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A Book For Scout Leaders




Born 22nd Feburary, 1857

Died 8th January, 1941

Buried at Nyeri, Kenya


3 Introduction
4 The Scout Leader's Job
5 How to Start a Troop
8 What Is Needed to Run a Troop
10 Uniform
12 Troop Programme Planning
16 Progress
17 How to Instruct
23 The Patrol System
24 Standards
26 Scout Leader's Training
27 Records
30 Training Games and Expeditions
37 Camping
.. Go Ahead inside back cover

The text of this book is from a publication prepared by the Commonwealth Travelling Commissioner, Mr. George Witchell, Scout Headquarters, London, and has been adapted for Rhodesian conditions, We acknowledge with thanks the Commonwealth Commissioner's permission to use this text.

Published by Brother John M Wilcott, with authority of Territorial Headquarters, Boy Scouts Association of Rhodesia.


The Scout Movement is the biggest uniformed organisation for boys and young men in the world. It has more than 11 million members in over 80 countries of all races and religions.

Scouting gives boys healthy and useful enjoyment in their spare time but its real aim is much more important. Scouting aims to make boys into good citizens, able to look after themselves and their families, who will serve their religion and their fellow men.

Here is a little book that has been written to help Scout Leaders. There are many books on Scouting and this one tries to include some of' the practical straightforward ideas of Troop Scouting which can be done by an ordinary Scout Leader.

Most Scout books are written for Scout Leaders in countries where it is possible to buy a lot of equipment, and where the weather is cool. This book is for those who live in warm countries, and has been specially adapted for the rural troops in Rhodesia.

Your job as a Scout Leader is to train boys to become good citizens. You will help them learn to look after themselves wherever they may be, in their village or in the bush. You will train them to accept responsibility and to get practice in leadership themselves. Scout training is in addition to what boys learn at home and at school. As leaders we must understand what we are trying to do. We do not expect the Scouts in our Troop to understand all these things so we teach them through games, camping, and other outdoor activities.

Scouting is for ALL boys who want it, and it is hoped that this book will show that you can have good Scouting without spending a lot of money, and that boys in any country can be trained to grow into useful good men.


The Scout Leader's first duty is to train his Patrol Leaders so that they can train the Scouts in their Patrols.

He will also have to organise Troop meetings, camps, expeditions and other activities with the help of the Patrol Leaders Council.

He must have at least one Assistant Scout Leader to make sure that the Troop can still carry on when the Scout Leader moves away or is ill. In fact, he will not be permitted to start a Troop unless he has at least one Assistant.

There are separate chapters on the Patrol system, programme planning for Troop meetings, and the training of Scouters.

Every Scout Leader should have his own copy of "Scouting for Boys", and of "Good Scouting", so that he knows what Lord Baden—Powell, the Founder of Scouting, has written about it, and knows the rules he must keep and the tests for the badges that his Scouts must pass.

Troop meetings should be regular, meeting at the same time on the same day of each week if possible.

Many Scout Leaders are also school teachers and have the same boys in the Scouts as they have at school, and meet on the school premises. It is important that these Scout Leaders understand that they must not run the Scouts like another school lesson. The Scout training method is quite different from the school training method. Scouting should always be run out of doors if the weather is fine, and not in the classroom. If possible, they should meet away from their school.

Most people will agree that to become a good school teacher, it is necessary to have special training. It is also necessary for a Scout Leader to have special training if he is to become a good one. It is necessary to learn the job of a Scout Leader before you start, although you never stop learning new things in the Scout Movement.

This can be done by visiting a good Scout Troop if possible or by help from a good Scout Leader, and by reading books.

A Scout Leader must always set a good example to his Scouts, especially in such matters as his religious duties, honesty, efficiency, the keeping of the Scout Promise and Law, and smartness and cleanliness of correct uniform.

The Scout Leader is the adult leader of a Troop of Scouts and the boys will copy him. A good Scout Leader always has a good Troop.



The first thing that must be done is to get permission to start a Scout Troop. The Scout Commissioner for the District where you want to run a Troop must give permission before anything is done. If you do not know who the Scout Commissioner is, or if there is none, it is best to write to Scout Headquarters, P.O. Box 669, Salisbury, and they will let you know where to apply for a warrant as a Scout Leader.

Preparing Yourself

No man can teach something he does not know, so every Scout Leader must learn as much as possible before he starts anything. Read the book which started the Scout Movement, "Scouting for Boys", by Lord Baden—Powell. This has been translated into many languages, and it gives the ideas of the Founder on what Scouts should do. Read also "Good Scouting", written by Claude Cook especially for Scouting in this country. It will also be necessary to know the rules of the Scout Association. Each country has its own book of rules, and it is often called "Policy, Organisation and Rules".

In this country, the Scout Movemont will not permit a man to start a Scout Troop before he has had some practical training, either with another good Scout Troop, or by attending a short training course. The Scout Commissioner will be able to give you the arrangements for these.

Open and Sponsored Troops

There are two kinds of Scout Troops — an "open" and a "sponsored" Troop. An open Troop is one which lets any boy of the right age join, and a sponsored Troop is one attached to a school or church, and only boys of the right age who belong to that school or church can join.

A sponsored Troop has a "Sponsoring Authority", usually the headmaster of the school, or the priest, minister or the one in charge of' the church. This Sponsoring Authority must approve of a Troop being run in connection with the school or church and must approve of the Scout Leaders and Assistant Scout Leaders.

Meeting Place

If the Scout Troop meets in the daytime it is best to meet in the open air. Try to get a place in the bush rather than the school playing field. If the meetings are at night it ill be necessary to have some lighting, and some Troops use pressure lamps hung on trees. Of course, in the rainy season it will be necessary to meet indoors, but always try to be out in the open whenever possible.


Always start with a few boys only. Six or eight boys who are keen to join will make a good number. These will make the first Patrol. The Scout Leader


must make sure that those boys are trained really well, and that they understand the Scout Promise and Law, and the other tests that must be passed before they can become Scouts. With six or eight boys it is possible to train each one thoroughly, and right from the start they should, if possible, go camping and go on expeditions.

When these boys have passed their Scout Badge tests and have been invested as Scouts, the Scout Leader should be able to pick out the two best boys as Patrol Leaders and another two as Assistant Patrol Leaders. Then another six or eight boys can join and the Troop will have two Patrols, half of each Patrol being new boys. Never try to start a Troop with more than eight boys.

Scouts are 11 years to 18 yeers old. Do not choose boys to start a Troop who will soon be too old, or will he leaving the school next term if it is a school Troop. Get boys who will have at least three years in the Troop. Choose boys who are likely to make good Patrol Leaders and Assistant Patrol Leaders, as all of them may have the chance to be one or the other.


Boys do not belong to their school teacher or Scout Leader; they belong to their parents. Before a boy is taken into the Troop, his parents should give permission for him to do so. It is a good thing for the Scout Leader to visit the parents of his boys if this is possible. He can then explain to them what Scouting is, and get their agreement. Also, by getting parents interested and knowing something about Scouting, it will help the Scout Leader when he wants the parents to buy uniform or give permission for their boys to go to camps or rallies. No parent is going to help his son to be a good Scout if the parent knows nothing about it.

Troop Meetings

The Troop meeting is usually held regularly each week, lastint about two hours. There should also be other meetings for hikes and expeditions whenever possible. Also weekend camps should be organised if possible. Each Patrol should meet on its own every week in addition to the Troop meeting. The programme for the Troop meetings are the responsibility, of the Scout Leader with the help of the Patrol Leaders Council, but the first few meetings must be very carefully arranged by the Scout Leader to make sure that each boy receives good progressive training, and serves as examples of good progranme planning.


Every Troop should pay its own way. In most countries the Scouts themselves pay a small weekly subscription and the spending of this money is dealt with by the Patrol Leaders Council. There are rules about the ways that can be used to get money for the Scouts and these rules must not be broken. For example, the Scouts may have a garden and grow vegetables, or keep chickens or animals to sell for money for the scout troop. Careful accounts must be kept for all money received and how it is spent. It belongs to the Troop and not to the Scout Leader.



Boys like to wear uniform, but no boy should be allowed to do so until he has passed his Scout Badge test and is a properly invested Scout.

The uniform is kept as simple as possible so that the boys with very little money are not stopped from becoming Scouts in uniform. Scouting is not only for boys with money. Each Troop has a different coloured scarf, and the Scout Commissioner gives permission for the colour to be used. This is usually chosen by the Patrol Leaders Council, but if they choose a colour used by a nearby Troop, the Commissioner will usually ask them to choose another colour.

Whatever your uniform, it must be kept clean and tidy. We must train our Scouts to look after their own uniforms properly. In some troops, the school uniform is used with a scarf as Scout uniform.

Group Council

The Scout Leader should know that it is a good thing to form a Group Council if this is possible. In many countries, it is a rule that one should be formed.

A Group Council is composed of the Sponsoring Authcrity (if there is one), important local people, parents of the boys, and any other adult interested in the Troop, who are invited by the Scout Leader to serve on the Council.

This Council is not concerned in any way with the actual training of the boys, but it can take care of Troop funds and help in many ways such as helping to find suitable Assistant Scout Leaders, supporting money raising efforts, and perhaps helping to organise the making of uniforms.

Others matters to remember

Each Scout is expected to belong to a church or faith and attend its meetings. The Scout Leader must set a good example of duty to his religion.

The Scout Movement has no connection with any political party, and Scouts and Scout Leaders are not allowed to wear Scout uniform at political meetings or activities, and must not attend such functions as a representative of the Scouts.

A man who starts a Scout Troop must always make sure that he keeps the rules. If a football team wants to play football, it must keep the rules of the game, or it is not football. A Scout Troop that does not keep the rules is not a real Scout Troop.


It is not possible to play football without a ball. In the same way, not possible to run a Scout Troop without some simple equipment. Remember that it is always better to make something than to buy it in a shop. Boys should learn to mkc for themselves as much as possible. Here are some useful things each Troop will need.


If you live in an area where sisal grows it is easy to make rope from sisal fibre. Hope can also be made from bark or grass. Any rough grass that grows in tufts is suitable.

Do not let Scouts kill trees to get the bark, and always cut the grass and do not pull up the roots.

When the long strong fibres frcm the bark or the grass has been tested to make sure that they do not break when bent, twist them carefully in a clockwise direction, (to the right) with the fingers. This will make a strand, and each strand must be the same thickness. Than take two or three strands and put them together by twisting them in an anti—clockwise direction (to the left). The picture shows how it can be done.

Scouts can make two ropes, each six feet long, one for themselves and one for the Troop.



One compass for each Patrol will be required. These need not be expensive ones. It is possible to make your own compass with a needle, a magnet, a cork and a postcard. This is the way to make one: Take a needle and "magnetise" it by stroking it about 20 times with one end of the magnet in the saame direction each time. Now push the magnetised needle through the cork.

rope-making.jpg Cut the card in a circle, a little bigger than the cork and draw the points of the compass on it. Put the cork and needle in water so that the cork floats. One end of the needle will point south, and the other north.


Fix the card on to the cork so that north and south are in the correct places, and you have made a compass. The pictures show you how to do it.



Every Scout wears a scarf which can be used as a triangular bandage. It is wise to make your Scout scarves the right size for this. A square of cloth 3 feet by 3 feet cut from corner to corner will make two scarves.


The Troop should have a copy of "Scouting for Boys" and of "Good Scouting" in addition to the Scout Leader's own copies. There are many books which you can buy if you have the money. In additian to a record book to keep a register of the Scouts and the tests they pass, it is a good thing to have a book of games and a prayer book. Notebooks and pencils can either be Troop property or can be supplied and kept by the Scouts.


Either a national flag or a Scout flag, with ropes to put on a flagstaff, is used by many Scout Troops.

First Aid Box

A good Troop has a box of first aid equipment in case of need. Also, it is a good idea to have some old bandages which are only used for practice. Here is a simple list of what your First Aid box should contain:

— Carbolic soap - one small piece - for washing hands before attending to patient.
— Salt - in a plastic bag or in a bottle - for making sterilising Solution with water to wash the wound, and if necessary on the dressing.
— Sterile dressings — one medium, one small — each packet contains cotton wool, gauze dressing with roller bandage attached
— Or roller bandages - one or two rolls.
— Or clean lint, or cloth - keep wrapped and clean — for dressings.
— Darning needle — with thick piece of wool threaded to prevent loss — for splinters and thorns.


— Safety pins — one or two medium.
— Razor blade — clean and wrapped in foil or thick paper — used as knife or scissors in an emergency
— 5 cent piece — for phone calls.
— box of matches.
— Triangular bandage — for sling or to fix dressing — (The Scout scarves can replace that).

Extras: Antiseptic solution (T.C.P., Dettol, Savlon cream, etc.) — for washing wound. Adhesive dressing strips (plaster with dressing in the middle).


If it is possible to get maps of the part of the country where your Troop meets, these would be better than other maps. Sometimes, the local District Commissioner can get maps of this kind for the Scouts.

Equipment List

Keep a list of all Troop equipment. Equipment bought from Troop funds remains the property of the Troop, and should be handed over if the Scout Leader leaves.


Only proper Scout badges should be worn, and these should asways be worn in the correct places. It is very inportant that uniform should always be clean, tidy and mended. If your Scouts wear shoes and belts, these should be polished regularly. Buttons should be sewn on securely, as missing buttons look untidy.

When a man becomes a Scout Leader he does not wear the badges he gained as a Scout. He wears his membership badge and his Scout Provincial badge, but no other proficiency badges that scouts wear if they have passed the tests. He should aim to get the Wood Badge, which is the only badge a Scout Leader can gain.

Buttons can be cut from hard wood sticks or the tips of animal horns. Woggles or scarf rings can be made of wood, bone, horn, leather and almost anything. See that your Scouts make woggles that they will be proud to wear. Do not permit matchboxes or string to be used. In some Troops the Scouts all make the same kind of woggle, in others, each Patrol has a home made woggle in the Patrol colors or with the patrol emblem on it.

woggle.jpg woggle1.jpg woggle2.jpg


Service and Instructor Proficiency Interest and Pursuit Proficiency Badge of Rank


Every Scout Troop has different boys, meets in different places, has different opportunities and different Scout Leaders. Because of this, it is impossible to get a Troop programme which would be suitable for all Troops. Each Troop has to prepare its own programme to suit its own Scouts.

Prcgrams for Troop meetings are usually planned by the Scout Leader and Assistant Scout Leader with the help of the Patrol Leaders Council, These should always be written down and at best kept in a book. The prograrmes in outline should be prepared about 2 or 3 months in advance (8 to 12 weekly programmes) and detailed programmes made every 4 weeks. The Scout Leader and Assistant Scout Loader should know exactly what each is going to do, and how long he is going to do it. It is also important to make sure that all the equipment required is available. You cannot play a game with ropes, if you have no ropes. Take a list of all the things necessary to run the programme and see that they are where you want them.

Here are a few rules worth remembering when planning programmes:

a/ There should be many different kinds of activity in each programme. No two programmes should be the same.

b/ Each Scout should learn something new towards his Scout Badge, Basic Scout Standard, Scout Standard or Advanced Scout Standard at each meeting.

c/ There should be some form of revision to make sure that things learned 2 or 3 meetings before are not forgotten.

d/ All programmes should be enjoyable, and a Scout should look forward to a Troop meeting because it is fun.

e/ Use the Patrol system in all programmes by giving part of the Troop meeting for instruction by Patrol Leaders, and use the Patrols for, games and competitions whenever possible.

f/ There should be order and discipline.. A good Scout Leader does not need to shout or blow a whistle to keep order.

Here are some suggestions for outline programmes for a new Troop. These are to show how it is possible to vary programmes. It is better for each Troop to do its own.

1st meeting

(Before the Opening Ceremony, each Scout reports to his Patrol Leader, who may inspect his Scouts for smartness, etc.)

A/ Opening Ceremony. (Troop inspection, collect subscriptions, flag break) 10 mins.

B/ Active game. 15 mins

C/ Instruction by the Patrol Leaders on Scout Standard knots. (The P.L.'s already have been shown how to do this by S.L.) 15 min.

D/ Game to test what has just been learned. This game could be a relay race between Patrols. 15 min.

E/ Instruction by the Patrol Leaders on Scout salute and left handshake. 10 min.

F/ Game. 15 min.

G/ Scout Leader's yearn about Scout Laws Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4. 15 min.

H/ Sense training game such as "Policeman Kim" (see "Training Games and Expeditions" chapter). 15 min.

I/ Closing Ceremony (notices, flagdown, prayers). 10 min.

2nd meeting

A/ Opening Ceremony. 10mins.

B/ Patrol Activity. Each Patrol makes a sign showing the Patrol emblem, writes out the Scout Promise, draws the national flag, and learns the woodcraft signs. 20 min.

C/ Test game. Scout Leader gives each Patrol a bundle of sticks. When he calls out a woodcraft sign, the first member of the Patrol must make the sign on the ground with the sticks, the second and each other member is given a sign to make in turn. 15 min.

D/ Scout Leader's yarn about Scout Laws 5, 6 and 7. 15 min.

E/ Game. 10 min.

F/ Instruction by Patrol Leaders on 2 more knots. 10 min.

G/ Game to test the knots just learned and those of first meeting. 10 min.

H/ Each Patrol to act one of the Laws given by the Scout Leader. 20 min.

I/ Closing Ceremony. 10 min.

Third meeting

A/ Opening Ceremony. 10 min.

B/ Game. 10 min.

C/ Scout Leader demonstrate simple first aid and each Patrol does what has been shown. 15 min.

D/ Game. 15 min.

E/ Instruction by Patrol Leaders on two knots. 15 min.

F/ Test game on knots learned. 15 min.

G/ Scout Leader yarns on Scout Laws Nos. 8, 9 and 10. 15 min.


H/ Training game. 15min.

I/ Closeing Ceremony. 10 min.

4th meeting

A/ Opening Ceremony. 10 min.

B/ Each Patrol to build a shelter from natural materials, make a fire for cooking, and make a table. 45 min.

C/ Scout Leader's yarn on the Scout Promise and good turns. 20 min.

D/ Each Patrol to decide uhat they will do to help other people before the next meeting, such as: mend a roof for old people, dig a garden, repair the road, help at a hospital, as a Patrol good turn. 20 min.

E/ Game. 15 min.

F/ Closing Ceremony. 10 min.

5th meeting

A/ Opening Ceremony. 10 min.

B/ Game. 15 min.

C/ Each P.L. reports on what has been-done by the Patrol for a good turn since last meeting. 15 min.

D/ Each Patrol lays a trail using woodcraft signs and returns in about 8 to 10 minutes. Then each Patrol follows the trail laid by another patro1. (Two halves of a Patrol if there is one Patrol only). 20 min.

E/ Domonstration of sailmaker's whipping and West Country whipping (or American whipping), after which each Scout will do one or both of them. 20 min.

F/ Game. 15 min.

G/ Scout Leader's yarn about Baden-Powell. 15 min.

H/ Closing Ceremony. 10 min.

6th meeting

A/ Opening Ceremony. 10 min.

B/ Game. 15 min.

C/ Revise knots. 20 min.

D/ Training game. 15 min.

E/ Camp Fire sing-song. 50 min.

F/ Closing Ceremony. 10 min.

These six meetings will give some idea of the way different Troop Programmes can be made in outline. There are many ideas in "Scouting for Boys" which the good


Scout leader will use, and many which he will alter to suit local conditions. There are also many books of Scout games, where again it will often be necessary to change sorne of them to suit each country. There is a chapter in this book on Training Games and Expeditions suitable for Troop meetings. Scout tests will be found in the book "Good Scouting".

There are a few other things to remember when making Troop programmes.

When you have an Investiture Ceremony (see Good Scouting, page 22) for boys who have passed their Scout Badge, this should come at the end of the Troop meeting. Do not invest more than two or three at one time.

Remember special dates such as Baden-Powell's birthday (22nd February) and make some part of' your programme on those days refer to them.

During the rainy season, the programme may have to be indoors.

When planning programmes, remember that some Scouts will be more advanced than others. There is no harm in Scouts who have not gained their Scout badge, being trained in Basic Standard subjects, or those with the Basic Standard doing Scout Standard training.

A good Scout Leader treats his Assistant Scout Leader as an equal partner in training the Scouts and administering the Troop. One can't expect an Assistant to be keen and attend regularly if he is not given some definite duties and opportunity to run part of the programme at Troop meetings.



Every Scout will want to pass tests in order that he can wear his badges. The Scout Leader will normally test his boys for the Scout Badge but the Patrol Leaders can pass the Scouts of their patrols in the tests for the Basic Scout Standard and the Scout Standard provided they themselves have sufficient knowledge to do so. it is the Scout Leader's responsibility to ensure that they are, in fact, capable of doing this. The Scout Leader or his Assistant tests the boys for the Advanced Scout Standard. In some Troops, an extra meeting is arranged for testing, and in others it is done at the Troop meeting, or the Scouts who require testing stay a little after the meeting.

A record must be kept of each boy's pregress, and ideas for this are in another chapter.

When making Troop programmes, always see that each Scout gets the chance to learn something new and advances in his Scouting. It should be expected that every Scout will pass his advanced Scout Standard if he has been in the Troop for 3 years.

If you expect a lot from your Scouts, you will get a lot, but the Scout Leader must be able to arrange proper instruction and testing.

The Scout Leader should look ahead and plan, with the Patrol Leaders Council, a target date when each Scout should have passed his Scout Badge, Basic Standard, Scout Standard and Advanced Standard. Every effort should be made by the Scout Leader and the Patrol Leaders to make sure that each Scout gets a good opportunity to be trained and tested by the dates agreed.

It is important to remember that the Patrol Leaders must have separate training if they are to be able to train the Scouts in their Patrols.

In Troops where the Scout Leader does not know very much, or where he is lazy, the Scouts spend too much time in dancing, marching or singing. There is nothing wrong with dancing and singing, but the Scouts can do that anywhere, and only a short time should be spent on such activities at Troop meetings. Marching should not be military. We are not permitted to give military training in the Scouts, so we train the boys to move smartly and in step without giving military orders. Many good Troops sing while they are marching as this makes it easier to keep in step.

Boys join the Scouts for many reasons, and one of these reasons is because they want to learn new things and get on. If we do not see that the Scout progress in their training, they will not want to stay.



Nobody can teach something he does not know. The Scout Leader must learn before he can instruct, and before he can train his Patrol Leaders.

The Scout method is "Learning by Doing". Somebody once said, "What I hear, I forget. what I see, I remember. What I do, I understand." Our instruction must always be practical.

It is a good idea to try to instruct in three stages. The Scout Leader should train his Patrol Leaders to do this..

1. EXPLANATION Explain in simple, clear words what is going to be done so that the Scouts understand what they are going to see.

2. DEMONSTRATION. Show in a practical way, using real things. If you are instructing in knotting, use ropes and not drawings or a blackboard or pictures from a book. Let all the Scouts see clearly what is being done.

3. APPLICATION. Use the things that you have explained and demonstrated in a practical way. Everything we learn should be used.

The Scout system is for the Scout Leader to train his Patrol Leaders and for the Patrol Leaders to train the Scouts in their Patrols. This means that nobody should have more than about seven boys to instruct. With small numbers it is possible to give proper practical training. Each individual should get attention, because some boys are slower than others. We should set the pace by the slowest.

Do not stand in front of those being instructed when doing such things as knotting, but get them each side of the instructor, so that each can see clearly.

Let us look at some of the subjects that the Patrol Leaders will be using to instruct their Scouts.


When instructing in knotting, the good instructor does it in the following order:— 1. Use of the knot; 2. How to tie the knot; 3, The name of the knot. THE USE OF THE KNOT IS THE FIRST AND MOST IMPORTANT THING.

Here are some simple Scout knots. Pictures show the knots loose in order to see them more clearly. A knot must always be pulled tight.


Reef knot. For tying together the two ends of a rope. Used for tying the ends of a bandage together or for tying up a soft parcel.

Sheet bend. For tying two ropes together or to tie one rope to a loop. Also used for tying a thin rope to a thick one.

 sheet-bend Bowline. To make a loop that will not slip.

 bowline Clove hitch. This hitch will work loose if used to secure the end of a rope to a spar, and should not be used for This purpose unless half hitches are added.

 round-turn Round turn & two half hitches. To secure the end of a rope to a spar or pole.

 round-trun Timber hitch. For tying & bundle of or pulling a big log of wood.

Rolling hitch. To tie one rope to another rope, or to fix a rope from an upright pole to the ground.

 rolling-hitch Whipping

This is used to stop rope from becoming frayed and undone at the ends. Strong twine is used. The whipping illustrated below is one of the simplest to make and can be used for any kind of rope.

 whipping  whipping2  whipping3  whipping4

Sailmakers Whipping.

For rope with three strands, the best whipping is the Sailmakers Whipping.



For plaited or braided rope the West Country whipping is best.

-  west-country

In all whippings, each time the twine is put round the rope, it should be pulled very tight.

The length of a whipping should be the width of the rope. A rope that is one inch wide will need a one inch long whipping.

First Aid

This should be simple and practical. Do not lecture the Scouts as if they are being trained as doctors. Remember that you do not just talk about first aid; it is always necessary to demonstrate it and let the Scouts practise.

Always wash hands before doing first aid, even when practising.

For small cuts, the first thing is to clean the wound with clean water, washing away from the cut and not into it.


If possible, add antiseptic to the water or wound to kill any germs. The second thing is to apply a dressing. This should be a proper gauze one which is sterilized, if you can get it. It may be difficult to get a sterilised dressing, and if there is none available, it is possible to use a clean non-poisonous leaf, such as a washed banana leaf, to stop dirt from getting into the wound. The third thing is to keep the dressing in place with a bandage. If you have no bandage, it is possible to use a handkerchief or a Scout scarf.

When instructing Scouts, it is a good idea to mark the skin where the cut is supposed to be. Make it look as real as possible. There are very good books on first aid, but do not just learn what to do from a book. Let the Scouts learn by doing.

When Scouts have learned something of first aid, test them by acting an accident to see if they carry out the correct treatment. Do not test them by asking questions only.

Don't forget that Scouts are not doctors. Get them to send for adult help or a doctor if the accident is serious.

"Basic First Aid", a book published by the St. John Ambulance Association, is recommended.

Lashings and Pioneering

Here again, do not instruct by pictures, but use real wood and ropes. Get the Scouts to make something useful. Allow time to finish the job. It is bad training to get Scouts to start something and not finish it. Start with simple things and progress to more difficult and bigger things. See page 22 for some ideas.

You will find how to do lashings in other Scout books. Preferably, learn them from another Scout leader.

Ideas for Instructing

Every country has a tool used locally for cutting wood, such as the axe, demo, panga, machette, parang, bushknife or caneknife. See that the Scouts get instruction on the safety rules and care and maintenance of the tool used locally. Demonstrate the correct way of sharpening it.

If you have a place where you can put things on the wall, get somebody to write the Scout Promise and Law in clear bold letters to hang on the wall to remind the Scouts of them.

See that the Scouts know the tests that they must pass. They will take more interest if they know what it is they are being instructed in and if they can qualify to pass a test in the subject.

- Because the Scout method is learning by doing, many Scouts will make mistakes. If they learn by their mistakes, and do not make them again, this is a good thing, except of course if the mistake is dangerous. If a Scout Leader or Patrol Leader sees a Scout making a mistake which is not dangerous and lets him continue


he will know he was doing the wrong way when he finds out, and will learn the right way, and know why it is right.

There are many subjects which can be included in instruction which are not in the Scout tests, but which are good things for Scouts to learn.. Do not add subjects which are being taught in schools.

In many places there are local people with special knowledge, such as how to build canoes, what local plants are good for medecine, how to catch animals for food, and many other subjects. These people could be invited to demonstrate their special skills to the Scouts.



frame chair



When Scouting started there were only Patrols, being led-by their Patrol leaders. Later on, Patrols got tcgether, formed Troops, and found Scout Lenders. The Patrol is still the unit for all Scout activities.

The Patrol Leader trains the Scouts in his Patrol at Troop meetings, Patrol meetings and camps.

Each Patrol should try to meet on its own every week. The Patrol Leaders, helped by their Assistant Patrol Leaders, plan the programmes for the Patrol meetings and camps for their Patrols.

Patrol Leaders are trained by their Scout Leaders. When the Patrol gets together to discuss Patrol activities under the leadership of their Patrol Leader, this meeting is called the Patrol in Council.

There should be regular meetings of the Patrol Leaders Council, which is meeting of the Patrol Leaders (in small Troops the Assistant Patrol Leaders are sometimes invited). If there is a Senior Patrol Leader, he is usually chairman of the Patrol Leaders Council. The Scout Leader normally attends Patrol Leaders Councils, but advises only. He does not take charge of it. The business at such meetings includes the arranging of Troop programmes, hikes, camps and other activities, the administration of the Troop, and the expenditure of money received from the subscriptions paid by the Scouts themselves.

These meetings give the Patrol Leaders an excellent opportunity to learn how to think and make plans for others, to take responsibility, and to organise efficiently. There should be a high standard of conduct at the Patrol Leaders council. After the business is finished, the Scout Leader can train his Patrol Leaders, while they are together.

The Patrol system cannot work at all unless the Scout Leader selects the right kind of Scouts as Patrol Leaders and trains them to to their jobs. This can be done by giving training after the business at the Patrol Leaders Council, at special training camps and any other opportunity. Sometimes special training courses are held for P.L.s but it is the Scout Leader's job to train his own Patrol Leaders.

The training of Patrol Leaders is of very great importance. Without proper training, the Patrol system cannot work. A Troop which tries to run in any way other than on the Patrol system is not a proper Scout Troop.



A first class Scout Leader has a first class Troop. A third class Scout Leader has a third class Troop. Our standards must always be high, We must expect all our Scouts to be proud of their Troop and do nothing which will bring shame or disgrace to it.

The standard of instruction and training must be the best we can give. Never be satisfied with anything but the best. We know that some boys are better at some things than others. These boys must make the same effort as those who find the Scout tests hard. Because of these, each Scout must be trained separately and tested separately to make sure that each one is doing his very best. A badge has no worth if there has been no real effort to get it. To encourage the Scouts to try hard and to be proud of their Patrol, many Troops run Patrol competitions.

These usually run for about twelve weeks. Points are given for tests passed and points also given for the Patrols which do well in training games and expeditions. A chart or record is kept, in order that each Patrol can see clearly how many points are gained each week.

If you want a trophy to be held by the winning Patrol, do not buy a cup or a shield. Make a simple trophy such as a log carved with the Troop name.


25 Or use a small home-made flag which the Patrol Leader of the winning Patrol can carry on his Scout staff under the Patrol flag.

patrol flag



A man must have some training before he receives a warrant as a Scout Leader. This is to make sure he understands and agrees with the Scout Promise and Law, the Scout method of training, and knows enough to start training Scouts in the right way.

When his Scouts have learned a little they will want to progress, and do more advanced Scouting, and the Scout Leader must be trained if he is to give them this.

There is a training scheme for Scout Leaders which is agreed by all the different Scout Associations throughout the world. This is called Wood Badge training because those who successfully complete the training, wear two wooden beads on a leather thong, called the Wood Badge.

There is a Basic Training Course which usually lasts for a long weekend or 2 weekends or 4 days. This is a simple course to make sure that the Scout Leader is trained up to Scout Standard and understands the aims and methods of the Scout movement.

The rest of the training is divided into three parts. Part One is a written course in which the Scout Leader answers questions to make certain that he can refer to the rules and knows the principles of Scouting. This is not a written examination, but a written study coure. Scout Leaders can get together to discuss the questions, and the written replies can be done at any time.

Part Two is a practical course in camp, for 8 to 10 days. Here the Scout Leader is shown many ideas for running a Scout Troop, and is trained to a higher standard in the practical activities of Scouting.

Part Three can only be taken last, but it is possible to take Part Two before Part One. To pass Part Three, a Scout Leader must show that he is putting into practice in his own Troop the principles, knowledge and experience he has learned in Parts One and Two. The Scout Commissioner will visit the Scout Leader to find out if he is doing this for a period of at least four months after gaining Parts One and Two.

The Scout Leader who has the Wood Badge has not finished training, but he should be able to train himself to a higher standard still. He should try to attend all meetings of Scout Leaders to discuss Scouting and to share the experience of others. There is no end to his training.




Care must be taken because paper records are eaten by white ants. Each Scout Leader should keep records in some form for the following:

(a) Cash book to record all money received and spent.

(b) Record of all Scouts and their attendance at meetings.

(c) Progress of each Scout, recording tests passed.

(d) Patrol Leaders Council minute book.

(e) Letters and notices received.

(f) List of Troop equipment.

These should be kept safely and passed on to the next Scout Leader when one leaves, together with money belonging to the Troop. It is wise to have a Post Office Savings Account in the name of the Troop if this is possible.

Here are some ideas which have been tried in different parts of the Commonwealth:

For each test passed, a coloured bead or seed is given to the Scout. For example: a red bead for knotting, a blue bead for first aid, a white bead for compass and so on. These are worn on a string round the neck under the uniform, and when all the tests are passed and the Scout has a complete set, he exchanges them for the badge.


Each Scout should have his own staff. When a test is passed, he can burn or carve a sign on his staff to show the test he has passed. He will then carry a record with him. The signs could be X for knotting, V for first aid, 0 for compass and so on.

Another idea is for each Scout to have 2 pieces of string, and when he passes a test a small piece of wood (bamboo is excellent) could be fixed to the string and the test written on it.

This will make a little ladder which will show all the tests passed. It could be hung in the Patrol corner or carried by the Scout.


Or the Scout Leader can make a large board, showing all the tests and the Patrols. When a test is passed, he puts a drawing pin in the right place to show it.


PL1, 1, 2, 3, 4,....

Date Joined
Knowledge of Scout Movement
Outdoor Activity
Promise and Law
Date Invested



Much of Scout Training can be given in the form of games and activities, which can also be used for revising tests. Here are some ideas which can be used in Troop and Patrol programmes.


Policeman Kim

Troop in a circle. In the centre of the circle are placed about 20 assorted articles. After the Scouts have looked at the articles, one Scout is selected as the "policeman". He must turn to face away from the circle so that he cannot see the articles, while another Scout is selected as the "thief". The thief takes one article away, hides it in his pocket or shirt, touches the policeman, and runs round the outside of the circle. The policeman, when touched, must turn round, look at the articles and say which one is missing, before the thief can get back to his place. New policeman and thief are selected each time.

Kim's Game Variations

There are many ways of playing Kim's game. Here are a few.

a) Use different leaves or flowers. After one minutes observation, each Scout writes out the list of names or draws what he has seen.

b) Kin's game by smell can be played either with articles being recognized by smell alone while blindfolded, or by putting such items as orange peel, peppers, mangoes, in this cloth and disguising their shapes.

c) Kim's game by sound is played either with the Scouts outside a building where they cannot see who is inside making a number of sounds -which must be remembered, or the Scouts can sit with their backs to the one making the sounds. Such sounds as dropping a coin, pouring water, striking a match can be used. About 12 to 20 sounds can be made.

d) Kim's game by touch requires all Scouts to be blindfolded, in a circle, and the Scout Leader passes round about 20 articles which are recognised by touch and passed on to the next Scout. When all articles have been felt and they have been covered, the Scouts write down the names of the articles that they have remembered.

Pass the Coin

Scouts sit in a circle and pretend to pass a coin from the one on the right, to the one on the left of them. This must be done without stopping as if the coin was being handed round by each Scout all the time. One Scout is sent out of the circle where he cannot see the others and the Scout Leader gives one


Scout a real coin. The Scout outside the circle comes into the centre of the circle where every Scout appears to be passing coins. When the Scout in the centre thinks he can tell which Scout is passing the real coin, he touches him, and the Scout who is touched opens his hands. If there is nothing in them, the game continues. If the Scout who is touched has the coin in his hands, he has to change places, and goes outside the circle while the Scout Leader gives the coin to another Scout.

Who Is Leader?

Scouts sit in a circle. One is sent away where he cannot see. The Scout Leader points to a Scout who is the Leader. Whatever the Leader does, the others must do. The Scout outside now comes into the circle and watches the others while he slowly walks round. The Scouts do not keep looking at the Leader, otherwise it would be easy to know who he is. The one in the centre tries to find out who is the Leader. When he points to the right one, they change places, the new Leader then goes outside the circle and a new Leader is pointed out. The Leader must keep changing his actions which are being followed, such as hands up, hands on knees, left leg moving, etc., but he tries to change the actions when the Scout in the centre is not looking at him.

Sleeping Herdboy

One Scout sits about 20 yards from the others, and is blindfolded. He is the herdboy. Near him is something to represent his food. The Scout Leader points to one Scout who silently tries to get to the food and steal it before the herdboy can catch him. The herdboy can catch him by pointing straight at him. When he points he must put out his arm and point a finger. He must not swing his arm. The Scout Leader tells him "yes" or "no". The herdboy can try as many times as he wishes. If the thief is caught by being pointed at, he becomes the herdboy.

Find the Coin

Each Patrol is in line. A coin is placed in front of each Patrol. One member of each Patrol goes about 15 paces in front of his Patrol and faces them. He is then blindfolded, and on a signal, each Patrol gives its Patrol Call. Guided by the call, the blindfolded Scout goes to his Patrol. When he reaches the coin, his Patrol says "stop!" He stops, and puts a finger on the ground. The Patrol gives the orders "forward", "backward", "right" or "left" for him to move his finger until it touchcs the coin. First Patrol to touch the coin, wins. Then another member is blindfolded. On The orders "stop!", "backward", "forward", "right", or "left" only may be used. No other instructions may be given.


Each Patrol gets some burnt wood to make charcoal. Each Scout is given a small piece of paper on which he puts a print of his right thumb, made by rubbing it on charcoal and pressing on to paper, to show clearly the lines of the skin. The papers of one Patrol are exchanged with those of another. Then each Scout must look at the thumbs of all the Patrol whose paper he has,


to find the Scout whose thumb print is on his paper. He then writes the name of the Scout who made the print, on the paper. First Patrol with the correct names to prints, is the winner.

- Message Relay

Each Patrol is in line with five paces between each Scout. The Patrol Leaders go to the Scout Leader who whispers a message to them. The Patrol Leaders go to the next Scout in their Patrols and pass the message on, each whispering it to the next one until the last member of the Patrol has received the message. He runs to the Scout Leader and says or' writes the message. The first Patrol with the CORRECT message, wins.

Do This Do That

, - Scout Leader stands in front of the Troop and does something (like arms forward stratch, knees bent, etc.) saying "Do this" or "Do that". If he says "Do this",- all must copy him. If he says "Do that", nobody must move. Those who do, have to sit down, until only one is left standing and he is the winner.


Knotting Chain Gang

Patrols in rows. Each Scout has a rope. The Patrol Leader ties one end of his rope round his right ankle with a bowline. No. 2 ties one end of his rope to the free end of the Patrol Leather's rope with a sheetbend, then ties his rope to his right ankle with a clovehitch. He passes the free end to No. 3 who joins it to his own with a sheetbend, and then ties his right ankle with a clovehitch, and so on, until all the Patrol have finished. Then the whole Patrol, chained together run to the Scout Leader, who stands about ten yards away. First Patrol with all correct knots, wins.

Knot Circle

Troop in a circle. One Scout outside the circle has a rope. He gives it to a Scout and asks him to tie a knot, by saying the use of the knot and not the name of the knot. The Scout in the circle then ties the knot before-the Scout who gave him the rope can run round the outside of the circle. If correct the Scout who has tied the knot changes place with the one, outside,the circle.

Sinking Ship

-- The Patrol Leader throws a rope to No. 2 in the Patrol who, with the rest of the Patrol, is on a sinking ship. No. 2 ties a bowline round his waist and is pulled to safety by the Patrol Leader, who then throws the rope to No. 3 and so on until all have been "rescued". Give a time limit when the ship will sink. If a Scout ties the knot wrongly, he is sent back to the ship.

Compass Race

Each Patrol is given a compass and a piece of paper showing a compass


bearing and a distance (for example: 36°, 100 yards). Each Patrol follows the bearing for the distance stated, where they find another paper showing bearing and distance to follow. About six of these should be given, some of which whould not be easy to see. The first Patrol to complete the course wins.

Compass Blindfold Guide

A piece of ground about the size of a football pitch is needed. In the centre a circle is drawn, in which the Patrol Leaders stand. Each Patrol is in a different corner of the pitch. All are blindfolded except the Patrol Leaders. All the Scouts except the Patrol Leaders face north. The Patrol Leaders then call out compass directions to their own patrols to guide them to the corner opposite then. They must not cross into the circle in the middle of the pitch. Those who do are disqualified. The Patrol with most Scouts to reach the opposite corner without treading in the circle, wins.

Compass Relay

Each Patrol, has 16 pieces of paper and on each is written a different compass point. These are placed in front of each Patrol. A circle, about ten yards away, is drawn in front of each Patrol. Each Scout runs to the papers, takes the first one and places it in the correct position of his circle, runs back to his Patrol and the next Scout does the same. First Patrol to complete the compass correctly wins.

First Aid and Rescue work

If games are used for first aid, speed is not of importance, except for dealing with bleeding and for fetching a doctor.

House on Fire

A room or small area to take the place of a room, is used for the scene of a house on fire. A Scout is on the floor having been overcome by the smoke. The rest of the Patrol rescue him, using the correct methods and treatment. This is a good way to revise instruction.

Electric Cable

A rope is used for an electric cable. A Scout from each Patrol lies


under the cable. The rest of the Patrol are to rescue him and give proper treatment, If any Scout touches or makes contact with the cable, he must join the Scout under the cable and also be rescued.


Each Pattol has a Scout -who has broken his leg. The rest of the Patrol give him correct first aid treatment, carry him to a road in the correct way, then make a stretcher and take him to the Scout Leader.


Heads and Tails

Two lines are made on the ground, about 20 yords apart. Half the Troop is behind one line, and half behind the other line. The Scout Leader stands in the centre. One team is "heads" and the other "tails". Each team comes forward to the Scout Leader, who spins a coin. If the coin comes down "heads", the "heads" run back behind their team, if any are touched by the "tails" team, they must join the "tails" team. If the coin comes down "tails" then their team must run hebind their line, while the "heads" chase them.

Stick Rugby

The Troop is divided into two teams as for football. Instead of goals, circles are made on the ground. A short stick, not longer than 3 inches, is used instead of a ball and can be passed from one player to another. Each team tries to score goals by putting crosses in the circle of the other team, and prevent them from putting crosses in their circle. If played indoors, a piece of chalk can be used instead of a stick.


The Troop forms a circle. In the centre, are a number of articles (stones, for example). There is one less article then the number of Scouts. The Scouts walk round in a circle until the Scout Leader shouts "Grab"! when each Scout runs to the centre to pick up one article. The one who does not, falls out, and another article is removed, until only two Scouts and one article remain to see who is the winner. The articles should be spread out and not put into a small heap, otherwise Scouts may injure each other if they all rush to pick up articles from a small heap.


Patrol and Troop expeditions should be arranged in addition to Patrol and Troop meetings. Some could be all day ones and others could be short ones lasting about 2 to 4 hours. Here are some ideas.

Secret Meeting

The Troop is told that two "bad men" will be leaving the meeting place at a given time. The Scout Leader and another man act the parts of the bad men.


Each Patrol must follow them and listen to what they say, but no Scout must be seen by the bad men. If they are seen, their names are called out and they will have to walk with the bad men. The bad men walk to a place about a mile away and, while walking, talk to each other about a robbery they are arranging, giving date, time, place, how they will get to the house to be robbed, what they will take, how they will get into the house, what they will wear, and other details. The Scouts follow them near enough to hear but must not be seen. This means that the place must have bushes, trees, or long grass to give cover to the Scouts.

When they arrive at their destination, the Patrol Leaders get their Patrols together (except the ones seen and made to walk with the bad men) and discuss what they have heard, and write down the details to find out which Patrol has the full story.

At the destination, one member of each Patrol climbs a tree and sits about ten feet above the ground. Each Patrol has a different tree. The rest of the Patrol are told that the Scout up the tree has fainted, and they must bring him safely to the ground.

- While this is being done, the Scout Leader fixes a rope tightly between two trees, about ten feet from the ground. When the Scouts up the trees have been brought safely to the ground, the Scout Leader shows the Scouts how to move along the rope using the "Dead man's Crawl". Here is how it is done.


On the way beck to the meeting place, the Patrol Leaders lay trails for the rest of their Patrols to follow.

Competition Expedition

The Troop walks to a place where there are trees or bushes and where it is possible to light fires.

A number of competitions are arranged for each Patrol to do. Here are some suggestions:

a) Tie a piece of string between two trees. The string should be about 18 inches from the ground. Each Patrol to light a fire under the string to see which one can burn through the string first.

b) The Scout Leader arranges footprints and other clues on a piece of clear ground. Each Patrol looks at the scene and says what they think happened there.

c) Twenty different leaves are displayed. Each Patrol collects the same 20 leaves, names them, and gives the uses of the tree or bush to which the leaves belong.


d) Each Patrol is given a food tin (all the same size). They must make fire without matches, and boil water in the tin to make tea, coffee, or cocoa.

e) Each Patrol to make something such as a spear, or bow and arrow, or a sling. Each Patrol makes the same thing. When these are made, a competition, is held to see which Patrol can send the thing they have made the longest distance.

Treasure Hunt

- The Scout Leader lays a trail to Point One, where a message tells the Scouts to go to Point Two. This can be in signalling code if the Scouts have learned it. From Point two, they go on to Points 3, 4, 5 and 6. At each Point, they are given a test in order to be able to go on to the next. At the last Point there is a 'treasure", such as a sweet or a piece of chocolate, which the first Scout there can have.

The tests at the Points should be written and shown to the Scouts. When a Scout has passed a test, he can be shown another paper telling him where the next Point is. Such tests as first aid, knotting, lashing, etc., can be done. A Scout Leader or Patrol Leader should be at each point to test the Scouts. This is a good way to revise tests.



In this country, it is not necessary to have tents when camping. Shelters can be made of there is wood, leaves, reeds, or grass, or turf. Nearly all camp equipment can be made. A good Scout Troop can make itself comfortable in camp without spending any money. Here are some ideas how to make camp equipment. Shelters

The simplest shelter is the lean-to. Thatch can be of grass, or leaves. The beehive shelter is made either by bending together small growing trees, or pushing green poles in the ground and tying them together. Thatch can be grass, leaves or bark.

lean to hut thatched hut

A Longhut shelter can be made if tall trees can be cut. long hut

Cooking Equipment
Cooking pots and other kitchen equipment can be made. Pots are easily made from food tins. On the islands in the Pacific Ocean, the people cook in an "umu". This is a hole in the ground lined with stones. After a big fire has burned to embers, lthe embers are removed, food is wrapped in leaves, put in the hole, embers replaced, and all covered. This becomes an earth oven which will cook meat and vegetables without any equipment.  camp-gadget.jpg pot

Other camp Equipment

In Camp Fire Yarn No. 9 in "Scouting For Boys", you will find many hints on camping, including how to make a mattress from grass and other plants, on which to sleep. In different countries, there are different ways of carrying personal camp gear.


Your blanket or sleeping mat can be used to contain your gear by rolling it into a bundle. It is used in Australia and called a "swag".

- In Borneo, they use a "Bongon", which is a basket with two straps for the shoulders. The basket can be made of woven cane or of bark. An old sack can be used with the bottom corners tied, and a rope from the top to the bottom corners used as straps. All Scouts should camp, and make as much of their own equipment as possible. swag kit bags

Camp Organisation

Camping gives the Scout Leader and Patrol Leader an excellent opportunity to train Scouts. More time can be spent on training in a practical way.

It is necessary to plan a camp programme in order that Scouts can be instructed and tested, and that all the equipment required to do this is available. See that the camp is clean and orderly. A busy camp is a happy camp. Make arrangements for camp well in advance. Train the Scouts at Troop meetings in order that they will know how to camp before they go. It is necessary to get the Scout Commissioner's permission before a camp is held. Transport arrangements are necessary if you are not walking to camp. Parents permission is necessary in most cases.


Food supplies may have to be arranged before the camp starts. A good Scout Leader sees that all arrangements are made well in advance, and that the camp is run on the Patrol System.



This little book cannot give you all the things a Scout Leader should know, and does not include the important things in "Scouting for Boys" and in "Good Scouting".

A good Scout Leader does his best to run a Troop properly and uses his own imagination and ideas to see that Scouts grow up to be good men of whom his country can be proud.

There are many national leaders such as Presidents and Prime Ministers who have been Scouts, and have learned not to be afraid of taking responsibility while they were in the Scouts as boys. Some of these have also been Scout Leaders. There may be a future famous man in your own Scout Troop now. We must see that every Scout gets the best training we can give him. A Scout Leader is an important person.

All round the world, Scout Leaders are doing all they can to help the boys of their countries. These men come from different countries, climates, races, and religions, but they all belong to the world-wide Brotherhood of Scouts. When this book was written there were 11,000,000 Scouts throughout the world. We belong to something very big and very important. Every Scout Troop is an important link in the chain of brotherhood which encircles the world.

So go ahead in training your Scouts, and may good luck go with you.


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Acknowledgements:-Mr George Witchell
Brother John M. Wilcott