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About some of the important Ragas

Mayamalavagowla

Mela ragam No: 15 (Chakram 3 - Agni - Ko)
(Suddha Rishabham, Antara Gandharam, Suddha Madhyamam, Suddha Dhaivatham, Kakali Nishadham) : (sa ra gu ma dha nu)

The phrase "Maya" is prefixed to get the Melam Number 15, using the KataPayAdi sankhya counting. Its original name is Malavagowla.

This auspicious Ragam evokes Shantha rasam and pathos, and creates a soothing effect. Suitable to sing at all times, particularly, the first yamam (dawn). A very popular Ragam suitable for the commencing segment of a concert. The Bhairav of Hindusthani Music is equivalent to Mayamalavagowla in carnatic system.

Lakshanam - Venkatamakhin

Prno Malavagowlalakhyah
sa graho geeyate sada

Raganga ragam, shadja gramam. Ga and Ni are Jeeva svarams.

Since the days of Bharata and Matanga, it is the preferred ragam for beginners musical lessons, since Swaras with dual swarasthanam are absent and between two notes of each pairs, there is only a semitone difference. A Melam with symmetrical tetra chords, separated by an interval of a major tone.

A murchchana karaka melam. suitable for Graha Bedham. The Ri murchchana results in Rasikapriya (Melam 72), while the Ma murchchan a results in Simmendramadhyamam. (Melam 57) 

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Mayamalavagowla has a large number of Janya ragas

Popular Janya Ragas

  • Ardradesi
  • Bindumalini
  • Bowli
  • ChAyAgowLa
  • Gowla
  • Gowlipanthu
  • Gujjari
  • Gundakriya
  • Jaganmohini
  • KannadaBangaLa
  • Lalitha *
  • Lalithapanchama
  • Malahari
  • Mangalakaishiki
  • Mechabowli
  • Megharanji
  • Nathanamakriya
  • Padi
  • Paraju
  • Purnapanchamam
  • PUrvi
  • Revagupti
  • Salanganatta
  • Saveri
  • Sindhuramakriya
  • Vasantha *

Other Janya Ragas

  • Desyagowla
  • Desyarevagupti
  • Ghanasindhu
  • Gowlarevagupti
  • Gowri
  • Gummakambhoji
  • Lalithagowri
  • Lalithakriya
  • Margadesikam
  • Maruva
  • Maruvakannada
  • Mitrakirani
  • Ramkali
  • Ramakriya
  • Shuddhakriya
  • Suddhamalahari
  • Vasanthapriya
  • Vinodhini

* Some authors place Vasantha and Lalitha as Janyams of Melam 17, Suryakantham. 

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Subbarama Dikshitar observes that in the Tiruttani Guruguha composition Srinadada Guruguho Jayati (in first Vibhakti), Muthuswami Dikshitar has incorporated Sarali, Jhanta, svara Varisai's in Trikalam in the Pallavi lines, and the Alankarams in Anupallavi. Have a close look at the Dhatu. This particular Krithi was the very first composition of Muthuswami Dikshitar, after he received blessings from Chidambara Yogi in Varanasi, and visited the Subrahmanya temple at Tiruttani. His Mudra "Guruguha" is in respect of the Lord Muruga in this shrine. Diskhitar's famous "Gowla"antha krithis (eight) Krithis al ending in some Gowla) on Goddess Nilothpalamba employs Mayamalavagowla for one of the Krithis.

Compositions in Mayamalavagowla

Lakshya gItam
RavikOti TEja guNagana, Matyam (Venkatamakhin)

Thaanam Venkatamakhin
Varnam
Sarasijanabha, Adi (
Swathi Thirunal)
Nathane ParanE, Adi (M. S. Subrahmanya Iyer)
UlagaLantha, Adi (V. S. Gomatisankara iyer)
Tana Varnam
SarasAnkI, Adi (Raghavendrachar)

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Krithis

Merusamana, Madhyadi (Tyagaraja)
TulasI dala, Rupakam (Tyagaraja)
Vidulaku, Adi (Tyagaraja)
RakshimpavE, Jhampa (Tyagaraja)
DevI Sri Thulasamma, Adi (Tyagaraja)
Sri NAdAdi GuruguhO, Adi (Muthuswami Dikshitar)
NIlOthpalAmbikAyAh, Triputa (Muthuswami Dikshitar)
MAyAtIta, Rupakam (Tanjavur Ponnayya)
NIlAyathAkshi, Triputa (Syama Sastri)
Deva Deva kalayAmi, Rupakam (
Swathi Thirunal)
Ksheera Saagara, Dhruvam (Jayachamaraja Wodaiyar)
AdikkondAr, Adi (Muthu Tandavar)
manamE Kavalai, Rupakam (Muthu Kavirayar)
Devadi Deva , Adi (Mysore sadasiva Rao)
Sharma Prada, Rupakam (Thulaseevanam)
NAn En SeyvEn, Adi (Kotiswara Iyer)
KaLAngamillA, Adi (T. Lakshmanan Pilai)
namani VamsagA, Rupakam (Muthiah Bhagavathar)
Aditya Devadidevam, Adi (Muthiah Bhagavathar)
Taraka nama, Adi (Muthiah Bhagavathar)
Mahimai ARiya, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)
Bhuvaneswari Pugazh, Desadi (Papanasam Sivan)
IllAthathai, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)
MAyam EdO, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)
Polla Puli, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)
akalakalA vANi, Adi (Periyasami Thooran)
Ulagaththukku ArasiyAm, Adi (Nilakanthan Sivan)
Ninnu Nammiyannu, Triputa (Bhadrachala Ramadas)
Jaya jaya Swamin (Tarangam), Adi (Narayana Tirtha)
Ninnu Nammina, Adi (Vina Krishnamachariar)
Ethanai ThAn, Chapu (Vina Krishnamachariar)
ChintayEham, Rupakam (Mysore Vasudevachariar)
Kalinaruluku NI, Adi (Mysore Vasudevachariar)
NandA oru SEdi, Adi (Gopalakrishna Bharathy)
Sivaloka Nathanai, Adi (Gopalakrishna Bharathy)
Hariya Bittere, Adi (Purandaradasa)
Namo Namo, Adi (Purandaradasa)
InkE Nantaga, Adi (Annamacharya)
NIvu SarvaguNa, Adi (Annamacharya)
MAthE Nin kana, Adi (Annamacharya)
Narayana NI nAma, Adi (Annamacharya)
Inderigu , Adi (Annamacharya)

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Modern Compositions

ShyAmaLambikE, Adi (M. Balamuralikrishna)
Pannaga SayanA, Adi (D. Pattammal)
SHambho Mahadeva, Rupakam (Cuddalore Subramanyam)
AmbA Yuvathi, Adi (Ashok Madhav)
Manthra Svaroopa, Rupakam (Bangalore Mukund)
Mayavati, Adi (Bangalore Mukund)

Ragamalikas

Very few Ragamalikas feature Mayamalavagowla as a component.

Two examples.
"GAnaloLa NI VelanA" (Ragamalika) (M. Balamuralikrsihna) features Mayamalavagowla as a component .

The mammoth 72 Melaraga malika of Maha Vaidyantha Iyer has the 15th line in Charanam: in Mayamalavagowla:
"Jita MAyAmaALavagowlanthargatah MahesAh TvAm Vindanthi" 

Sri P. Narayanaswami states that he has not heard any Tillana or any Ragam Tanam Pallavi in Mayamalavagowla.

There are several Ragams, whose name end is "Gowla" While Gowla, and Chayagowla are derived from (Janyams) of Mayamalavagowla, others have no relationship with this Ragam. Some of these are: Kedaragowla, Purva Gowla, (Nari)Ritagowla, Kannadagowla, and Narayanagowla.

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Acknowledgement:
www.carnatic-music.com
P. Narayanaswami

 


 Shankarabharanam

Mela ragam (Agni Ko) No: 29  (Chakram 5 - Bhana - Ma)

This is a ragam with tremendous scope for elaboration, so is usually featured in the Ragam Tanam Pallavi segment of a concert. It is the Suddha Madhyama counterpart of MeLam 65 - (Mecha) Kalyani. 

A ragam with a symmetrical pair of tetra chords, each being separated by the interval of a major tone, ie. the purvanga (sa ri ga ma) and uttaranga (pa dha ni sa) are uniform and match perfectly. This is a reason for its popularity, since this characteristic makes it possible to give fluent and enjoyable expression to the Ragam both in vocal and in instrumental music.

It is a raga suitable for singing in the evening and a Sarva Svara Ranjaka Ragam - a ragam that is capable of evoking different rasas like Sringara, Vira, etc.

Sankarabharanam literally means - the ornament of Lord Siva - hence it is associated with Siva, and the seven swaras featured points to seven ornaments of Lord Siva as follows:

Sa Ri Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni

Sarpa

Rudraksha

Ganga

Mrga

Pushpa

Dhamaru

Nisakara
 (Moon)

This Ragam finds mention in Sangita Ranthnakaram, Sangita Makarandam and Sangita Samayasara. Sarngadeva (13th century), in Sangita Rathnakaram, refers to this Ragam as Ranjani and states that this raga was in vogue much earlier than his period.

This majestic Ragam Sankarabharanam is considered the KING of all ragas in Carnatic Music. This Ragam is also found in various Music systems of the World. Its equivalent in Hindustani is the Bilaval Thata (Velavali). In Western music, this is equivalent to the Harmonic Diatonic scale -- C Major. The western notes Doh, Re, Mi, Fa, So, La, Te is set to this Ragam. Lydic (Greek), Ionian (Eccleasitic), and the Meia (Arabic) systems are approximate to Sankarabharanam. In Tamil music Dhevaram, this scale is prevalent as Pazham Panchuram.

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Janya ragams: Sankarabharanam claims to have a large number of Janya ragams. 
The following are very popular Janyams.

  • Arabhi

  • Athana

  • Bangala

  • Begada

  • Behag

  • Bilahari

  • Durbar

  • Durvanki

  • Devagandhari

  • Garudadhwani

  • Gaudamalhar

  • Hamsadhwani

  • Hamsavinodhini

  • Janaranjani

  • Kadanakuthoohalam

  • Kaanada

  • Kannada

  • Kedaram

  • Kuranji

  • Maahuri

  • Navaroj

  • Nagadhwani

  • Narayani

  • Narayanadesakshi

  • Nilambari

  • Phalamanjari

  • Purnachandrika

  • Purvagowla

  • Sahana

  • Sama

  • Saraswatimanohari

  • Sindumandari

  • Suddha Vasantham

  • Suddha Saveri

  • Vasantha

 

This raga falls under Melam 29. This raga's name is Dheera shankarabharanam, the name 'Dhira'' incorporated to obtain the Melam 29 according to KadtapayAdi Gana counting.

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Definition (Venkatamakhin)

SankarAbharaNam pUrNam, SAyam GEyam Cha Sagraham 

Raganga Ragam, Sampurnam

Bana Chakram, MA (5th) Ri Gu Ma Pa Dhi Nu

Arohanam SA RI GA MA PA DHA NI 

Avarohanam: SA NI DHA PA MA GA RI

(Shadja, Chatusruti Rishabha, Antara Gandhara, Suddha Madhyma, Panchama, Chatusruti Dhaivata, Kakali Nishada)

Janta swara and Dhatu swara Prayogas add to the beauty of the ragam. Important Jiva svaras: GA, Ma, Pa, Ni. Ri, Ga, Ma, Ni are rendered as Kampita svaras Ga, Ma, Ni, sa are Nyasa svaras Ma and Pa are amsa svaras Ri, Dha are used as dirgha svaras. Compositions begin in Sa, Ga, Ma, or Pa. 

A sarva svara Murchchana Karaka meLam, which, by the process of Model shift of tonic (Graha Bhedam) produces Kharaharapriya (Ri Murchchana), Todi (Ga Murchchana), Kalyani (Ma murchchana), Harikambhoji (Pa murchchana), and Natabhairavi (Dha murchchana). 

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Some anecdotes related to Sankarabharanam

Tanjavur Narasayya, a court musician in Tanjavur court (18th century) was so proficient in rendering this Ragam, that he became known as Sankarabharanam Narasayya. 

The majestic composition Akshaya Lingha Vibho by Muthuswami Dikshitar has the following story behind it: At Kivakur (Keezh Velur), when Dikshitar sang this piece, the door of the Garbha Graham suddenly opened wide for him to have the holy darshan. 

In the western film 'Sound of Music', the song 'Doe a deer' sung by Julie Andrews resembles reasonably with Sankarabharanam (except with a slight touch of Pratimadhyamam in the end).

The Telugu film 'Sankarabharanam' has been very popular, and created an awareness on Classical music to the common man. The song 'Omkara nadanu sandhana' sung by SP Balasubramanian is a very popular one.

Muthuswami Diskhitar has to his credit around 40 songs in Western melody, known as Nottu Swara sahityam, all in Sankarabharanam, in various Talams.

Nottu Swara Sahitayams
By Muthuswami Dikshitar

  1. Chinthaya Anjaneyam Tisra Ekam

  2. Chinthayeham Chathurasra Ekam

  3. Dasarathe Tisra Ekam

  4. Deenabandho Tisra Ekam

  5. Guruguha Sarasija Chathurasra Ekam

  6. Guruguhapada Adi

  7. Gurumurthe Rupakam

  8. He Maye Tisra Ekam

  9. Jagadeesa Chathurasra Ekam

  10. Kamalasana Chathurasra Ekam

  11. Kancheesa Tisra Ekam

  12. Maye Chithkale Tisra Ekam

  13. Muchukundavara Tisra Ekam

  14. Pahi Durge Chathurasra Ekam

  15. Pahimam Tisra Ekam

  16. Pankajamukha Tisra Ekam

  17. Paradevatha Tisram

  18. Paradevathe Rupakam

  19. Parvatheepathe Chathurasra Ekam

  20. Peethavarnam Tisra Ekam

  1. Rajeevalochanam Tisra Ekam

  2. Ramachandram Chathurasra Ekam

  3. Rama Janardhana Tisra Ekam

  4. Sadasiva Chathurasra Ekam

  5. Sakalasuravinutha Chathurasra Ekam

  6. Sakthisahitha Tisra Ekam

  7. Samaganapriye Chathurasra Ekam

  8. Sankaravara Rupakam

  9. Santhanasowbhaga Tisra Ekam

  10. Santhatham Tisra Ekam

  11. Santhatham Tisra Ekam

  12. Shakthisahitha Tisram

  13. Somaskandam Tisra Ekam

  14. Sowrividhi 

  15. Sri Sankara Tisram

  16. Syamale Meenakshi Chathurasra Ekam

  17. Vagdevi Chathurasra Ekam

  18. Vande Minakshi Chathurasra Ekam

  19. Varadaraja Pahi Tisra Ekam

  20. Varasivapalam Chathurasra Ekam

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