Copyright © 2000, 2001 by Richard I. Schwartz
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Henry G. Lehnert (b Freiberg, Saxony 3 Feb 1838; d Philadelphia 14 Oct 1916) and his brother, Carl (b Freiberg c1830; d Boston 30 Nov 1897) came to America together in c1860. They first received employment from either ELBRIDGE G. WRIGHT or GRAVES & CO., but soon worked for George Freemantle. After Freemantle declared bankruptcy in 1865, Henry and Carl Lehnert (along with Freemantle) formed "Lehnert & Co." In 1866, Carl left the company to establish a partnership with B. F. Richardson in Boston known as "Richardson & Lehnert." In 1861, Richardson had produced the "Bayley model cornet" using Allen narrow-windway valves. Richardson was active as a manufacturer of instruments in Boston until after 1900 (Lloyd Farrar, "Lehnert, Henry G.," in The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments). In the later part of his career he specialized in the manufacturer of percussion instruments
After Carl left the company, Henry moved to Philadelphia to produce his line of "American Standard" instruments. The company invented a tapered leadpipe for the cornet and patented the concept for brass instruments in 1866 (US #52580). Of all the manufacturers in Philadelphia, Lehnert was the only one to work frequently with German silver, and he and ALLEN were the only makers to use narrow rotary valves and flattened [or oval] ports allowing quicker key strokes (Lloyd Farrar, "Lehnert, Henry," in The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments). See ALLEN above for more information about these valves.
It is possible that Philip Frederick (1845-1913) worked under Lehnert. Frederick manufactured brass instruments in Philadelphia from 1880 to c1914, and built instruments for "Seltman," "Le Forestier," "Vivien," "Root & Sons," and "Köhler & Chase." After 1914, Frederick was primarily a dealer and repairer of instruments.
Ferdinand Coeuille (c1835-1916) applied some of Lehnert’s ideas to a "convertible cornet/bugle" and also manufactured a "Telescope Cornet." See "HENRY (JOHN) DISTIN" above for information about Coeuille.
Lehnert was represented in Boston in 1865, Paris in 1878, Baltimore in 1878, and at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876 (Waterhouse 1993, 231).
References for this entry were The New Langwill Index (Waterhouse 1993) and Lloyd Farrar, "Lehnert, Henry," in The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments.
(New York 1852-1884; Elkhart 1910-p1950)
The best manner in which to discuss the history of this important company is first to chronologically list the various names of the firm, then discuss them in a narrative as follows: (Many dates overlap, as appears in Waterhouse 1993, 254)
1) 1852-c1856 G. Martin, New York
2) 1867-1870 Martin & Slater
3) 1871-1874 Slater & Martin
4) 1872-1880 Martin, Pollmann & Co. (31 Courtlandt between
the years of 1872 and 1879)
5) 1879-1884 Martin Brothers
6) 1884-1910 an interim period
7) 1910-p1950 Martin Band Instrument Company
1) Robert Godfrey (Gottfried) Martin (b Dresden c1835; d c1900) began the firm in 1852 and had a series of partnerships which resulted in the many name changes listed above.
4) Then he teamed up with his brother John Henry Martin (b Dresden 24 Feb 1835; d Elkhart 25 Nov 1910) and Henry August Pollmann (b ?Saxony ; d ?New York c1905). Apparently Pollmann was new to the trade, but prior to this partnership, John Henry Martin had worked in New York in 1855, in Chicago in 1865, and for CONN in 1876. In 1880, Pollmann left to establish his own company, "August Pollmann," which lasted until 1905. After seeing the building of Martin’s factory on Courtlandt Street, Henry DISTIN came to the United States in 1876 "to help plan and superintend Martin’s ‘monster musical instrument factory’" (Farrar ).
2) & 3) His first partner was M. SLATER (b England Nov 1826; d New York 8 Nov 1899) with whom he worked from 1867 to 1874.
5) Robert and John Henry Martin established this company without Pollmann. See below for the many cornet models offered by the company in 1879.
6) Robert worked for the Michigan Musical Manufacturing Company between 1885 and 1887. The company became the Detroit Cornet Company in 1886.
7) Started with his brothers, this company merged with the Elkhart Musical Instrument Company in 1917. In 1930, John Henry became the owner of the Harry Pedler Co., upon the retirement of its original owner, Harry Walter Pedler (b England 1872; d Elkhart 1950).
References for the above were The New Langwill Index (Waterhouse 1993), Antique Brass Wind Instruments (Adams 1998), and Lloyd P. Farrar quoted in The New Langwill Index (Waterhouse 1993, 254). Other references are listed throughout the entry.
There were over 70 different offerings for cornets the Martin Brother’s Catalogue of 1879: They occurred in all shapes and sizes. With such an incredible offering of instruments, the catalogue may well represent the majority of the cornet varieties available to the public at the time. Below appears only a summary of the cornets listed in Antique Brass Wind Instruments (Adams 1998, 108-124): (prices below are average)
Basic models were offered in the following configurations for Bb, Eb, and C ([10"] or 12"):1) Over-the-shoulder top action rotary valves
2) Bell-up top action rotary valves
3) Bell forward side action rotary valves
4) Helicon shape side action rotary valves
5) Helicon shape top action rotary valves
Brass with German silver ($27.10)
German silver ($35.32)
The following models were also offered:
1) Eb Solo Leader Model (10") in brass w/German silver trim or all in German silver
2) Eb or Bb Pocket Model (8" or 10") in brass
3) Bb Orchestra Models (8", 10", or 12") in brass, brass w/German silver w/brass bell or all in German silver
4) Eb Artist Model (10" or 12") in German silver or German silver w/brass bell
5) Eb Miniature Models (8") in German silver or German silver w/brass bell
6) Bb Miniature Orchestra Model (10") in German silver or German silver w/brass bell
Generally, prices average from $26.00 for a brass 10" Eb Solo Leader Model to $87.00 for a Bb Miniature Orchestra Model in German silver
Three cornopeans were also offered:
One was brass and had shanks, another was brass with crooks down to F, and a third was nickel plated brass with crooks down to F ($14.33)
Périnet Models included the following:
1) Solo Model (Bb or Eb) with water key in brass or Satin finish silver plate
2) Basic Model (Bb or Eb) with water key in brass or Satin finish silver plate
3) Orchestra Model (Bb or Eb) with water key Brass, Satin finish silver plate, or Burnished silver with gilt inside of bell
Generally, average prices range from $24.75 for Solo Model (Bb or Eb) in brass to $74.00 for Orchestra Model (Bb or Eb) in Burnished silver with gilt inside of bell.
There were some very expensive instruments in this catalogue. Five instruments were priced over $100.00. The most expensive of the group was the Orchestra Model Périnet valve Bb cornet with water key, burnished silver and gold plating, ornately engraved, gilt in bell, and case for $150.00 [!]
Valve types in the 1879 catalogue:
74% of the cornets were Rotary valve cornets
22% of the cornets were Périnet valve cornets
4% of the cornets were Cornopeans [Stölzel valve]
These percentages correspond with the offerings of many manufacturers, as the rotary valve was the most commonly manufactured of the valve types for most American cornets in the middle to late nineteenth century.
The five Stages of Pace instrument manufacturers: (Main resource for entry: Waterhouse 1993, 289-290. Other references listed throughout)
Stage 1) Dublin 1798-1815, Matthew Pace (1814-1815: Matthew Pace & Sons)
Stage 2) London 1819-1827 Charles and Frederick Pace, Matthew’s sons
Stage 3) Bristol 1827-1830, Frederick Pace
Stage 4) London 1830-1883 Charles Pace
Stage 5) London 1893-p1895 George Henry Pace, grandson of Matthew
Stage 1) It is here that the Pace family began their manufacturing dynasty. Originally known as "Clarke & Pace," the company began by making wind instruments and keyed bugles. It is probable that Matthew Pace bought Joseph Haliday’s 5-keyed bugle patent of 1810 (GB #3334) for £50. With the addition of a sixth key in 1811, this "improved" instrument became known as the "Royal Kent Bugle." Joseph Haliday (1774-1857) was a Yorkshire-born military bandmaster serving in Dublin at the time of the patent application. He later regretted having sold the patent to Pace, since he never made any money from his concept, and was also quite upset with the Dublin dealer, Logier, who made a fortune from selling the "Royal Kent Bugle". It may not have been Haliday, but Logier who gave the instrument its name (Waterhouse 1993, 157). The name may also have upset Haliday, who, even though born in England, strongly supported Irish nationalistic views.
Company markings on Kent bugles include:
Royal Patent Kent Bugle (number) Made by Mathw Pace & Sons 23 Henry Street Dublin, Halliday [sic] Inventor
Stage 2) The company at this point is famous for its manufacture of the "Royal Kent Bugle" and other "Martial Musical Instruments" (Waterhouse 1993, 289).
Company markings on keyed bugles include: (Stewart 1980, 18)
C & F PACE
No 2 CROWN ST
Stage 3) The company here is still producing the "Royal Kent Bugle." A bassoon in the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments at Oxford also indicates the production of woodwind instruments. The company was active for many years and at many locations, as seen below.
Company markings on brass instruments include: (Waterhouse 1993, 289)
Stage 4) It is in this stage that the company becomes heavily involved with the cornopean. In fact, the company submitted cornopeans, a trumpet and valved horns in the London Exhibition of 1851 and patented a cornopean in 1847 (GB #939). Their cornopeans are in many collections including the famous example (Instrument No. 35107) in the Horniman Museum, London. The company was also involved in improvements to the slide and valved trumpet and even manufactured instruments for J. Gifford of Cambridge, England. Charles Pace produced the "finger spring valve" which was later improved by G. R. Samson in 1862 (Niall O’Loughlin, "Pace," in The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments).
Company markings on cornopeans include:
IMPROVED (Myers and Parks 1994, 17-18)
& MADE BY
49 KING ST.
Stage 5) This company was active for only a very few years.
(Boston 1841-c1844; Woonsocket c1844-1857)
The name of Thomas Dudley Paine (b Foster, RI 9 Oct 1812; d Woonsocket, RI 1 June 1895) appears in the Boston City Directory as early as 1841 as a musical instrument maker. He entered at least one trumpet with keys in the Third Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association Exhibition in 1841, but was too late to have it evaluated. Paine had returned at least once to Woonsocket, since he played first violin at a Cotillion Party on October 13, 1842.
His main place of business after 1844, however, was at a shop next to his father’s house in Woonsocket, Rhode Island. The Providence Gazette stated that the Providence Brigade Band’s instruments were all manufactured by "D. Paine & Co." and were unequaled by any American manufacturer in terms of the beauty and sweetness of their tone (Eliason 1981, 6). Thomas Paine, John (his father), and Emory (his brother) worked together, supplying brass instruments of all sizes to many amateur bands (Robert E. Eliason, "Paine, Thomas D(udley)," in The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments).
In 1848, Thomas Paine invented and patented the first rotary valve system that had three passages through the middle of the rotor (US #5919). The size of the entire rotor was therefore larger, but the movement of the rotor was reduced by 50%! He further improved the mechanism by bending the ends of the rotor toward the air flow, thus reducing the size of the rotor (Eliason 1981, 7). String linkage was first tried by Paine. The mechanism had a string wrapped around the rotor collar only once, which enabled the lever to move in a circular fashion. Very quiet and efficient, these valves became the model after which all American-made rotary valves were made.
No mention was made of a string linkage in the patent, even he was the first to successfully apply its usage on the rotary valve! Perhaps Dodworth made the suggestion to Paine at a later date. It is more possible that he thought of it himself. The author of this document feels that the most likely explanation is that Thomas felt "enough was enough" with the innovations in the patent application and that the string linkage could be added after the patent was approved. No major structural change would be made to inside of the mechanism as a result and the integrity of the patent would still be maintained. This is certainly the case, since no mention was made of a string linkage in a 15 June 1850 article entitled "Brass Bands" by Allen Dodworth in Message Bird (Eliason 1981, 9). The article sings the praises of the Paine instruments, even talks about their improved valves, but does not give any specifics about the valve mechanism.
His instruments received great publicity from the Dodworth Band and the American Brass Band of Providence, Rhode Island.
In 1852, he exhibited a dozen rotary valve cornets at the Twenty-second Exhibition of American Manufacturers at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. They received the top prize of First Premium.
String linkage was eventually added by practically every other brass instrument maker using rotary valves. Since Paine’s string linkage idea was not patented, unfortunately for him, his instruments were no longer unique and his company gradually dissolved.
In 1857, John sold his part of the business to Thomas and retired. Thomas went back to watch making and began making and repairing violins. Emory continued to teach and perform (Eliason 1981, 13).
References for the above were The New Langwill Index (Waterhouse 1993); Early American Brass Makers (Eliason 1981); and Robert E. Eliason, "Paine, Thomas D(udley)," in The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments.
J. W. Pepper
The author of this document requests serial numbers, markings, and (if possible) dates of manufacture for J.W. Pepper instruments!
Please contact the author, Richard Schwartz, at Irisrick@aol.com if you have any such information. Thank you in advance.
The firm was first established in 1876 by James Welsh Pepper (b Philadelphia 1858; d Philadelphia 28 July 1919) as a music publisher, but in 1882, HENRY (JOHN) DISTIN and his son, William Henry DISTIN, was hired by J. W. Pepper to supervise the building of a factory next to their existing facility. In the same year, the company was advertising brass instruments for sale. New machinery was designed under DISTIN’s supervision and a staff of skilled European workmen were hired including Alexandre Le Forestier (foreman from 1888-95) and Walter Barnes (foreman as well).
William Hillyard also worked for the company. He had worked for John McNeill in Dublin, J. HIGHAM in Manchester (beginning in 1852), and Henry DISTIN in London. Between 1862 and 1894 he owned his own company in London. He then sold the company to S. A. Chappell of London in 1894 and became a manager for J. W. Pepper. Between 1896 and 1897 he formed the company known as "Hillyard & Barnes" in Philadelphia. In 1897, Pepper sued the company for using the Hillyard name, a name appearing on his own instruments. "Hillyard & Barnes" closed shortly afterward.
J. W. Pepper continued to manufacture brass instruments until 1910, when J. W. Pepper & Son was mainly involved in imported brass instruments. The company had a total production of over 60,000 brass instruments (Lloyd P. Farrar, "Pepper, J(ames) W(elsh)," in The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments).
C. G. CONN objected to the importation practice of J. W. Pepper and took the firm to court in the late nineteenth century. C. G. CONN may have been concerned since J. W. Pepper began to take a large slice of the market, as the company was not only eventually producing about 1,000 brass instruments a year, but also importing many brass and woodwind instruments.
It is interesting to note that Pepper claims to have produced the first "Sousaphone." This true "rain catcher" was invented in c1892 in collaboration with Sousa. It was a bell-up instrument as opposed to C.G. CONN's later bell-forward model. The name "Sousaphone" appears in a J. W. Pepper catalog [dated 1904?] and may predate other such bass instruments. The catalog even states that they are the "original makers" [sic] of such instruments, making them for Herman Conrad of the Sousa Band. The bell-forward C.G. CONN "Sousaphones," invented by CONN in 1908, were apparently considered imitations of the originals by J. W. Pepper (Adams 1998, 125).
In the 1890’s, cornetists could choose from ninety-eight models of Pepper instruments, ranging from eight to sixty-five dollars (Hazen and Hazen 1987, 137). Model names of J. W. Pepper instruments included "American Climax," "American Favorite," "Excelsior," "Imperial," "Premier," "Special," "Specialty," "Surprise," "Standard," and "Twentieth Century." Upon the establishment of "J. W. Pepper & Son," manufacturing of instruments stopped and the company was only an importer. The firm was represented at the Columbian Exhibition of 1893 in Chicago (Waterhouse 1993, 298).
References for the above were The New Langwill Index (Waterhouse 1993), Loyd P. Farrar, "Pepper, J(ames) W(elsh)," in The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, Antique Brass Wind Instruments (Adams 1998), and The Music Men (Hazen and Hazen 1987). Other references are listed throughout the entry.
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