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Chu*~ Quo^'c Ngu*~


Tie^'ng Quo^'c Ngu*~
Chu*~ nu*o*'c ta
Con ca'i nha`
Dde^`u pha?i ho.c
Mie^.ng thi` ddo.c
Tai thi` nghe
Ddu*`ng ngu? nhe`
Cho*' la'u ta'u
Em le^n sau'
Dda~ ddo.c tho^ng...



C hu*~ du`ng vie^'t ba`i tho* la` chu*~ da.y tre? Ma^~u Gia'o tre^n la` quo^'c tu*. cu?a Vie^.t Nam hie^.n nay. Chu*~ Quo^'c Ngu*~ du`ng die^?n ta? tie^'ng no'i cu?a chu'ng ta do ca'c ma^~u tu*. La
Tinh ghe'p tha`nh dda~ xua^'t pha't tu*` nhu ca^`u truye^`n dda.o Thie^n Chu'a

cu?a ca'c gia'o si~ ngu*o*`i A^u Cha^u sang Vie^.t Nam tu*` cuo^'i the^' ky? thu*' 16. Ca'c gia'o si~ co' co^ng trong vie^.c sa'ng che^' ra chu*~ Quo^'c Ngu*~ la` ca'c co^' Gaspard de Amaral, Antanio de Barbosa, ngu*o*`i Bo^` Dda`o Nha, va` Alexandre de Rhodes, ngu*o*`i Pha'p.
NGU*O*`I A^U CHA^U DDE^'N VIE^.T NAM

Li.ch su*? su*. giao tie^'p giu*~a ngu*o*`i A^u va` A' Cha^u ba(`t dda^`u tu*` tho*`i dde^'n quo^'c La Ma~ (27 TTL - 476 STL). Trong tho*`i ky` na`y ngu*o*`i A^u Cha^u dda~ sang Trung Hoa nhu*ng kho^ng co' sa'ch na`o no'i ro~ ve^` su*. giao thie^.p na`y. Ma~i dde^'n ddo*`i Nguye^n The^' To^? Ho^'t Ta^'t Lie^.t (the^' ky? thu*' 13), mo^.t ngu*o*`i Y' te^n Marco Polo sang Trung Hoa va` lu*u la.i dda^y 17 na(m, khi ve^` nu*o*'c ba(`ng ddu*o*`ng A^'n Ddo^. Du*o*ng, o^ng dda~ ke^? la.i chuye^'n du ha`nh trong cuo^'n "Nhu*~ng Ky` Quan The^' Gio*'i" (Les merveilles du monde). Dde^'n the^' ky? thu*' 15 nho*` ky~ thua^.t ha`ng ha?i ddu*o*.c ca?i tie^'n, ngu*o*`i A^u Cha^u ti`m ra ca'c tru.c giao tho^ng mo*'i ba(`ng ddu*o*`ng bie^?n ne^n su*. tie^'p xu'c giu*~a A^u Cha^u va` ca'c Cha^u kha'c dda~ gia ta(ng. Na(m 1492 Kha Lua^n Bo^' (Christopher Colomb) nho*` ddi.a ba`n chi? ddu*o*`ng vu*o*.t Dda.i Ta^y Du*o*ng ti`m ra Cha^u My~. Na(m 1497, Vasco de Gama, ngu*o*`i Bo^` Dda`o Nha, sang A^'n Ddo^. ba(`ng ca'ch ddi vo`ng phi'a nam Phi Cha^u qua Ha?o Vo.ng Gia'c (Cap de Bonne Esperance) sang A^'n Ddo^. Du*o*ng.
Na(m 1521, Magellan, ngu*o*`i Bo^` Dda`o Nha, du`ng ddu*o*`ng A^'n Ddo^. Du*o*ng qua Tha'i Bi`nh Du*o*ng dde^'n Phi Lua^.t Ta^n. Ca'c nu*o*'c A^u Cha^u lo*.i du.ng phu*o*ng tie^.n ha`ng ha?i ddem qua^n xa^m chie^'m ca'c nu*o*'c kha'c la`m thuo^.c ddi.a, khai tha'c ta`i nguye^n, ti`m thi. tru*o*`ng mo*'i. Na(m 1563, ngu*o*`i Bo^` Dda`o Nha dde^'n A'o Mo^n (Ma Cao), Trung Hoa. Na(m 1568, Ta^y Ban Nha chie^'m Phi Lua^.t Ta^n. Na(m 1596, Ho`a Lan chie^'m Nam Du*o*ng. Dde^'n the^' ky? 17, Pha'p va` Anh chie^'m A^'n Ddo^.. Tuy dde^'n cuo^'i the^' ky? 19 Pha'p mo*'i chie^'m VN, nhu*ng ngu*o*`i A^u Cha^u go^`m ca'c thu*o*ng gia va` gia'o si~ dda.o Thie^n Chu'a, dda~ dde^'n Vie^.t Nam tu*` the^' ky? thu*' 16. Co' ddie^`u ho. dde^'n ro^`i ddi, ma~i dde^'n the^' ky? thu*' 17, ca'c gia'o si~ mo*'i o*? la.i ha(?n trong nu*o*'c ta dde^? truye^`n dda.o. Ngu*o*`i Bo^` Dda`o Nha dde^'n nu*o*'c ta buo^n ba'n tru*o*'c tie^n, mo*? tie^.m buo^n ba'n o*? Ho^.i An (Faifo), Qua?ng Nam. Na(m 1614, ddo*`i Chu'a Sa~i, Jean de la Croix, ngu*o*`i Bo^` Dda`o Nha, la^.p lo` ddu'c su'ng o*? Thua^.n Ho'a (nga`y nay la` Phu*o*`ng Ddu'c o? Hue^'). Na(m 1637 ddo*`i vua Le^ Tha^`n To^ng, Thanh Ddo^ Vu*o*ng Tri.nh Tra'ng cho ngu*o*`i Ho`a Lan mo*? tie^.m o*? Pho^' Hie^'n (ga^`n ti?nh ly. Hu*ng Ye^n nga`y nay). Na(m 1672 ddo*`i vua Le^ Hi To^ng, Chu'a Tri.nh cho phe'p ta`u Zant cu?a Anh buo^n ba'n o*? Pho^' Hie^'n. na(m 1680, Pha'p ba(`t dda^`u va`o Pho^' Hie^'n buo^n ba'n, thu*o*ng gia Nha^.t Ba?n, Trung Hoa, va` Tha'i Lan cu~ng va`o dda^y buo^n ba'n ta^'p na^.p bie^'n Pho^' Hie^'n tha`nh mo^.t trung ta^m thu*o*ng ma.i pho^`n thi.nh vo*'i ga^`n 2000 no'c gia, do ddo' co' ca^u "thu*' nha^'t Kinh Ky`, thu*' nhi` Pho^' Hie^'n" (Kinh Ky` chi? tha`nh pho^' Ha` No^.i).

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