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The Scout Standard Profficiency Badge

Scout Standard badge Scout Standard test card
THE SCOUT STANDARD


Many hundreds of Scouts will have thanked John Remi for the help that this little book has given them to qualify in the Scout Standard Tests.

Unfortunately stocks have run out and Brother John is no longer in Rhodesia to re—issue it.

A further problem is that since the Tests were revised and simplified in 1974 a complete revision of the lay—out is needed to align with the new tests, However, as most of the tests are still cevered by the original text and the remaining information is still very valuable and necessary for Good Scouting, it has been decided to reprint as it stands.

In order to help readers pick out the bits that are necessary for the revised Badge tests, the tests are listed on pages 57 and 58, and a reference shown to where the information can be found in the text.

We hope, eventually, to publish a completely revised handbook for the Scout Standard Tests but I am sure that this issue will fill the gap and help hundreds more Scouts to complete this step in their path along the Scout Progress Trail.

H. B. BLOWERS
Deputy Chief Scout Commissioner.
Scout Headquarters,
Salisbury,
Rhodesia.
September, 1976.

rhodesian scout standard

1.FIRST AID

1.a(i) SUMMON ADULT HELP.

This said when you prepared your Basic Standatd. It rust be repeated here because it is important.
‘Why call an adult?
- You are a boy. Not strong enough to handle an injured person without the risk of hurting him more.
- The wounded person will have more confidence in an adult. It is important for him to feel safe and to trust those who help him.
- If the victim of an accident gets worse, his relatives may accuse boy of having done the wrong thing. An adult will discuss more easily the treatment he gave.
- Think of other reasons.
Still you are expected to learn First Aid, and to be able to help people who are hurt. But it must remain ‘First Aid' - Aid given first, while waiting for an adult, a nurse, a doctor. Do learn your First Aid carefully. Some day, by doing the right thing at once, you may well save someone’s life, or at least make sure that an injury will heal quickly and properly.

1. a(ii). PROTECT FROM FURTHER INJURY.
This is rather obvious. Here are some examples:
— Mr. Smith, victim of a car accident with serious head injuries, still wants to get up and fight the other driver. What will you try to do?
— John has fallen from a high rock, and where he is lying, stones and pebbles may easily fall on him if someone walks above. What do you do? (Remember: if possible, do NOT move the patient.)
— Paul has been stung at least three times by bees, and some are still buzzing aruund. How do you protect him?
— Baby has pushed a monkey nut up his nostril, and through his crying and nose bleeding, he keeps putting his fingers inside his nose in an effort to relieve the pain. What must you do?

N e v e r f o r g e t : Before any of the treatments you will learn later, make sure your patient is not likely to receive further injuries.

1.a.(iii). WHEN ITS ESSENTIAL TO MOVE THE PERSON
— You must be strong enough, or get the help needed to move the person without making his condition worse: aggravating a fracture, re—opening a wound, in general worsening a condition you do not know clearly.
— You must know clearly where you are taking the person, so as not to keep moving him from one place to another every few minutes.
In most cases, you must take the time needed for making a comfortable stretcher, and it is often useful to tie the patient to it, Practice doing a good stretcher (1) with a blanket, (2) with shirts, (3) with ropes only, (4) with triangular bandages, (5) can you make a good stretcher with natural materials only?
— If the nature of his injuries allow it, you may use any of the usual methods: three hand seat, four-hand seat, fireman’s lift., etc. PROVIDED YOU ARE STRONG ENOUGH to use those without the risk of dropping the victim aggravating his injuries.
Practise the methods illustrated in the next pages.

stretchers carries carries stretchers

1.b. MESSAGE.
To summon help, you may have to send a message.
SPOKEN MESSAGE. Make your messenger repeat the message before he leaves. Question him to make sure he got it right. Even then, unless you have a particularly reliable messenger, you can never be sure what the message will sound like at the other end of the line.

WRITTEN MESSAGE. This is a much better way. It must state:
— to whom it is addressed;
— name (it known), age, and race of the victim;
— what happened
— where is the victim
- what you are doing meanwhile;
— name of the First Aider.
Example: “To Mr. Takavarasha, teacher.
Please come with your car to take a wounded African boy to hospital urgently. Bitten by a snake on lower leg. I put a tight bandage, and I am keeping him quiet. We killed the snake and you could bring it to hospital. John (the messenger) will be able to guide you back here. Scout Paul Nhau.”

TELEPHONE MESSAGE. If you can phone your message, it is better still, as you can then answer your helper’s questions. So if there is a phone near your place, learn how to use it properly. On the phone, give the same information you had to write.

l.a. SHOCK.
1.c.(i). NERVOUS SHOCK.

Cause: Fright, bad news, sudden severe pain, generally unpleasant conditions. Also long stay in an unventilated over heated room.
— One of the causes has occured.
—Victim pale, sweaty. May or may not faint.
— Pulse and breathing strong (but may be fast or slow.)
— Recovery within minutes under proper treatment.

Treatment: 1. Make the patient relax, with head between knees or lying down.
2. Maintain upper airway open. (see below.)
3. Loosen tight clothing, especially neck and chest.
4. Keep him at normal temperature. No blankets, except on cold days.
DO NOT give anything to drink or to eat.

1.c.(ii). TRUE SHOCK. (Surgical shock.)
Cause: Lack of oxygen to the brain. This may occur in: heart attacks, drowning, severe injuries, serious bleeding, asphyxiation, etc.
recovery position
Signs: — One of the causes has occured:-
— Victim pale, cold, sweating;
— Pulse weak (but may be fast or slow);
- Victim looks very sick, even if he says, “There’s nothing wrong with me.”
— After asphyxiation, bluish lips, skin, fingernails.

Treatment: 1. Make the patient lie down, head lower than feet.
2. Keep upper airway open.
3. Send for adult help, and/or organize transport to clinic or hospital.
4. Treat the cause of shock as needed: stop bleeding, give artificial respiration, splint fractures, etc.
5. Keep victim at normal temperature (no blankets except on cold days).
DO NOT give any drink or food.
DO NOT PANIC. Surgical shock is very serious. Only by keeping calm and doing the right thing can you hope to save the victim’s life. Do act at once, but remain calm and controlled.

1.c.(iii). MAINTAIN AN OPEN AIRWAY
To remain alive, air must reach your lungs. The channel it uses to reach them is called the “upper airway”, and consists of nose, mouth, throat, larynx, and wind-pipe.
When dealing with any patient, you must make sure that this airway remains open.
How can it become closed?
open airway position
1. Food, water, blood at the back of the throat can block the entrance to the wind-pipe. Do not hesitate to put your finger in the mouth to clear the way.
2. When a patient is unconscious, even the tongue may fall back and block the airway. Thrusting the head back prevents the tongue from blocking the passage of the air.
3. If the neck is bent forward and the chin sagging, the airway is blocked. The First Aider must consider it VERY URGENT to re—open the airway. Extend the neck by pulling the head backwards. At the same time, force the chin forward.
Obviously, maintaining the airway open will be the first thing to do in artificial respiration. In many cases in fact, opening the airway will be sufficient to re-start breathing.

l.d. TRIANGULAR BANDAGE
(i) as a cover bandage for shoulder, elbow, hand, knee & foot.
(ii) as an arm sling.
cover bandages arm sling

1.e. BLEEDING
Severe bleeding must be controlled quickly. And the ONE way you learm now is simple.
PRESS DIRECTLY ON THE WOUND.
Fold a clean white cloth (handkerchief, triangular bandage, or even a pieoe of shirt) into a small square pad, large enough to cover the wound. Apply that on the wound and press. Maintaining the pressure one or two minutes Will generally be sufficient to stop the bleeding,
To maintain that pressure longer, tie your pad to the wound with a bandage, or with a plaster.
This is the best way to control Bleeding. If the bleeding cannot be stopped by direct pressure, call for adult help.
NEVER use a tourniquet. You may have heard of this, but only ,a doctor will use that. It is too dangerous. Certainly no boy first aider may ever use it.
DO NOT use the pressure points unless direct pressure is impossible. You will learn about those pressure points later, but even then, direct pressure will always remain the first and best to stop bleeding.

1.f. ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION
1f.(i) Open Airway

This has already been exp1ained. It is repeated here because it is very important. And of course, you can’t apply artificial respiration with success if the upper air-way is obstructed.
1.f.(ii) MOUTH-to-Mouth and MOUTH-to-Nose ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION.
A drowning person is pulled out of the river. A suffocating man is rescued from a burning house — A child has stuffed his mouth with sweets, and his face is turning blue — A man is freed from a high—tension electric cable. A miner is pinned with a heavy rock on his chest — . . any of those victims, and the victims of many other accidents, may have stopped breathing. Their lives can be saved only if artificial respiration is applied IMMEDIATELY. No time to get a doctor, no time to take him to hospital, no time even to wait for adult help! Artificial respiration must be started immediate1y.
There are various ways of doing this. The one we learn now is by far the best and the simplest. It is also the most likely to succeed.

Mouth—to—Nose Artificia1 Respiration.
1. Open the upper airway, and maintain it open.
2. Close the Victim’s mouth firmly.
3. Take a deep breath.
4. Place your lips over the victims nose firmly enough to seal in the air you will breathe into his nose. (The dotted line on the illustration show the position of your lips).
5. Expel your breath forcibly. (More gently if the victim is a child.)
6. Observe the victims chest for signs of successful inflation. If it does not rise, the air way is still blocked. Remove that obstruction before proceeding.
7. Repeat at the rate of 20 to 30 “blows’ per minute When the victim resumes breathing by himself, ajust your help to his breathing, and carry on until he needs no further assistance.

Mouth—to—Mouth Artificial Respiration.
Follow the same steps, but pinch the victim’s nose, open his mouth, and blow into it. (See illustration page 16)
Generally, the mouth—to—nose method is the first choice. It has many advantages over the mouth—to—mouth and is more likely to be successful.
These two methods may be practised only on a training manikin. But even if you have no manikin on which to practice, be sure to remember what you have to do. You will not have to save people’s lives every day, but you must be prepared should a serious accident happen.
mouth to mouth

1.g. BURNS AND SCALDS.
BURNS
are caused by dry heat: fire, electricity, friction, chemicals.
SCALDS are caused by moist heat: steam, boiling water.
Superficial burns.
Skin red, unbroken, even with blisters. Size less than 5 times the victim’s palm. Most scalds are only superficial. These burns are usually very painful.
TREATMENT: Remove the cause of the burn.
2. Relieve the pain: apply a dry, clean bandage. If you have them, apply some burn jelly, or some non—oily cream.

Deep Burns.
An area larger than 5 times the victim’s palm. Skin completely destroyed. These cause true (surgical) Shock.
TREATMENT
1. Remove the cause of the burn. For example:
— Clothes on fire. Lay the victim on the floor. Wrap him up in a blenket to smother the flames.
— electric shock. Turn off the current. Remove him from contact with a live wire (with rubber soles, or a dry stick.)
— Chemicals. Bathe with plenty of water.
.....
2. Reassure the victim.
3. Treat for shock.
4, Bandage with dry, sterile dressing, or with clean linen. NO oils, creams or ointments.
5. Obtain the help of a doctor without delay.
DO NOT remove clothing.
DO NOT give ‘stimulants'. A little water may be given if the victim cant be taken to a doctor at once.
In all cases, it is helpful to immerse the burned limb in clear, cold water immediately, and keep it there until bandages are ready.

1.h. SUNBURN.
AVOID IT.
Fresh air and sunshine are beneficial to the skin, and Scouts should enjoy both, especially at camp. BUT exposure to the hot sun for too long a period may cause SURBURN. Each individual knows from experience how long he can stand the heat of the sun, and should take precautions accordingly. A hat and a white shirt, or T—shirt will prevent sunburn.
TREAT IT as an ordinary superficial burn. It becomes a serious burn only it a very large area of the skin has been burned.

1.i. SNAKE BITE.
Snake bites are not common, and very few people die from them.
But each snake bite is a serious emergency, and even a boy must know what to do.
here are the steps to follow, in that order, starting immediately after the snake bite:
1. keep calm. Reassure the patient: he must lie down and keep still.
2. Apply a pressure bandage (NOT a tourniquet) above the bite. Release it after half an hour, for 30 seconds, then tighten it again. Remove it altogether after one hour.
3. Inject anti—snakebite serum. This is important, but never do it unless:-
— you are sure the snake is poisonous;
— you know the type of Snake, and therefore the type of serum needed;
— the bite has been serious enough to threaten the life of the victim;
— no doctor, and no adult first aider is within immediate reach;
— you have been properly trained to give that injection.

R a p e a t — NEVER give an anti—snakebite serum injection UNLESS these five points apply.
4. Apply Artificial Respiration, if breathing becomes difficult or stops.
5. Apply suction to the wound, through plastic or rubber.
6. Send for help.

REMEMBER — six steps, in that order and start immediately after the bite.
If you can, kill the snake itself, and keep it for the doctor to see.
You should get to know snakes, even learn how to handle them if some adult can show you. Read the Bundu Book No. 2, and other books about snakes. The more you know, the less you will fear them, and the more useful will you be in helping a snakebite victim.

1.j. FAINTING.
Fainting is not usually serious. It is nature’s way of providing the relaxation one needs under strain, over-heating or under-ventilation.
Keep the patient lying down, in a well—ventilated atmosphere. This will usually suffice to bring him round.
Stimulants, or other fluids may be useful if the fainting has not been caused by a severe wound, or other physical condition..
In this case, treat for shock, and care for the wound, fracture, or whatever caused the person to faint.

2. HEALTH.
2.a. RULES OF HEALTH.

You must read carefully Camp Fire Yarn No. 18 in ‘Scouting for Boys”. If there are some paragraphs you don’t understand, ask your Scout Leader.
After you have read Yarn 18, you will be able to decide which of the following statements are TRUE and which are FALSE.
1. Explorers in the jungle always have a doctor with them.
2. You do a good turn to another when you whow him how to keep healthy.
3. A clean wound will fester easily.
4. Taking a shower immediately after an active exercise is good for your health.
5. To keep fit and well, you should rub yourself all over every day, even if it is only with a dry towel.
6. Fresh air helps keep your blood healthy and clean.
7. Getting used to eat nothing in the morning is a good thing.
8. Smoking helps a boy grow strong and healthy..
9. A good sense of smell is very important for scouting.
10. People will think highly of you if you smell of beer and tobacco.
11. Drinking alcohol is the cause of much poverty, crime and illness.
12. A man who can drink liquor makes a good scout.
13. When walking or running, you should keep your mouth open to help you breathe.
14. You will get tired if you drink water often on a long hike.
15. A waster likes spending long hours drinking and talking.
16. Strong drink has often cured serious troubles.
17. Telling, or listening to, dirty stories is a manly thing to do.
18. On a long hike, it does not matter if your feet become wet with sweat.
19. Exercise end a cold shower help a boy to remain continent.
20. Staying in bed till after sunrise improves your health.
21. Want of laughter means want of health.
22. Frowning while doing a hard physical effort will make it easier.
23. Germs live mostly in sunny and well—aired places.
24. Sleeping in a room where all windows and doors are tightly closed is healthy.
25. It is healthy to eat little, provided one eats the right kind of food.
26. One can live perfectly well on fruit, vegetables, fish and milk.
27. Too much food makes one fat and sleepy.
28. Medecine should be taken only when really needed.
29. Boots are better than shoes for long walks.

The answers are written here, but you will need your mirror to read them. You should be satisfied only with a score of 29/29.
True: numbers 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 14, 15, 19, 21, 25, 26, 27, 28.
False: numbers 1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 29.

Do the exercises illustrated here. Repeat them every morning as you get up, and see how much healthier you wil feel.
exercises

2.b. CAMP HYGIENE.

Camping cannot be learned in the Scout Room, It can be prepared there, but only the experience of nany camps will finally make a good camper.
We are concerned here with hygiene. An unhygienic camp can ruin your health. A hygienic one actually improves it greatly. Some points every camper should know:
(1) Cleanliness of site, tent and personel.
— Be well organized to dispose of all waste (see page 23)
— Have the necessary gadgets in and around your tent to insure that your clothes, towels, blankets remain clean, aired and dry. (See some suggestions page 24.)
— For the sake of hygiene also, the walls of your tent must be rolled up, and the flaps open during the day, unless it rains. Even during the night, when weather permits.
- And, be clean yourself. Except when you are expected to be in uniform change to rougher clothes for games and activities. And give yourself a good rub down all over daily. With a little ingenuity, you can have a hot shower or bath even in camp. (Ideas page 25.)
— It your clothes get wet because of rain or sweat, take them off, dry yourself, and put on something dry, particularly on cool days.
— Wash your hands before every meal, and also whenever you have been to the latrines.

(ii) Food and water, and Utensils.
Treat all waters from rivers and lakes. Enquire about water from boreholes and wells. Water from town is safe.
As you reach a campsite where water is not safe, it must be the duty of one patrol to light a fire immediatly and to put a large pot of water to boil. When it has boiled briskly for more than five minutes it is withdrawn from the fire and allowed to cool. On a sunny day, a wet towel over and around the pot will accelerate cooling. While one pot cools, another should be boiled, so that the supply of cooled, boiled water is adequate right through the camp.
Only that water should be used for drinking and washing. This may seem a lot of trouble. But do you prefer dysentery, bilharzia, or other such, with as marvellous names and more dreadful effects on your health?
Food and utensils:-
wet pit camp gadgets camp gadgets camp gadgets camp gadgets camp gadgets camp kitchen model campsite camp latrines camps

No fly, any or insect must be able to reach your food, or even your utensils. Also perishable food must be kept cool, otherwise, it soon goes bad.
Utensils must be stored clean ard dry. Build the necessary gadgets. Each Scout could have his own “towel” bag in which to store his plate, mug and utensils after they have been washed. Then they dont have to be dried. That bag must have a draw tape to shut it, can be well closed to keep insects away. This ‘towel bag’ method is better than mug trees and plate racks. It saves on drying cloths which soon become dirty and unhygienic anyway. And it is as important to keep flies away from the utensils as from the food. You can make such a bag easily from a towel. Fold it in two. Sew up the sides. Thread a string or tape through the opening’s seam.
(iii.) Camp site & layout.
You must take prevailing winds into account in siteing incinerator, pits, latrines, as well as tents and kitchen. For a discussion on a possile layout with your patrol, see page 30.
(iv) Latrines. See page 31.
(v) Bed making. See page 33.
To sleep well, you should wear none of the clothes you have worn during the day. And wear nothing tight.

2.c. BILHARZIA
Bulharzia is a disease affecting the bowels and/or the bladder, and other organs occasionally.
1. A minute larval parasite invades the human body when it comes into contact with infected water. It can penetrate unbroken skin within a few minutes.
2. It then moves through the blood stream, via the heart and lungs to the liver. As it travels it develops into a fully adult worm, up to three—quarter inch long.
3. Male and female worms mate, and move to the bladder or the bowels where the female lays eggs.
4. These eggs pass out of the body in urine or stool.
5. The egg contains a living embryo which must then reach fresh water where it must find a water snail within 20 hours or die.
6. After about 6 weeks, this embryo has developed into thousands of larval parasites which are released from the snail into the water.
7. To survive, this parasite must find a human host within 48 hours, Then the cycle starts again.

DANGERS
Bilharzia makes one easily tired and lacking energy. Bowels and bladder are attacked: blood often appears in stool or urine.
Some of the worms, instead of going to the bladder or bowels may go to other organs of the body: brain, lungs, liver, etc., where the body can’t get rid of them, and where therefore they do the most damage.
The bilharzia parasite is so tiny as to be invisible to the naked eye. Never drink, or wash in, natural water, even it it looks clear. If by mischance you come into contact with infected water, dry yourself quickly and thoroughly. Never pass stool or urine into or near natural water.
A person infected with bilharzia may have several hundred worms in his body, laying 300 to 500 eggs per day each. eggs passed out of the body that reach water help spread the disease further. Eggs not passed out of the body are a far greater cause for concern.
As a Scout, take all precautions to avoid being infected by Bilharzia;
— learn all you can about the disease;
— help others to learn about its dangers and to avoid this dangarous disease.

2.d. MALARIA.
The Malaria parasite is carried by the Anopheline mosquito from an infected person to another.
Malaria has now been eradicated from the Rhodesian highveld, but in lower lands it is still a danger. Many Africans carry the parasite without suffering from it, having developed an immunity to the disease. But the mosquitoes can carry the infection to those who are not immune.

If you plan to go camping in a possible Maleria infected area, some precautions can be taken:-
1. Sleep under a mosquito net, or in a tent fitted with a net at the entrance,
2. Spray your tent inside and outside and the ground around it, every day, well before you go to bed. Choose a spray which leaves a residue lethal to mosquitoes after the solvent has evaporated.
3. Use insect repellant on exposed skin: face, hands, knees, etc
4. Before, during, and after, your camp, take anti—maleria pills. A doctor will be able to advise your leader on dose, and period of time during which any particular kind must be taken to be effective.
All this really boils down to two rules:
— Don’t let them bite;
— Treat yourself as though they are biting.

3. Observation:
Either 3.a. Follow a 0.5 mile trail in half an hour; (See page 36)
Or 3.b. Kim's Game. Write 16 out of 24 articles in 3 minutes, after one minute’s observation. See page 37

4. PUBLIC SERVICES.
Either 4.a. Signalling
Or 4.b. Conservation.

4.a. SIGNALLING.

First Step. Always use the code—words for each letter of the alphabet. It makes it so much clearer than just naming the letters. For example, don’t spell S C 0 U T , "ess-sea-o-you-tea", but rather spell it this way: “sierra—charlie-oscar—uniform—tango.”
Here are the code—words for each letter of the alphabet. Some countries use different words. But these are accepted internationally, and are the ones used in Rhodesia.
woodcarft signs kims game

Alpha— Bravo — Charlie — Delta — Echo — Foxtrot — Golf — Hotel — India -Juliet — Kilo — Lima — Mike — November — Oscar — Papa — Quebec — Romeo — Sierra — Tango — Uniform — Victor — Whiskey — X-ray — Yankee — Zulu.

Practise spelling the following with codewords: Quick (Quebec — Uniform-India-Charlie — Kilo.) brown, fox, jump, gaze, lazy, dog. . . . Practice spelling your own nane, the names of your friends.
Second step. Learn either the Semaphore alphabet (page 39), or the Morse alphabet (page 40).
Only repeated practice will make you a good reader or a good sender.
Third step. Learn the main procedure sigrals.
VE Calling up
Q Wait
K Go ahead
A (semaphore) T(morse) Group received
AAA Fullstop
AR end of message
R Message received
GB Closing down

Sending station: A CALLER calls out each letter to the Sender who sends the message as directed.
Receiving Station. The READER watches the sending station and calls out the signals he receives to the WRITER who takes note or them. The Reader, or a third Scout, sends out the answers required. (K when reads to receive, Q if they want the sender to wait, A after each group has been understood R after AR, GB after GB.)
semaphore morse code

4b. CONSERVATION.
Wild life, both plants and animals, is seriously effected by fire, overgrazing, unwise forest practice, soil erosion, and water pollution.
Of these, soil erosion is the most destructive and is often a result of the others, some ideas to demonstrate:
— the effects of water erosion;
— how grass combats erosion;
— how trees can prevent erosion;
— how you can help repair the damages caused by soil etc
Your Leader will be able to tell you more about all this. And the Troop might even be able get some project going to prevent soil erosion in your area, or to repair some of the damage caused by it.

conservation
6. SCOUTING SKILLS.
6.a.(i). KNIFE.

Care — Keep the blade and handle oiled;
— Keep it very sharp;
— When not in use, keep in a sheath.
Use — Hold the handle very firmly
— work away from you.
Your test also includes whittling a tent peg or some other object.
sharpen a knife

6.a.(ii). HAND AXE
Care — Grease the head. Oil the shaft.
— Keep it very sharp.
— When not in use, keep it masked. (continued page 46)
Use. — Chop downwards, and away from your body.
— Use a heavy chopping block, and hit on the block.
— Stand on firm ground.
— Keep people well away from you.
— Look where you aim to hit.
NEVER chop on, or into, the ground.
NEVER throw your axe.
NEVER leave it lying on the ground, or lying against a log.
STOP if the head of your axe becomes loose.
STOP if you are tired.

Your test includes preparing firewood.
axemanship

6.b.Either BIVOUAC (see page 49) or HIKE TENT(see pages 50 & 51),
bivouac
6.c. Lay and light a F I R E , with natural materials.
— Begin with a core of tinder: dry leaves, dry grass, wood shavings.
— Build a small tent round it of twigs of quick—burning woods.
— Keep yourself between the wind and the fire as you light the tinder with a match.
— Begin with a small fire, feed it steadily as it catches.

6.d. COOKING.
For this test, the older Scouts will be able to guide you. Make it a simple meal, and don’t give up if your first attempt is not an unqualified success.

6.e. Items for a WEEK's CAMP.
In the following list, we think of equipment for each Scout, supposing that the patrol and troop gear are carried otherwise.
Camp dress (shorts, T-shirt)
Spare uniform
Night clothes
Blankets
Handkerchiefs
Torch
Towels
Toilet bag.
Pullover (or waterproof in summer)
Mug, plates and cutlery
Shoe cleaning kit
Mending kit
Paper & pencil
Reading matter
Stationery

PACK them into a RUCKSACK.
First fill the pockets with small personal. pessessions: cutlery, paper & pencil, reading matter.
See that the bottom of the sack itself is well filled. Camp dress, spare socks fill the corners well. Then pack firmly and slowly upwards, leaving no empty hollows. Blankets rolled, right at the top, under your ground sheet.
Keep near the top the things you might need on the journey. Get everything, even your mug, inside the sack. Use polythene bags as much as possible.
Don’t rely blindly, on what is written here. Only experience will tell you what to add to the list, or what to cross from it, and how to pack your kit.
If you have no rucksack, you must still be able to pack your things proparly and carry them comfortably to camp.

7. COMPASS and MAPS.
7.a. COMPASS points and bearings.

The 16 points (and more) and their bearings are illustrated.
compass points
7.b. COMPASS TRAIL.
Your Patrol Leader will set a course for you. Practice before. Here is en example:
1. From a marked starting point, go 20 yd. ENE.
2. Then go 10 yrds, 090°;
5. Then, 15 yd., 225°;
4. 25yd., 135'
5. 15 yd., WSW;
6. 10 yd., 315°;
7. 5 yd., 270'.
8. From here, where is your starting point how far? and in what direction?
Your answer should be: 12.5yrds, 310'.

This is not a test of estimation, so you may use anything you like to check your distances.

7.c.(i) SET A MAP
Your troop must have atleast the local 1:50 000 sheet. To set it means to place the sheet in such a position that the features represented on the map are placed in relationship to the real features on the ground; and therefore that the North on the map points towards North. Some ways of setting a map:
1. Lay the map along a road, river, railway. Check the features on the sides of those.
2. Alihn the map with prominent objects: a church, a well—marked building, the corner of a plantation, a high kopje, etc.
3. Use a compass, taking into account the necessary magnetic declination (see page 54).

7.d.(ii). MAIN FEATURES.
The symbols used are at the bottom of the map.With a little practice, you will soon understand a map and enjoy using it.
8. HOBBIES and INTERESTS.
This obviously can’t be done in a few days. Show some pride and reach a high standard in the hobby or interest you chose.

g. CAMPING
By the time you have nearly finished your Scout Standard, you should in fact have camped more than three nights.

10. SWIMMING.
I hope you will have the opportunity of learning to swim. There are so many interesting activities and games that can be organised in a swimming pool. See some ideas:-
swimming

11. HIKING.
1. Choose your route.
2. Choose a subject you will observe to study on the way. For example: Birds, (how many seen, what kind, what were they doing? ), insects, trees, wild flowers, people you meet, study a small farm: organization, possibilities; report on erosion and what is done, or could be done to prevent it and repair its damages; find a possible camp site and report on its advantages and disadvantages, permissions required, etc.; or any other worthwhile project you may think of.
3. Have route and project approved by your Scout Leader.
4. Do your hike with two other Scouts, and I hope you enjoy it thoroughly.
5. On your return, go and report verbally to your Scout Leader.

12. LAW and PROMISE.
Your Scout Leader will want to know whether you understand and accept your Scout Law and Promise better now than when you started Scouting. When you meet him for that discussion, do not hesitate to express your opinion and your difficulties. You are not on trial. He wants to know whether you think about your Promise and whether you take it seriously. He does NOT expect you to be some perfect and holy boy who never makes a mistake. He might be very doubtful if you tried to convince him of that! But do let him know that you are full of good will and that you are really trying to live up to your Scout Promise.

* * * * *

SC0UT STANDARD (Revised 1974)
All these tests may be passed by the Patrol Leader, provided he is qualified, with the exception of the Hike Test (3c) and the Promise and Law (Test 6).
Scout Lenders should ensure that their Patrol Leaders are not only qualified, but that the standard they set is neither too high nor too low.
The Badge will be awarded on the recommendation of the Petrol Leaders’ Council.

l. SELF RELIANCE
(a) Choose the itens and pack them suitably for a week—end camp.
(b) Spend a minimum of three nights, not necessarily consecutive, in a Scout Camp.
(c) Make a fire with natural materials and on it cook a simple meal consisting of meat and at least one vegetable and a hot drink.
(d) Pitch a hike tent and demonstrate how to fold and pack it neatly.
OR Lead a team to pitch a patrol tent and demonstrate how to fold and pack it properly.
OR Make a bivouac shelter using any material.

2. FIRST AID AND HEALTH
(a) Prepare a personal First Aid kit for an expedition.
(b) Show how to deal with cuts arid blisters, burns and scalds, stings amd shock.
(c) Know the importance of maintaining an open airway when a person becomes injured or ill.
Show a knowledge, preferably by demonstration on a training manikin or model, of how to apply inspired air artificial respiration (mouth to mouth or mouth to nose) to a person who has stopped breathing.
(d) Know the dangers of bilharzia, malaria and sunburn and the precautions to take to avoid them.

3. ADVENTURE
(a) Understand what is meant by compass bearings and know the main eight bearings.
(b) Show understanding of map scale and conventional signs:-
EITHER by using them to draw a simple sketch map to assist a stranger in reaching Police or telephone or doctor, etc., from your home or school or Scout Hall.
OR by describing a short route selected on a Survey map.
(c) Plan and carry out with two other companions, one of which should have hiking experience, a 10 kilometre (6 mile) hike over interesting or unfamiliar country. The route chosen to be approved by the Scouter. On his return the Scout will make a satisfactory verbal report or produce a simple log of his hike, including subjects he has chosen to study en route (e.g. sketch or obtain specific knowledge about some place or person). His companions may also take the test provided they take an equal share in the planning of the route end choose a different subject to study. The Scout must report to the Scouter as soon as possible after completing the hike.

4. SCOUTING SKILLS.
(a) Explain how to use and care for a knife and hand axe. Use a knife to whittle a tent peg, spoon or other object from a piece of wood, and use an axe to prepare wood for a fire.
(b) Demonstrate and know the use of:-
i) a square, a diagonal and a shear lashing
(ii) sailmaker’s whipping and a whipping suitable for woven cord.
(iii) Demonstrate the proper use of the knots learned in the Basic Scout Standard test and at least three of the following:- rolling hitch, timber hitch, fisherman’s knot and fireman’s chair knot.

Japanese square lashing sailmakers whipping Bowline on a bight

5. CONERVATION and INTERESTS
(a) EITHER Take part with your Patrol or Troop or with another Scout in a project, approved by your Scouter, which helps to conserve or protect from pollution any of the following:- Water, Air, Soil, wild life (plants, trees, aninals).
OR Select atleast two of the undermentioned subjects and report (preferably with notes or apparatus or models used) on conservational activities or experiments you have carried out to demonstrate their importance in present day living:- Clean Water, Pure Air, No Litter, Free wild Life, Precious Soil.
(b) Show some proficiency or skill in a hobby or interest, for example: — cycling, weather lore, nature study, aircraft recognition, basket work, drawing, literature, horse riding, stars, radio construction, methods of communication, joinery. These are examples only and other interests or pursuits may qualify.

6. LAW AND PROMISE
Show, through discussion with your Scout Leader, that your understanding of the Law end Promise is progressing according to your age.

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Acknowledgements:-John Remi
Brother John Wilcott