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95 Teses


de Martinho Lutero


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  Disputatio pro Declaratione Virtutis Indulgentiarum.
aliter dictum 95 Theses
by Martin Luther
The 95 Theses
by Martin Luther
  Amore et studio elucidande veritatis hec subscripta disputabuntur Wittenberge, Presidente R. P. Martino Lutther, Artium et S. Theologie Magistro eiusdemque ibidem lectore Ordinario. Quare petit, ut qui non possunt verbis presentes nobiscum disceptare agant id literis absentes. In nomine domini nostri Hiesu Christi. Amen.  
1 Dominus et magister noster Iesus Christus dicendo `Penitentiam agite &c.' omnem vitam fidelium penitentiam esse voluit. When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, "Repent" (Mt 4:17), he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.
2 Quod verbum de penitentia sacramentali (id est confessionis et satisfactionis, que sacerdotum ministerio celebratur) non potest intelligi. This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.
3 Non tamen solam intendit interiorem, immo interior nulla est, nisi foris operetur varias carnis mortificationes. Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is worthless unless it produces various outward mortification of the flesh.
4
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Manet itaque pena, donec manet odium sui (id est penitentia vera intus), scilicet usque ad introitum regni celorum. The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of self (that is, true inner repentance), namely till our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.
5 Papa non vult nec potest ullas penas remittere preter eas, quas arbitrio vel suo vel canonum imposuit. The pope neither desires nor is able to remit any penalties except those imposed by his own authority or that of the canons.
6 Papa non potest remittere ullam culpam nisi declarando, et approbando remissam a deo Aut certe remittendo casus reservatos sibi, quibus contemptis culpa prorsus remaneret. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring and showing that it has been remitted by God; or, to be sure, by remitting guilt in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in these cases were disregarded, the guilt would certainly remain unforgiven.
7
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Nulli prorus remittit deus culpam, quin simul eum subiiciat humiliatum in omnibus sacerdoti suo vicario. God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things and makes him submissive to the vicar, the priest.
8 Canones penitentiales solum viventibus sunt impositi nihilque morituris secundum eosdem debet imponi. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to the canons themselves, nothing should be imposed on the dying.
9 Inde bene nobis facit spiritus sanctus in papa excipiendo in suis decretis semper articulum mortis et necessitatis. Therefore the Holy Spirit through the pope is kind to us insofar as the pope in his decrees always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.
10
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Indocte et male faciunt sacerdotes ii, qui morituris penitentias canonicas in purgatorium reservant. Those priests act ignorantly and wickedly who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penalties for purgatory.
11 Zizania illa de mutanda pena Canonica in penam purgatorii videntur certe dormientibus episcopis seminata. Those tares of changing the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory were evidently sown while the bishops slept (Mt 13:25).
12 Olim pene canonice non post, sed ante absolutionem imponebantur tanquam tentamenta vere contritionis. In former times canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.
13
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Morituri per mortem omnia solvunt et legibus canonum mortui iam sunt, habentes iure earum relaxationem. The dying are freed by death from all penalties, are already dead as far as the canon laws are concerned, and have a right to be released from them.
14 Imperfecta sanitas seu charitas morituri necessario secum fert magnum timorem, tantoque maiorem, quanto minor fuerit ipsa. Imperfect piety or love on the part of the dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater the fear.
15 Hic timor et horror satis est se solo (ut alia taceam) facere penam purgatorii, cum sit proximus desperationis horrori. This fear or horror is sufficient in itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.
16
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Videntur infernus, purgaturium, celum differre, sicut desperatio, prope desperatio, securitas differunt. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ the same as despair, fear, and assurance of salvation.
17 Necessarium videtur animabus in purgatorio sicut minni horrorem ita augeri charitatem. It seems as though for the souls in purgatory fear should necessarily decrease and love increase.
18 Nec probatum videtur ullis aut rationibus aut scripturis, quod sint extra statum meriti seu augende charitatis. Furthermore, it does not seem proved, either by reason or by Scripture, that souls in purgatory are outside the state of merit, that is, unable to grow in love.
19
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Nec hoc probatum esse videtur, quod sint de sua beatitudine certe et secure, saltem omnes, licet nos certissimi simus. Nor does it seem proved that souls in purgatory, at least not all of them, are certain and assured of their own salvation, even if we ourselves may be entirely certain of it.
20 Igitur papa per remissionem plenariam omnium penarum non simpliciter omnium intelligit, sed a seipso tantummodo impositarum. Therefore the pope, when he uses the words "plenary remission of all penalties," does not actually mean "all penalties," but only those imposed by himself.
21 Errant itaque indulgentiarum predicatores ii, qui dicunt per pape indulgentias hominem ab omni pena solvi et salvari. Thus those indulgence preachers are in error who say that a man is absolved from every penalty and saved by papal indulgences.
22
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Quin nullam remittit animabus in purgatorio, quam in hac vita debuissent secundum Canones solvere. As a matter of fact, the pope remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to canon law, they should have paid in this life.
23 Si remissio ulla omnium omnino penarum potest alicui dari, certum est eam non nisi perfectissimis, i.e. paucissimis, dari. If remission of all penalties whatsoever could be granted to anyone at all, certainly it would be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few.
24 Falli ob id necesse est maiorem partem populi per indifferentem illam et magnificam pene solute promissionem. For this reason most people are necessarily deceived by that indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalty.
25
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Qualem potestatem habet papa in purgatorium generaliter, talem habet quilibet Episcopus et Curatus in sua diocesi et parochia specialiter. That power which the pope has in general over purgatory corresponds to the power which any bishop or curate has in a particular way in his own diocese and parish.
26 Optime facit papa, quod non potestate clavis (quam nullam habet) sed per modum suffragii dat animabus remissionem. The pope does very well when he grants remission to souls in purgatory, not by the power of the keys, which he does not have, but by way of intercession for them.
27 Hominem predicant, qui statim ut iactus nummus in cistam tinnierit evolare dicunt animam. They preach only human doctrines who say that as soon as the money clinks into the money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory.
28
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Certum est, nummo in cistam tinniente augeri questum et avariciam posse: suffragium autem ecclesie est in arbitrio dei solius. It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed and avarice can be increased; but when the church intercedes, the result is in the hands of God alone.
29 Quis scit, si omnes anime in purgatorio velint redimi, sicut de s. Severino et Paschali factum narratur. Who knows whether all souls in purgatory wish to be redeemed, since we have exceptions in St. Severinus and St. Paschal, as related in a legend.
30 Nullus securus est de veritate sue contritionis, multominus de consecutione plenarie remissionis. No one is sure of the integrity of his own contrition, much less of having received plenary remission.
31
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Quam rarus est vere penitens, tam rarus est vere indulgentias redimens, i. e. rarissimus. The man who actually buys indulgences is as rare as he who is really penitent; indeed, he is exceedingly rare.
32 Damnabuntur ineternum cum suis magistris, qui per literas veniarum securos sese credunt de sua salute. Those who believe that they can be certain of their salvation because they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers.
33 Cavendi sunt nimis, qui dicunt venias illas Pape donum esse illud dei inestimabile, quo reconciliatur homo deo. Men must especially be on guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to him.
34
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Gratie enim ille veniales tantum respiciunt penas satisfactionis sacramentalis ab homine constitutas. For the graces of indulgences are concerned only with the penalties of sacramental satisfaction established by man.
35 Non christiana predicant, qui docent, quod redempturis animas vel confessionalia non sit necessaria contritio. They who teach that contrition is not necessary on the part of those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach unchristian doctrine.
36 Quilibet christianus vere compunctus habet remissionem plenariam a pena et culpa etiam sine literis veniarum sibi debitam. Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without indulgence letters.
37
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Quilibet versus christianus, sive vivus sive mortuus, habet participationem omnium bonorum Christi et Ecclesie etiam sine literis veniarum a deo sibi datam. Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of Christ and the church; and this is granted him by God, even without indulgence letters.
38 Remissio tamen et participatio Pape nullo modo est contemnenda, quia (ut dixi) est declaratio remissionis divine. Nevertheless, papal remission and blessing are by no means to be disregarded, for they are, as I have said (Thesis 6), the proclamation of the divine remission.
39 Difficillimum est etiam doctissimis Theologis simul extollere veniarum largitatem et contritionis veritatem coram populo. It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the bounty of indulgences and the need of true contrition.
40
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Contritionis veritas penas querit et amat, Veniarum autem largitas relaxat et odisse facit, saltem occasione. A Christian who is truly contrite seeks and loves to pay penalties for his sins; the bounty of indulgences, however, relaxes penalties and causes men to hate them -- at least it furnishes occasion for hating them.
41 Caute sunt venie apostolice predicande, ne populus false intelligat eas preferri ceteris bonis operibus charitatis. Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously think that they are preferable to other good works of love.
42 Docendi sunt christiani, quod Pape mens non est, redemptionem veniarum ulla ex parte comparandam esse operibus misericordie. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying of indulgences should in any way be compared with works of mercy.
43
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Docendi sunt christiani, quod dans pauperi aut mutuans egenti melius facit quam si venias redimereet. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better deed than he who buys indulgences.
44 Quia per opus charitatis crescit charitas et fit homo melior, sed per venias non fit melior sed tantummodo a pena liberior. Because love grows by works of love, man thereby becomes better. Man does not, however, become better by means of indulgences but is merely freed from penalties.
45 Docendi sunt christiani, quod, qui videt egenum et neglecto eo dat pro veniis, non idulgentias Pape sed indignationem dei sibi vendicat. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and passes him by, yet gives his money for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but God's wrath.
46
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Docendi sunt christiani, quod nisi superfluis abundent necessaria tenentur domui sue retinere et nequaquam propter venias effundere. Christians are to be taught that, unless they have more than they need, they must reserve enough for their family needs and by no means squander it on indulgences.
47 Docendi sunt christiani, quod redemptio veniarum est libera, non precepta. Christians are to be taught that they buying of indulgences is a matter of free choice, not commanded.
48 Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut magis eget ita magis optat in veniis dandis pro se devotam orationem quam promptam pecuniam. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting indulgences, needs and thus desires their devout prayer more than their money.
49
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Docendi sunt christiani, quod venie Pape sunt utiles, si non in cas confidant, Sed nocentissime, si timorem dei per eas amittant. Christians are to be taught that papal indulgences are useful only if they do not put their trust in them, but very harmful if they lose their fear of God because of them.
50 Docendi sunt christiani, quod si Papa nosset exactiones venialium predicatorum, mallet Basilicam s. Petri in cineres ire quam edificari cute, carne et ossibus ovium suarum. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence preachers, he would rather that the basilica of St. Peter were burned to ashes than built up with the skin, flesh, and bones of his sheep.
51 Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut debet ita vellet, etiam vendita (si opus sit) Basilicam s. Petri, de suis pecuniis dare illis, a quorum plurimis quidam concionatores veniarum pecuniam eliciunt. Christians are to be taught that the pope would and should wish to give of his own money, even though he had to sell the basilica of St. Peter, to many of those from whom certain hawkers of indulgences cajole money.
52
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Vana est fiducia salutis per literas veniarum, etiam si Commissarius, immo Papa ipse suam animam pro illis impigneraret. It is vain to trust in salvation by indulgence letters, even though the indulgence commissary, or even the pope, were to offer his soul as security.
53 Hostes Christi et Pape sunt ii, qui propter venias predicandas verbum dei in aliis ecclesiis penitus silere iubent. They are the enemies of Christ and the pope who forbid altogether the preaching of the Word of God in some churches in order that indulgences may be preached in others.
54 Iniuria fit verbo dei, dum in eodem sermone equale vel longius tempus impenditur veniis quam illi. Injury is done to the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or larger amount of time is devoted to indulgences than to the Word.
55
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Mens Pape necessario est, quod, si venie (quod minimum est) una campana, unis pompis et ceremoniis celebrantur, Euangelium (quod maximum est) centum campanis, centum pompis, centum ceremoniis predicetur. It is certainly the pope's sentiment that if indulgences, which are a very insignificant thing, are celebrated with one bell, one procession, and one ceremony, then the gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.
56 Thesauri ecclesie, unde Pape dat indulgentias, neque satis nominati sunt neque cogniti apud populum Christi. The true treasures of the church, out of which the pope distributes indulgences, are not sufficiently discussed or known among the people of Christ.
57 Temporales certe non esse patet, quod non tam facile eos profundunt, sed tantummodo colligunt multi concionatorum. That indulgences are not temporal treasures is certainly clear, for many indulgence sellers do not distribute them freely but only gather them.
58
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Nec sunt merita Christi et sanctorum, quia hec semper sine Papa operantur gratiam hominis interioris et crucem, mortem infernumque exterioris. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the saints, for, even without the pope, the latter always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outer man.
59 Thesauros ecclesie s. Laurentius dixit esse pauperes ecclesie, sed locutus est usu vocabuli suo tempore. St. Lawrence said that the poor of the church were the treasures of the church, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time.
60 Sine temeritate dicimus claves ecclesie (merito Christi donatas) esse thesaurum istum. Without want of consideration we say that the keys of the church, given by the merits of Christ, are that treasure.
61
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Clarum est enim, quod ad remissionem penarum et casuum sola sufficit potestas Pape. For it is clear that the pope's power is of itself sufficient for the remission of penalties and cases reserved by himself.
62 Verus thesaurus ecclesie est sacrosanctum euangelium glorie et gratie dei. The true treasure of the church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God.
63 Hic autem est merito odiosissimus, quia ex primis facit novissimos. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last (Mt. 20:16).
64
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Thesaurus autem indulgentiarum merito est gratissimus, quia ex novissimis facit primos. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.
65 Igitur thesauri Euangelici rhetia sunt, quibus olim piscabantur viros divitiarum. Therefore the treasures of the gospel are nets with which one formerly fished for men of wealth.
66 Thesauri indulgentiarum rhetia sunt, quibus nunc piscantur divitias virorum. The treasures of indulgences are nets with which one now fishes for the wealth of men.
67
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Indulgentie, quas concionatores vociferantur maximas gratias, intelliguntur vere tales quoad questum promovendum. The indulgences which the demagogues acclaim as the greatest graces are actually understood to be such only insofar as they promote gain.
68 Sunt tamen re vera minime ad gratiam dei et crucis pietatem comparate. They are nevertheless in truth the most insignificant graces when compared with the grace of God and the piety of the cross.
69 Tenentur Episcopi et Curati veniarum apostolicarum Commissarios cum omni reverentia admittere. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of papal indulgences with all reverence.
70
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Sed magis tenentur omnibus oculis intendere, omnibus auribus advertere, ne pro commissione Pape sua illi somnia predicent. But they are much more bound to strain their eyes and ears lest these men preach their own dreams instead of what the pope has commissioned.
71 Contra veniarum apostolicarum veritatem qui loquitur, sit ille anathema et maledictus. Let him who speaks against the truth concerning papal indulgences be anathema and accursed.
72 Qui vero, contra libidinem ac licentiam verborum Concionatoris veniarum curam agit, sit ille benedictus. But let him who guards against the lust and license of the indulgence preachers be blessed.
73
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Sicut Papa iuste fulminat eos, qui in fraudem negocii veniarum quacunque arte machinantur, Just as the pope justly thunders against those who by any means whatever contrive harm to the sale of indulgences.
74 Multomagnis fulminare intendit eos, qui per veniarum pretextum in fraudem sancte charitatis et veritatis machinantur, Much more does he intend to thunder against those who use indulgences as a pretext to contrive harm to holy love and truth.
75 Opinari venias papales tantas esse, ut solvere possint hominem, etiam si quis per impossibile dei genitricem violasset, Est insanire. To consider papal indulgences so great that they could absolve a man even if he had done the impossible and had violated the mother of God is madness.
76
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Dicimus contra, quod venie papales nec minimum venialium peccatorum tollere possint quo ad culpam. We say on the contrary that papal indulgences cannot remove the very least of venial sins as far as guilt is concerned.
77 Quod dicitur, nec si s. Petrus modo Papa esset maiores gratias donare posset, est blasphemia in sanctum Petrum et Papam. To say that even St. Peter if he were now pope, could not grant greater graces is blasphemy against St. Peter and the pope.
78 Dicimus contra, quod etiam iste et quilibet papa maiores habet, scilicet Euangelium, virtutes, gratias, curationum &c. ut 1. Co. XII. We say on the contrary that even the present pope, or any pope whatsoever, has greater graces at his disposal, that is, the gospel, spiritual powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written, 1 Co 12[:28].
79
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Dicere, Crucem armis papalibus insigniter erectam cruci Christi equivalere, blasphemia est. To say that the cross emblazoned with the papal coat of arms, and set up by the indulgence preachers is equal in worth to the cross of Christ is blasphemy.
80 Rationem reddent Episcopi, Curati et Theologi, Qui tales sermones in populum licere sinunt. The bishops, curates, and theologians who permit such talk to be spread among the people will have to answer for this.
81 Facit hec licentiosa veniarum predicatio, ut nec reverentiam Pape facile sit etiam doctis viris redimere a calumniis aut certe argutis questionibus laicorm. This unbridled preaching of indulgences makes it difficult even for learned men to rescue the reverence which is due the pope from slander or from the shrewd questions of the laity.
82
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Scilicet. Cur Papa non evacuat purgatorium propter sanctissimam charitatem et summam animarum necessitatem ut causam omnium iustissimam, Si infinitas animas redimit propter pecuniam funestissimam ad structuram Basilice ut causam levissimam? Such as: "Why does not the pope empty purgatory for the sake of holy love and the dire need of the souls that are there if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a church? The former reason would be most just; the latter is most trivial.
83 Item. Cur permanent exequie et anniversaria defunctorum et non reddit aut recipi permittit beneficia pro illis instituta, cum iam sit iniuria pro redemptis orare? Again, "Why are funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continued and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded for them, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?"
84 Item. Que illa nova pietas Dei et Pape, quod impio et inimico propter pecuniam concedunt animam piam et amicam dei redimere, Et tamen propter necessitatem ipsius met pie et dilecte anime non redimunt eam gratuita charitate? Again, "What is this new piety of God and the pope that for a consideration of money they permit a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God and do not rather, because of the need of that pious and beloved soul, free it for pure love's sake?"
85
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Item. Cur Canones penitentiales re ipsa et non usu iam diu in semet abrogati et mortui adhuc tamen pecuniis redimuntur per concessionem indulgentiarum tanquam vivacissimi? Again, "Why are the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in actual fact and through disuse, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences as though they were still alive and in force?"
86 Item. Cur Papa, cuius opes hodie sunt opulentissimis Crassis crassiores, non de suis pecuniis magis quam pauperum fidelium struit unam tantummodo Basilicam sancti Petri? Again, "Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build this one basilica of St. Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor believers?"
87 Item. Quid remittit aut participat Papa iis, qui per contritionem perfectam ius habent plenarie remissionis et participationis? Again, "What does the pope remit or grant to those who by perfect contrition already have a right to full remission and blessings?"
88
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Item. Quid adderetur ecclesie boni maioris, Si Papa, sicut semel facit, ita centies in die cuilibet fidelium has remissiones et participationes tribueret? Again, "What greater blessing could come to the church than if the pope were to bestow these remissions and blessings on every believer a hundred times a day, as he now does but once?"
89 Ex quo Papa salutem querit animarum per venias magis quam pecunias, Cur suspendit literas et venias iam olim concessas, cum sint eque efficaces? "Since the pope seeks the salvation of souls rather than money by his indulgences, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons previously granted when they have equal efficacy?"
90 Hec scrupulosissima laicorum argumenta sola potestate compescere nec reddita ratione diluere, Est ecclesiam et Papam hostibus ridendos exponere et infelices christianos facere. To repress these very sharp arguments of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies and to make Christians unhappy.
91
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Si ergo venie secundum spiritum et mentem Pape predicarentur, facile illa omnia solverentur, immo non essent. If, therefore, indulgences were preached according to the spirit and intention of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved. Indeed, they would not exist.
92 Valeant itaque omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi `Pax pax,' et non est pax. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Peace, peace," and there is no peace! (Jer 6:14)
93 Bene agant omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi `Crux crux,' et non est crux. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Cross, cross," and there is no cross!
94
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Exhortandi sunt Christiani, ut caput suum Christum per penas, mortes infernosque sequi studeant, Christians should be exhorted to be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, death and hell.
95 Ac sic magis per multas tribulationes intrare celum quam per securitatem pacis confidant. And thus be confident of entering into heaven through many tribulations rather than through the false security of peace (Acts 14:22).

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M.D.Xvii.  

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