and the straw can get deformed. Put some glue around the straw and insert it into the front of the dart. Now, lay some glue on top of this. Be sure it's centered. As a final touch, take your hot glue gun and singe off the outside edge of the front of the dart to reduce resistance. I also singe the back, which resolves any uneven-ness from burning the back hole and creates a ring of burned foam which acts as a stabilization ring around the back, keeping it from deforming.

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If I had to break the waterslide world record for fast time, I'd cover my entire body in petroleum jelly and sauerkraut so I'd go faster, then I'd hit the water and it would look like a whale sneezed.