AustraliaCaptain cook founded Australia in a place called Botany Bay, where Victoria and i are staying .It now has a vast industrial sector with many factories and warehouses.The Sydney Opera House and the Harbour Bridgeare probably the most famous landmarks in Australia, along with Ayer's rock at the bottom of the page.
Australia is categorised as a Western power (e.g a developed country). It has a population of more than 17.6 million. Most of the population (around 70%) lives in the 10 large cities as most of the continent is uninhabited ranging from deserts to rainforests to snow in the mountains (Queensland is supposed to be the best place for snow), most of the big cities are along the east coast, the greatest populations being in the southeastern region. Australian inhabitants are mainly from European origin, but is also similar to America in the respect that it has 5 million settlers from around 200 nations. Around 40% of Australian citizens are migrants and around 50% of these are from non-English backgrounds. In 1991-92, East Asia contributed around 40% immigrants. Almost 1.5 % of the population are native to Australia (Aboriginal and Island strait).
Australia is the only nation to occupy an entire continent. Its land mass of nearly 7.7 million km2 and is the flattest and the second driest continent (Antartica being the driest) in the world. Australia has a coastline of 36 735km. Marsupials were saved from competition with more highly developed mammals. Birds unique to Australia also survived, and distinctive trees and plants developed. Australia’s best-known animals are the kangaroo, koala, platypus and spiny anteater. Of more than 700 bird species listed in Australia, 400 - including the large, flightless emu - are found nowhere else. Australia has 20 000 species of plants, including living fossils such as the cycad palm and the grass tree, and brilliant wildflowers such as the waratah, Sturt’s desert pea, the flowering cones of banksia trees, and the red and green kangaroo paw. The continent has 700 species of acacia, which Australians call wattle, and 1200 species in the Myrtaceae family which includes eucalypts or gum trees.
Australia’s official language is English, by common usage rather than law. Australian English does not differ significantly from other forms of English, although some colloquial and slang expressions are unique.
The flag of Australia is the only one to fly over a whole continent. The small Union Jack represents the historical link with Britain, the large seven-pointed star represents the six States and the Territories, and the small stars form the Southern Cross - a prominent feature of the southern hemisphere night sky.
Australia’s coat of arms - the official emblem of the Australian Government - was granted by King George V in 1912. The arms consist of a shield containing the badges of the six States. The supporters are native Australian fauna - a kangaroo and an emu. A yellow-flowered native plant, wattle, also appears in the design.
Australia’s national day, Australia Day, on 26 January, marks the date in 1788 when Captain Arthur Phillip, of the British Royal Navy, commanding a fleet of 11 ships, sailed into Port Jackson (Sydney Cove). Phillip formally took possession of the eastern part of the continent for England and established a settlement, now Australia’s largest city, Sydney.
Air travel and the great variety of Australia’s attractions are combining to bring more international tourists to Australia every year. Overseas tourists are drawn by Australia’s sunshine, sandy beaches, the vast outback, rainforests, the Great Barrier Reef, unique flora and fauna, the Gold Coast of Queensland, and the attractions of the cities, Australia’s friendly, multicultural society, and the safe and welcoming environment. Tourism is one of Australia’s largest and fastest-growing industries. In 1992, 2.6 million international tourists visited Australia, a quarter of them from Japan and another quarter from other countries of Asia.
Australian workers have achieved one of the lowest rates of industrial disputation in OECD countries. In 1992, the level of industrial disputes was the lowest for 50 years. Wage restraint has delivered real unit labour costs almost eight per cent lower than 10 years ago. Moderate wage outcomes have also been a major factor in achieving low inflation.
Trade with the rest of the world is Australia’s economic lifeblood. Australia ranks about 19th in the world in value of its international trade. In the year ended 30 June 1993, Australia’s two-way merchandise trade totalled $1.2 billion.