Dr. O. Wilburn Swaim Th.D
Fairbairn's: "...a certain pattern or exemplar exhibited in the position and character of some individuals, to which others may or should be conformed" (Fairbairn, Patrick. THE TYPOLOGY OF SCRIPTURES. Baker Book House, 1900, p. 42).
Jones's: "A type is a divinely purposed prefiguration of a corresponding reality" (Jones, Richard. PRECIOUS TRUTHS IN THE O.T. TYPES notes, n.d., p. 1).
Stevens's: "A type, in its scriptural usage, is a person, thing, event, or institution in the Old Testament that foreshadows and anticipates a fuller revelation of the truth that appears later in the New Testament" (Stevens, Charles H. THE WILDERNESS JOURNEY. Scripture Truth, n.d., p.11).
The Author's: An entity in the Old Testament, on Biblical authority, prophetically portraying elements of its corresponding New Testament fulfillment."
The Greek “tupos,” meaning, “the mark of a stroke or blow; print…form” (Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, Thayer, Zondervan, pp. 632,3, 1968). However, in the right context it could be translated into English, with the word “toupee.” A toupee is a form, or type of hair normally found on the head of a male human. It is not the hair (though it made be made of human hair), but is a representative form of it. The toupee is the picture, representation of hair; the hair on a man’s head is the reality.
III. BIBLICAL AUTHORITY FOR TYPOLOGY.
The Greek, "tupos" is used eighteen times in seventeen verses, from John through II Peter.
The KJV translates it with a variety of English words, as: (emphases mine to indicate word translating the Greek word)
(John 20:25) "The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe."
"Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of
Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, figures
which ye made to worship them: and I will carry you away beyond
"Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come." (Rom KJV)
"Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted." (1 Cor 10:6 KJV)
"Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come." (1 Cor KJV)
"Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern showed to thee in the mount." (Heb 8:5 KJV)
Hebrews 8:5 gives good insight into the intent of the word's usage. But 1 Corinthians is the real authority for the doctrine of typology, particularly when the word "types" is substituted for "ensamples".
If the word "all" is to be taken literally, then is there ground for considering every Old Testament entity a type? Consider "all" as used in Matthew 2:3, 16 and 3:5. Or, is it "all" in the context of the things that are specifically mentioned in 1 Corinthians 6:1-10?
Some do say that only things specifically called types in the New Testament may be considered as true types. Other things may only be considered pictures, shadows, etc.
The contrast and comparison in 1 Cor 15:45, "And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit", is without doubt a true Biblical example of type and anti-type.
Doctrine should not be built on typology, but true types and/or pictures will never contradict true doctrine, but rather help establish it.
Every detail will not necessarily fit in the development of the type. Often, differences (contrasts) in detail will also demonstrate the typical character.
IV. TYPOLOGY IN THE WILDERNESS WANDERINGS.
Pharoah* Satan (Ex 5:1)
Bondage Sin (Ex )
Passover Lamb Christ crucified (Ex 12 w/ 1 Cor 5:7)
Manna Christ for growth to maturity (Ex 16 w/ Jhn 6)
Rock Christ smitten (Ex 17:6 w/ 1 Cor 10:4) and spoken to (Num 20:8 w Psa 78:15)
Amalek* Fleshly Warfare (Ex 17)
Sinai Condemnation of fleshly living (Ex 20)
Kadesh-Barnea** Place of decision for or against surrender (Num 14)
Wilderness Judgment on the flesh (Num 15)
Anakim Continuing hindrance to victorious living (Josh 11; note their defeat in , followed by rest)
Old Corn*** aged food for the mature believer (Josh ,12)
Captain Lordship of Christ--only in
Gibeonites Deceitfulness of Satan (Josh 9,10).
disobedience to the Word caused it (Josh ).
Land divided Our inheritance received (Josh 13)
Cities of Refuge Christ our Refuge (Ex 21:13; Josh 20; Num 35:6; Dt 4:41-43).
* The three enemies of the Christian, i.e. the world, Satan, the flesh (1 Jhn -17).
**, laboring under the law and led by Moses, the Lawgiver, could not enter the land. Moses disobeyed and disqualified himself. The law could make nothing perfect (Heb ), but the better hope (Christ, by grace; Joshua is "Je hoshua," "Jehovah-Saviour") brought the new generation into the promised land. Only Christ can deliver from sin's bondage and bring us into the place of spiritual victory.
***Egypt's food is listed in Numbers 11:5 w/ 1 Cor 2:14; the wilderness's food is the manna (Ex 16:14-35--Notice what all is done to it to compromise it, w/ 1 Pt 2:2,3; Canaan's food is the old corn--tough chewing and digesting, for mature believers (Josh 5:11 w/ 1 Cor 3:2 and Heb 5:14-6:1).
Read Heb 5:11-6:3. Consider recruit who flunks and repeats basic training. He can graduate and meet the enemy as a dog soldier, or go to AIT and meet enemy as a leader.
A. Bondage to Satan (Exo -16)
1. Servitude (13)
2. Bitterness (14)
3. Hardship (14)
4. Death (15,16)
B. Deliverance from sin.
Redemption (Exo 12-14)
1. By Sacrifice (12:6)
2. By Blood ()
3. By Judgment()
4. By Grace (,14,30)
II. Wilderness, Encroachment of the Flesh.
A. The Assignment: A two year course designed to teach the truth of Gal 5:16-25. Typified by:
1. Redemption's Song (Exo 15) The Joy of Christ.
2. Marah (Exo ) The Sweetness of the Cross.
3. 12 Wells/70 Palms () The Sufficiency of Christ.
4. Manna/Flesh; Water from the Rock (16:4; 17:6) The Supply of Christ.
5. Moses, Aaron, Hur (17:8-16) The Supplication of Christ.
6. Ten Commandments (20:1-17) The Standards of Christ.
7. Tabernacle & Rituals (25-31:11) The substitutionary Sacrifice of Christ
8. Sabbath Day (Exo 31:12-18) The Perfect Rest of Christ.
9. Offerings & Feasts (Leviticus) The True Worship of Christ.
10. Kadesh Barnea (Num 14:9) The Victory of Christ.
B. The Alternative (Num 14:1-35).
1. Mature, and Go in (v. 7,8)
2. Rebel, and Miss out (10-35)
Obey, or pay; take it, or lose it; choose, or lose.
Victory available through:
A. Grace of God (Josh 1:3-5)
B. Word of God (Josh 1:7-9) note
C. Submission to Christ (Josh ; -15)
D. Sanctified Life (Josh 3:5)
E. Walk of Faith (Josh -17)
F. Experience of Victory (Josh 6)