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Prof. Dr. Sobhi Nasir

Lecture 1
Reflected light microscopy and ore mineral identification
Practical 1
Reflected light microscopy. Practical on ore identification. Exercises on physical properties of ore minerals.
Lecture 2
Crystallography of Ore Minerals
Practical 2
Exercises and Continuation of Practical on ore identification.
Lecture 3
Geochemical and phase relations of some common sulphides and oxides.
Practical 3
Continuation of ore mineral identification, emphasis on mineral textures.
Lecture 4
Economics of ore Mineralogy
Practical 4
Possibly no practical. Otherwise extend practicals 1 to 3.
Lecture 5
Magmatic ore deposits: ultrabasic and basic intrusions and volcanic rocks.
Practical 5
Two hour study associated with the lecture.
Lecture 6
Magmatic ore deposits: kimberlites, lamproites and carbonatites.
Practical 6
Two hour study associated with the lecture.
Lecture 7
Greisen and skarn deposits.
Practical 7
Two hour study associated with the lecture.
Lecture 8
Disseminated and stockwork deposits.
Practical 8
Two hour study associated with the lecture.
Lecture 9
Volcano-sedimentary deposits.
Practical 9
Two hour study associated with the lecture.
Lecture 10
Sediment-hosted deposits.
Practical 10
Two hour study associated with the lecture.
Lecture 11
Residual and placer deposits.
Practical 11
Two hour study associated with the lecture.
Lecture 12
Sedimentary iron-ore deposits and uranium deposits.
Practical 12
Two hour study associated with the lecture.
Lecture 13
Introduction to Industrial Minerals.
Lecture 14
Industrial Minerals in Sedimentary terranes.
Practical 14
Two hour study associated with the lecture.
Lecture 15
Industrial Minerals in Volcanic domains.
Practical 15
Two hour study associated with the lecture.
Lecture 16
Industrial minerals in Granitic domains.
Practical 16
Two hour study associated with the lecture.
Lecture 17
Industrial minerals in metamorphic domains.
Geologic Processes and the Formation of Mineral Deposits
Minerals and Society
What is a Mineral Deposit?
Ore Forming Processes
Plate Tectonics and Ores
Geologic Time and Ores
Importance and Availability of Mineral Resources to Society
Civilization is based on mineral resources
Most manufactured things are made of metals
Generally powered by energy from fossil fuels
Food production depends on fertilizers
Buildings made from materials of mineral origin

Factors Controlling Availability
Complex Function of Geology & Economics
Economic Supply Side:
Engineering and Environmental Costs of Extraction/Processing
Demand Side:
Market forces
Land Tenure
Government legal policies
Geology is relatively fixed but these others can change
Engineering Factors Limiting Availability
can't sample the Earth's core

we could go capture an asteroid but it isn't economic
mining depth limited by economics (rock stability, temperature)

Even if we can get to them, we may not be able to process
depends on chemistry or ability to separate minerals

Energy required for smelting/separation
Ex: oil shales

Environmental Factors Limiting Availability
U.S. extraction of raw materials including minerals, timber, crops, animals produces 2.5 billion tons of waste annually
Esthetic concerns about mines and oil fields
Concerns commonly based upon past, not modern, practices
Ignorance of sources of natural 'pollution'
e.g. weathering of mineral deposits

Global-scale pollution as important as local
complex ethical problems
acid-rain controversy

Developing countries and pollution

Developed countries 'exporting' pollution by importing raw materials or processed minerals
Growing Minerals Interdependency
Economic Factors Limiting Availability
Market Forces
operating costs, selling price

and other forms of government revenue generation

Centrally Planned Economies
All economic factors are government controlled

Free Market Countries
Costs and prices are part of global system
But taxes, etc. are specific to individual countries

Land Control and Rights
Importance of Economic and Legal Environment
Positive correlation between mineral production and land area for countries with high-income, stable economies
Absence of similar correlation for low and middle income coutries suggests other factors must control their mineral availability
Geologic Factors
Mineral Deposits
concentrations of elements or minerals formed by natural geologic processes
Geologic Processes are closely related to geologic environment
Ex: origin of oil
Mineral Resources
Essential Resources
soil and water
oil, gas, coal, uranium, oil shale, geothermal
wind, solar, tidal (not mineral resources)
iron, aluminum, copper, gold, silver, ...
most are subject to extensive substitution
Industrial Minerals
fertilizers, salt, sand, gypsum, fluorite, ...
What is an Ore Deposit?
Concentrations of Minerals
Recoverable at a profit
Dynamic function of economic, engineering, political, and environmental factors

identified geologically and are economic at present
Reserve Base
reserves plus identified lower quality material
reserve base plus any other concentration to be found in the future
Ore Minerals and Ore Forming Processes
Ore mineral
Gangue minerals
Cut-off Grade
Size of Deposit
Geologic Processes
Surface Processes
Weathering, Sedimentation (clastic and chemical)
Subsurface Processes
Actions of Fluids
Magmas, Brines, Groundwater
Chemical & Physical Processes
Surface Processes
Chemical & Physical Weathering
Regolith and Soils
Removal of Soluble Constituents
Redistribution of Material
Clastic Sedimentary Processes
Beach Sands
Gold, Titanium, Magnetite, Uraninite
Chemical Sedimentary Processes
Precipitation from water
Isolated Basins
Marine: Gypsum, Halite, Sylvite
Lacustrine: Trona
Banded Iron Formations
Sedimentary Exhalative
Organic Sedimentary Processes
Oil & Gas
Reefs: limestone
Native Sulfur
Subsurface Geologic Processes
Magmas, Waters, Oil, Gas
Open space only above water table
Paths controlled by structure
Physical parameters control possible Chemical reactions
Controls on Fluid Flow-I
Porosity & Effective Porosity
Aquifers, Reservoirs
Primary Porosity
Well sorted sediments
Volcanic Rocks
Controls on Fluid Flow-II
Secondary Porosity
Faulting, fracturing
Chemical Reactions
Hydrothermal Alteration
Groundwater Systems
Artesian Wells
Salt water encroachment
Irrigation & Subsidence
Groundwater Mining
Meteoric Hydrothermal Solutions
Heated groundwater
200-500 C
Depths to 10 kms?
Epithermal Vein Deposits
Sandstone Uranium Deposits
Brines, Oil, & Gas in Sedimentary Basins
Basinal brines
Oil & Gas less dense than brines
MVT Pb-Zn ores
Sedimentary Exhalative Deposits
Seawater Hydrothermal Systems
Ridges, Vents
Black Smokers
Massive Sulfide Deposits
Depositional form depends on fluid density
Magmatic Hydrothermal Systems
H2O, CO2, H2S, HCl
400-800 C
Concentrated Brines
Greater Volumes from Felsic Magmatic Systems
Porphyry Cu and Mo
Kimberlites, Carbonatites
Metamorphic Hydrothermal Systems
Clays give off H2O
Carbonates give off CO2
Temperatures > 400 C
Fluids rise in crust
Ex: Native Cu in Michigan
Different Kinds of Water??
Stable Isotopes
1H, 2H, 12C, 13C, 16O, 18O, 32S, 34S
Can be used to trace fluids
Can be used to identify reservoirs
Works on rocks as well
Causes of Ore Deposition
Hydrothermal Solution:
Decreasing Temperature
Wall-rock Reaction
Magmatic Processes
Crystal Fractionation
Cumulate Layers; Layered Igneous Complexes
Immiscible Magmas: Spaghetti
Mineral Deposit Models
Placer gold model
Simple and Obvious
Porphyry Copper model
Most models lie between these extremes
Useful for Exploration
Syngenetic vs Epigenetic
Plate Tectonics and Ore Deposits
Sedimentary Basins
Igneous Intrusions
Mineral Deposits are part of the Rock Cycle
Geologic Time and Ore Deposits
Reflects Earth History
Thin early crust
Development of Continents
Composition of Ocean and Atmosphere